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No. of No. of of one goes about from place to place, but must not take the

Petitions, Sigas same road more than once in six months. With these in

Ecclesiastical. tervals he is again and again assisted, and, as in the present for teaching the Irish to read the Scriptures case, for a very long space of time together.

in their own language

45 "' This ticket is available in every part of the United Against tithe commutation bill

437 Kingdom where a club or lodge of the trade is established. For removal of civil disabilities from the Jews 49 45596 The individual in question might have had work at 1l. per Against removal of disabilities from the Jews

134 week, but he refused to take it, or indeed 30s. per week; For commutation of tithe

295 nothing under 21. will satisfy him; and when pressed for For abolition of tithes in England

45 17142

22481

67 reasons to account for his refusing such offers—when asked for abolition of tithes in Ireland whether it would not be better to get 1l. per week than to For appointing in Ireland clergymen who speak

2

10 trust to casual sources of support, he replied, that he should

10 3826 not like to be turned black” (query-returned black :9 | Against the Irish Church establishment which would be the case if he worked under price.

Tares. “ Thus, then, as far as an individual instance will avail, Against the corn laws.

20 19836 (and it seems to be a fair sample of the general system.) we Against the assessed taxes

19923 see the effects of parish aid upon the combinations for Against the house and window tax

120 68306 raising and keeping up wages, whose ramifications extend | Against taxes on knowledge

18 13283 over the whole of these kingdoms. This man gets a ticket; Against malt tax

86 36368 he is, by his own admission, a most worthless fellow : to use

Against stamp on receipts

23 8396

38 5288 his own mild and gentle language, he has been a very Against the tax on soap

38 45513 foolish man, his fault has been drinking. Though at times For a reduction of taxes of his life, and that too for long periods, he has been earning Against various other taxes-none of these have

been included in former publications

65 4608 from 21. to 31. per week, he has neglected to make the slightest provision for his future necessities; his health has

Ireland. been greatly impaired by his vicious habits; his character, Against the new system of education

13 1486 probably his value as a workman, has been lowered by his for introduction of poor laws

19 3378 own deliberate acts, yet he is not to take employment but at Against the disturbances bill

665 421345 the highest wages; and in order to support him in this un- For a repeal of the Union

36 10899 reasonable demand, he gets a ticket from the trade, for

Miscellaneous. which he pays 1s. 6d. per month, constantly: this furnishes for the abolition of slavery

4942 1295813 him with his own support as a vagabond; for when he is

Against abolition without compensation

937 at home his relief from the trade ceases, and the intervals For renewal of East India Charter

3 1805 of travelling are filled up by parish aid. His wife and family, Against the retail beer act

190 22997 let it be observed, are constantly on the parish, for he only In favour of ditto :

15 13706 travels his rounds. No source of support is objected to by Complaining of abuses in corporations

124 71719 his fellows; nothing incapacitates him from receiving the in favour of factories' regulation bill

94 114261 benefit of his ticket, but honest industry in his own trade : Against factories' regulation bill

2122

19 let it be known that he has once been guilty of this-of For repeal of criminal laws

7284 making the best terms he could- of agreeing for what his For a legislative regulation of wages for hand

54 loom weaving

48505 services are worth, and supporting himself and his family

Against the vestry acts :

4 21944 honestly and in comfort-and he is struck off the list, and

Against general register bill

20 2207 denied all future benefit from this fund; the payments to which are in a manner compulsory, and raised from all in Other miscellaneous petitions reported since the the trade. It is probable that this fund, if honestly, and

publication of the last Companion to the fairly, and properly expended, might nearly destroy all Newspaper

90 3460J necessity for the members of this trade having recourse to parish aid : so far, however, from the funds being applied

POST - OFFICE ARRANGEMENTS WITH to such honourable and beneficial purposes, they are made

FRANCE. to contribute to the support of combinations."

This is a condition which, we should think, every honest In the Companion to the Newspaper, for May last, we gave and intelligent workman would shrink

from as the worst of a detailed statement of the contemplated improvements in calamities.

the Post-Office arrangements with France. We have now to announce that, to a certain extent, these arrangements

are completed. The treaty was signed in London on the PUBLIC PETITIONS.

21st of June last, and sent on the following day to Paris to Since our last publication nine Reports, from the twentieth be ratified; on the receipt of this ratification, which must to the twenty-eighth, both inclusive, of the Committee for carried into effect.” As we formerly stated would probably

arrive in a few days, the arrangements will be immediately the Classification of Petitions have been issued. As before, we happen, the proposal on the part of the French that the whole give

an abstract, showing the most important parts of their of the postage, in either country, might be paid on delivery contents. The number of petitions and signatures are the of the letter, has not been acceded to; and another proposal, total amount presented during the session, except where for the mutual transmission of newspapers, either free or at mentioned to the contrary.

a low rate of postage, has also been rejected, together with Signs.

some other suggestions of a similar tendency. Parlamentary

The points agred upon are, that the communication shall For vote by ballot

be daily instead of four times a week, as has hitherto been

39 25299 Against the septennial act

16 9290

the case; and that misdirected letters, which have up to Against nocturnal legislation

3155

this time been retained by the respective post-offices, shall For an alteration in the reform act

1594 be returned monthly; in order, wherever possible, to be reMiscellaneous petitions connected with parliament 10 5214 stored to the writer. This, in many cases, will be found of

great importance, as the letters often contained money, Ecclesiastical.

which, although the address of the sender may have been For the better observance of the Sabbath 1132

271282 stated, was taken possession of by the post-office establishAgainst the Sabbath observance bill

21

2914 ments. This unfair gain, which in France, is said to have Against the administering of oaths

1307

in some years amounted to seven or eight thousand pounds, Against tithes and church.rates

119 For alteration of the laws relating to Roman

is at length to be abolished. We trust, however, that the Catholic marriages

7 4570

steps now taken will lead shortly to still further improveFor the removal of religious disabilities

22248

ments ;—and that a principle of co-operation, which bids fair Against lay patronage in Scotland

148 66197 to establish one branch of that harmonious arrangement Against church temporalities bill (Ireland) 113 9915 which ought to subsist between two great nations, may not be For better regulating the Established Church in

prevented reaching its full practical operation, through any Wales :

6 2542 technical difficulties which perseverance may surmount,

.

No. of

No. of
Petitions.

9
4

19
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ABSTRACT OF PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS.

TRADE.-Trade of the United Kingdom, in the Year ended 5th January, 1832.

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EUROPE:

Russia
Sweden
Norway
Denmark
Prussia
Germany
Netherlands
France
Portugal, Azores and Madeira
Spain and the Canaries
Gibraltar
Italy
Malta
Ionian Islands
Turkey and Continental Greece
Morea and Greek Islands
Isles Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney and Man

£
d. £

£
d.

£ d. 4,696,368 17 11 1,746,972 12 5 856,856 14 8 2,603,829 7 1 212,639 13 1 94,587 5 1 67,788 12 8 162,375 17 9 91,678 10 ]

92,5991 1 58,225 5 6 150,824 6 7 410,981 7 2

173,280 11 83,423 8 3 256,703 10 2 1,200,102 7 5

264,618 21 564,684 12 10 829,302 14 11 1,684,165 8 37,667,147 0 3 1,806,480 8 9 9,473,627 90 1,276,081 12 3 3,179,298 13 6 3,270,927 0 11 6,450,225 14 5 3,056,154 12 4 635,927 13 5 256,081 19 7 892,009 13 0

520,616 18 8 2,251,584 30 68,197 17 12,319,782 0 1 1,293,924 0 4 1,036,623 17 8 318,038 7 8] 1,354,662 5 4

19,668 7 0 879,382 3 7 121,310 18 3 1,000,723 1 10 1,475,304 6 10 4,528,154 10 4 820,651 105,348,805 11 4 63,550 2 10

257,537 8 8 20,485 2 6 278,022 11 2 187,185 11 4 71,592 13 2 13,383 8 7 81,976 19 759,797 19 12,113,928 92 93,777 3 22,209,705 12 4 29,273 6 9 28,563 12 0 1,743 11 10

30,307 3 10 202,940 14 7 445,410 2 4 126,435 1 2 571,845 36 17,180,433 15 11 25,467,207 9 8 8,550,520 14 534,017,728 4 1 275,547 197 236,189 15 3 2,068 9

9 238,258 5 0 45,986 5 9 759 10 0 4,950 16 11 5,710 611 299,105 05 352,182 17 9 155,275 7 507,458 17 4 183,481 14 2 351,107 13 3 28,940 61

380,047 194 2,328 17 0 123 17 6

75 3 8

1991 2 44,512 3 8 28,439 6 3 3,030 9 10

31,469 16 1 724,285 8 2 268,963 16 11,984 17 9

280,948 14 1

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d. 0

(TOTAL OFFICIAL VALUE of IMPORTS

£ The proportional Value of the Trade carried into the UNITED KINGDOM

44,586,241 15 on with each Country, during the year ended Total Official VALUE of EXPORTS 5th January, 1833, cannot at present be

from the United KINGDOM; viz. stated, and therefore the following ABSTRACT is subjoined, of the Total Official British and Irish Produce and MaValue of the Imports and Exports

nufactures Foreign and Colonial Merchandise 11,099,863 17 }76,071,572

}76,071,572 8 0

West IndIA PRODUCE.-The following returns of articles | manufacture, 1864 cwt. 3 qrs. 3 lbs.; manufactures entered chiefly of W. India produce imported into and exported from by weight, 1 cwt. 1 qr. 16 lbs.; entered at value 1571. the United Kingdom, are all for the year ended 5th Jan. 1833. Copper, British.— Exported :-unwrought, 77,497 cwts.

Sugar.-The quantity of sugar imported was, of the pro- 3 lbs.; coin, 2 cwts.; sheets, nails, &c., 79,991 cwts. 10 lbs.; duce of the British plantations, 3,784,244 cwts. 2 qrs. 6 lbs.; wire, 13 cwts. 2 qrs. 18 lbs.; wrought copper of other sorts, of Mauritius, 541,770 cwts. qr. 6 lbs.; of the East In- 37,155 cwts. I qr. 19 lbs. ; total of British copper exported, dies, 175,252 cwts. 5 lbs.; of the foreign plantations, 366,481 | 194,612 cwts. 22 lbs.; smelted in the kingdom from foreign cwts. 2 qrs. 21 lbs.; making a total of 4,867,784 cwt. ore, 13,894 cwts. Iqr. 18 lbs. 2 qrs. 10 lbs.

The total amount of duty received was Tin.-Imported :-29,203 cwts. 1 qr. 8 lbs. Exported :5,354,4401. 168. 9d. ; the bounty paid on the exportation of British, 31,837 cwts. 2 qrs. 3 lbs.; Foreign, 21,719 cwts. British refined sugar, and repayments on over-entries 3 qrs. 13 lbs. and damages, &c., amounted to 960,1011. 198., leaving 4,394,3381. 178. 9d. as the net produce of the duties on

Glass.—Quantities of flint and plate, broad, crown, and sugar. The total quantity exported was 1,143,034 cwts. | bottle glass charged with duty in the United Kingdom in 3 qrs. 17 lbs., of which 368,095 cwts. 3 qrs. was raw; and each year, from 1826 to 1832 ; stated in cwts.

1826.-Flint glass, 71,625; plate, 12,958; broad, 8118; remainder refined, reckoning the latter in the proportion of 34 cwts. of raw to 20 cwts. of refined sugar.

crown, 135,606 ; bottle, 422,544.

1827.-Flint, 75,087; plate, 14,807; broad, 7611 ; crown, Rum.-The quantity imported was 4,753,789 gallons ;

138,744; bottle, 418,268. 3,513,965 proof gallons were entered for home consumption ;

1828.-Flint, 82,494 ; plate, 17,684; broad, 6972; crown, and the gross amount of duty received was 1,581,4991. 28.7d.

141,787; bottle, 430,799. The exports amounted to 2,323,335 gallons; of which

1829.-Flint, 79,250; plate, 14,484 ; broad, 6864; crown, 988,497 were taken by Germany and Prussia, and 1701 only by France.

114,862; bottle, 382,894. Coffee. The quantity of coffee imported was 49,982,939lbs.;

1830.— Flint, 72,942; plate, 13,301; broad, 4845; crown, the net produce of the duty 598,0381. 58. 11d.; and the total 96,565; bottle, 340,793.

1831.-Flint, 75,619; plate, 15,067; broad, 5915; crown, quantity exported 25,719,742 lbs. Cocoa. The quantity of cocoa-nuts imported of British 100,086; bottle, 293,868.

1832.-Flint, 75,771; plate, 12,270; broad, 5304; crown, plantations and foreign produce was 2,971,019 lbs.; together with 349,504 lbs. of husks and shells, and 1835 lbs. of cho

103,902; bottle, 316,365. colate and cocoa-paste; the gross amount of duty received 212,1601. 68. 9d. ; plate, 36,8101.; broad, 79561.; crown,

The amount of duty charged in 1832, was, on flint glass, upon which was 16,9291. 12s. 11d.

381,8391. 178.; bottle, 109,3281. The drawback paid in the Spirits. In the year ending Jan. 5, 1833, the quantity allowance for losť metal, 30231. 38. 5d.; broad, nothing ;

same period, was, on flint, 67,726l. 48. 10d.; plate, with of spirits manufactured or distilled, amounted, in England, to 3,788,068 gallons, in Scotland to 9,979,038 gallons, in crown, 65,1201. 158. 4d.; bottle, 53,765l. 48. id. Ireland to 9,260,920 gallons; total, 21,028,026 gallons. Of this quantity there was duty paid for home consumption, in

Shipping.-In the year 1832 there were built and reEngland upon 7,259,287 gallons, at 78. per gallon ;' in gistered in the several ports of the United Kingdom 759 Scotland, upon 4,861,515 gallons, at 38. 4d.; and in Ireland, vessels, the total tonnage of which amounted to 92,915 ; and

also 33 steam vessels, of which the tonnage was 2851. upon 8,657,756 gallons, likewise at 3$. 4d. The total number of gallons for home consumption amounting to ports of the United Kingdom, in 1832, was, of British,

The number of ships entered inwards in the different 20,778,558, and the amount of duty to 4,975,4441. 98. 2d.

Tobacco and Snuff:—The quantity of tobacco, &c. entered 13,372, the tonnage amounting to 2,185,980, and the men for home consumption, in the year ending Jan. 5, 1833, was, employed to 122,594 : Foreign, 4546 ships, 639,979 tons, of unmanufactured tobacco, 20,164,864 lbs.; of manufac

35,399 men. Cleared outwards.- British, 13,292 ships, tured tobacco and cigars, 148,517 lbs. ; 'and of snuff, 234 lbs. 2,229,269 tons, 128,293 men: Foreign, 4391 ships, 651,223

tons, 34,834 men. The rate of duty is 2s. Id. per lb. on unmanufactured tobacco of any British possession in America, and 3s. of any

Attorneys.--The number of certificates annually taken other place; 9s. perlb. on manufactured tobacco and cigars; out by attorneys and solicitors practising in England and and 6s. per lb. on snuff. The total gross receipt of duty, Wales has been during the following years, reckoning from during the above period, was 3,090,2707. 85. 8d.

Easter Term in each year, in 1819-20, 6764; 1820-21, Metals imported into and exported from the United 1824-25, 7894 ; 1825-26, 7928; 1826-27, 8193; 1827-28,

6930 ; 1821-22, 7090 ; 1822-23, 7353; 1823-24, 7618; Kingdom in the year 1832.

8430; 1828-29, 8624; 1829-30, 8908; 1830-31, 9016; Iron, Foreign, imported in bars or unwrought, 18,961 tons, 1831-32, 9083; 1832-33, 9221. The duty has increased 12 cwts. 2 qrs.; in rods, pigs, wire, old broken, and old cast- during the above period, from 57,6461. in the first twelveiron, &c. 19-2 tons, 1 qr. 5 Ibs.; iron ore, 377 tons, 17 cwts. I qr. | month to 79,0061. in the last. 19 lbs.; chromate of iron, 339 tons, 17 cwts. 15 lbs.; un

Bankruptcy. The following is a list of the commissions wrought steel 622 tons, 4 cwts. 2 qrs. 9 lbs.; steel wire of bankruptcy, sealed and opened, in the years from 1822 to 50 lbs. ; iron and steel manufactures, not otherwise described, 1832, both inclusive. entered by weight, 197 tons, 6cwts.; entered at value

Town Commis. Country Commis. 27721. 183. 3d.

sions opened. sions opened. Exported :-In bars or unwrought, 3450 tons, 12 cwts. 1822

1419
468

534 3 qrs. 2 lbs.; in rods and pigs, 55 tons, 13 cwts. 15 lbs.; un- 1823

1250
532

S96 wrought steel 810 tons, 13 cwts. 8 lbs.; steel wire 52 lbs.; 1824

1240
574

396 iron and steel manufactures, not otherwise described, en

1825
1475
683

418
1826
3307
1229

1220 tered by weight 197 tons, 6) cwts.; entered at value 3451.

1827
1688
671

742 Iron, British.-Exported :-Bar iron, 74,024 tons, 5 cwts.

1828
1519
601

620 1 qr. 24 lbs.; bolt and rod-iron, 6938 tons, 1 cwt. 3. qrs.

1829
2150
809

910 18 lbs.; pig-iron, 17,566 tons, 1 cwt. 1 qr. 13 lbs.; cast-iron,

1830
1720
661

748 12,495 tons, 1 cwt. 1 qr. 12 lbs.; iron wire, 666 tons, 7 cwts.

1831
1886
692

770 3 lbs.; anchors and grapnels, 1606 tons, 18 cwts. 3 qrs. 3 lbs.; 1832

1772
643

740 hoops, 9417 tons, 14 cwts. 1 qr. 6 lbs.; nails, 4347 tons, 18 cits. I qr. 2 lbs.; other wrought articles (excepting ord- Church of Ireland.-Several accounts relating to the nance) 18,595 tons, 3 qrs. 17 lbs.; old iron for re-manufac- church of Ireland have been lately prepared under the ture, 773 tons, 6 cwts.; unwrought steel, 1112 tons, 7 lbs.; direction of the Royal Commissioners appointed for inquiring British hardware and cutlery, 15,294 tons, 15 cwts. 1 lb.; into the Ecclesiastical Revenue and Patronage in that part the declared value of which was 1,433,2971. 178. 6d.

of the United Kingdom. One of these is a statement of the Copper, Foreign.-Imported :-Unwrought, partly wrought, revenues of the different sees, from which we extract that or old for re manufacture, 2260 cwts. 2 qrs. 1 lb.; copper ore, part giving the net yearly produce of each see, and of the 79,219 cwts. I qr. 21 lbs.; manufactured, entered by weight, preferments annexed to it, on an average of three years I cwt. I qr. 16 lbs.; entered at value, 46361. 85. 10d. ending 31st Dec., 1831, omitting pence and farthings. We

Exported :-Unwrought, partly wrought, or old for re- add from another paper the gross number of acres in

Commissions

sealed.

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4,068

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statute measure, profitable and unprofitable, attached to each a collection of thirty-five pictures, chiefly by able masters, by see, with the gross amount of rent received from tenants of all the late Rev. Wm. Holwell Carr. There are also enumedescriptions, whether holding in fee, or for terms of lives and rated twenty-six other accessions of minor value. The years, or at will, or without lease. This rent, of course, forms number of MSS. in the Museum in 1821 was 17,937, there part of the sum stated as the whole revenue of the see. are now 21,604. The number of charters in 1821 was

Net Revenue. Acres, Rents. 16,423, there are now 19,093. The number of volumes of £

printed books in 1821 was 115,925, there are now 218,957, Archbishop of Armagh

14,494 100,563 4,634

and 14,410 duplicate volumes have been parted with. Dublin

7,786 .. 34,040 3,202 Cashel

6,308 20,046 2,100 Diplomatic Pensions. The following is a list of the Tuam

6,996 86,899 2,730 names of persons now receiving pensions for diplomatic Bishop of Meath

29,269 3,065 services, with the length of service, the annual amount of Clogher 8,668 22,591 2,356

present pension, and the aggregate amount of what has Down and Connor 4,204 30,244 1,352

been paid to each person, as abstracted from a return preDerry

12,159 77,102 2,593 Raphoe

sented to the House of Commons, which contains in addi5,052 1,392 1,451 Kilmore. 6,225 28,531

tion the date of the grant of pension, the number of years

1,537
Dromore
4,216 18,422 1,518

it has been paid, and a statement of the capacities in which Kildare.

6,061 5,074 .. 2,629 | the holders have been employed.
Ossory

3,322 21,730 1,015
Ferns
5,730 26,294 .. 2,096

Name,

Years' annual Aggregate Limerick 4,973 12,985 2,452

service pension amount paid. Waterford

3,933 13,189 2,493
Cork
3,901 11,485 1,471

£

d. Cloyne

4,091 12,482 1,341 Arbuthnot, Right Hon. Charles 331 2056 8672 3 7 Killaloe. 3,966 16,765 1,345 Adair, Right Hon. Sir Robert .

63 2056 44843 12 10 Elphin 6,263 42,843 2,044 Bagot, Right Hon. Sir Charles

194 1700 779 17 11 Clonfert 2,970 11,744 543 Cathcart, Earl

83 1786 22535 19 8 Killala 3,410 45,542 1,280 Chad, George William

19 1300 295 2 3 Clancarty, Earl

11 1786 16074 0 0 £128,808

24 669,247 £45,258 Cockburn, Alexander

1516 17172 8 8

281 1786 4333 17 4 From another paper it appears that the gross income of Cowley, Right Hon. Lord

Crawford, Sir James

98 the deans and chapters is 42661.; that of the vicars' choral

886 25251 0 0 Douglas, Andrew Snape

201 706

2824 0 0 estates, 11,2611.; that of the minor canonries, 7621. ; and

Elgin, Earl of

11 1786 153133 10 0 that of the economy estates (the funds appropriated to the

Falcon, John

6 436 12317 0 0 repair of cathedrals, &c.), 73161. The total income of these

Frere, Right Hon. J. H.

8 1516 40553 0 0 ecclesiastical corporations, therefore, is 23,6061.

Frere, Bartholomew

1066 12132 12 4 Another paper has been printed containing an account of Hailes, Daniel

17 1000 31196 7 3 the respective values of the benefices in the several dioceses Hammond, George

344 1066 25832 14 4 in Ireland. From this it appears that there are, in all, Hervey, Lionel

1066 8262 10 0 1456 benefices or livings in the Irish church, of which 1,

Hamilton, Terrick

706 6001 0 0

26 Heytesbury, Lord

1700 (in the diocese of Down,) is of the value of 28001.; 10 are

657 4 3

3 Keene, Charles

8520 0 0 between 20001. and 26001. ; 20 between 15001, and 20001.;

Liston, Right Hon. Sir Robert 33 between 12001. and 1500l. ; 48 between 1000!. and

302 2056 37050 2 10

Mackenzie, Colin Alexander 24 886 1801 17 10 - 12001.; 74 between 8001. and 10007.; 118 between 6001. and

Merry, Anthony

19 1516 39037 0 0 8001.; 281 between 4001. and 6001. ; 386 between 2001. and

Morier, John Philip

1516 16913 0 5 4001.; and 465 between 301. and 2001.

Morier, James

101

976 11767 16 9 Morton, Earl of

436 Taxation.- Estimated gross and net amount of taxes re

3488 0 0 Orford, Earl of

706 5471 10 0 pealed, expired, and reduced, and of taxes imposed in each

Onseley, Sir Gore

5 1786 31255 0 0 year since the termination of the war.

Paget, Sir Arthur

13 1786 44650 0 0 Penrose, Rev. Thomas

4473 0 0 Repealed, Expired, or Reduced.

Imposed.
Pierrepont, Henry

51 1066 26801 1 6 St. Helen's, Lord

19 2056 72553 1 2 Gross.

Net.
Gross.

Net.
Smith, John Spencer

81

1066 27449 10 0 Strangford, Viscount

2056 13550 91 £

£
£

£
Stuart de Rothesay, Lord

2056 7373 0 0 1814 918,861 932,827 288,685 01 288,685 0 Talbot, James

6} 526 15517 0 0 1815 222,749 222,749 176,772 0 176 772 0 Taylor, Right Hon. Sir Brook

30 1336 11173 0 9 1816 17,885,666 17,547,365 392,058 0 375,058 0 Thornton, Right Hon. Sir Edward 25 1786 20872 7 0 1817 37,812 36,495 8,191 0 7,991 0

Walpole, Thomas .

13 706 25116 0 0 1818 9,524 9,504 1,356 0 1,356 0 Werry, Francis Peter

131 436 3815 00 1819 273,573 269,484 3,102,302 03,102,302 0 Wickham, Right Hon. William 61 1066 29315 0 0 1820 4,000 4,000 119,602 0 119,602 0 Willock, Sir Henry

17 346 2076,00 1821 490,113 471,309

45,2000 44,842 0 1822 2,164,037 2,139,101 1823 4,286,389 4,185,735 18,800.0 18,596 0 * These pensions are, in several cases, increased pensions, those 1824 1,805,467 1,801,333 49,605, 0 49,605 0 granted in the first instance having been smaller in amount; but the 1825 3,771,019 3,676,239 53,100 0 48,100 0 whole are included in the aggregate. 1826 1,973,915 1,967,215 188,955 0 188,725 0 1827 84,038 84,038 21,402 0 21,402 0

LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, 22, LUDGATE STREET, AND 1828 52,227 51,998 1,966 10 1,966 10

13, PALL-MALL EAST. 1829 126,406 126,406

Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following 1830 4,264,425 4,070,742 696,004 0 696,004 0

Booksellers : 1831 3,189,312 1,588,052 627,586 0 627,586 0

London, GROOMBRIDGE, Hull, Stevenson. Plymouth, Nettleton. 1832 754,996 747,264 44,526 0 44,526 0

Panyer.alley, Pater Jersey, Carre, jun. Portsen, Horsey, jun.

Leeds, Baines & Newsome Sheffield, Ridge.

Lincoln, Brooke & Sons. Shrewsbury, Tibham. 42,345,529 39,931,856 / 5,836,110 10 5,813,118 10 Bath, Simms. Liverpool, Willmer & Southampton, Fletcher.

Birmingham, Drake. Sinith.

Lane End, Staffordshire, British Museum.--A return of all bequests, donations, Bristol, Westley & Co. Llandovery, D, R. & W. C. Watts.

Bury St. Edmunds, Lan

Rees.

Worcester, Deighton, and contributions made to the British Museum, from 1821

kester.

Lynn, Smith, to March 1833, has been printed by order of the House of Canterbury, Marten. Manchester, Robinson, Dublin, Wakeman. Commotio The principal gifts have been that of the library verby, Wilkins & Son.

and Webb & Simms. Edinburgh, Oliver& Boyil. of George TII., the cabinet of Greek coins of R. P. Knight, Devenport, Byers.

Newcastle -upon · Tyne,- Glasgow, Alkinson & Co.
Charnley.

berdeen, Smith. Esquthe coins and medals of George IV., a collection of Doncaster, Brooke & Norwich, Jarrold & Son; New York, Jackson.

and Wilkin & Fletcher. Italian history and topography by Sir R. C. Hoare, a collection Ereter, Balle. Nottingham, Wright. Berlin and Petersburgh, of architectural and other casts in plaster, formerly the pro- Falmouth, Philp. 10.xford, Slatter.

Asher, perty of Sir Thomas Lawrence, by the Royal Academy; and

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES, Duke-street, Lambeth.]

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COMPANION To the NEWSPAPER.

No. 7.

JULY 1, 1833.

Price 2d.

THE POOR- L AW S.

PAOE

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Laws

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Tabular Accounts.

Laws

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CONTENTS.

some creditable person would take him into service for two

PAOK years ; and if he offended a third time, he was to be adjudged Introduction

97 Proper Mode of Relief ... a felon, Incidental Advantages of

Necessity of an Improved and As to the punishment of ordinary offences, such as theft, Poor-Law

Uniform System in the Ad. Provisions of the English Poor.

ministration of the Poor-Laws 106 Frederick Eden, in his History of the Poor, says, when

burglary, &c., no bounds appear to have been observed. Sir Education,

speaking of the state of things in the sixteenth century,Defects in the English Poor

111, 112

Writers who contend that severity of punishment is not the best preventive of crime, are fully justified by the history of the period. Never were severe laws issued in greater

abundance, nor executed more rigorously; and never did INTRODUCTION.

the unrelenting vengeance of justice prove more ineffectual. The working of the poor-laws has at length taken so forcible The prisoners for debt, in the different gaols in the kingdom, a hold on the public mind, that it is easy to foresee that are stated by Mr. Hume, on the authority of an Act of Parimportant changes in these laws must soon be made. It liament passed in 1512, to have exceeded the number of would be but a truism to remark that, when on the point of 60,000 ; and Harrison, a writer soon after the period in queslegislating, it is of great importance that the whole country tion, assures us that the king (Henry VIII.) executed his laws should have before it a clear view of the facts and argu- with such severity that 72,000 great and petty thieves were ments of the case.

put to death during his reign.' Harrison adds that, even in The question of the poor-laws,--that is, the question Elizabeth's reign, rogues were trussed up apace ;' and whether or not it is really wise and humane in society to that there was not 'one year commonly wherein 300 or undertake the care and relief of the indigent,-is one on 400 of them were not devoured and eaten by the gallows in which able, upright, and benevolent men have come to oppo- one place and other.'” site conclusions. Thus it is that, at the present moment,

That the numbers of executions just given are not exagwhile many excellent persons are strongly advocating the gerated, is rendered probable by the fact that, great as they introduction of poor-laws into Ireland, others, with equally are, Harrison complains of the relaxation of the law, and good motives, are not only opposing such a measure, but are regrets that so few rogues were punished in his time; and condemning the existence of poor-laws altogether, and en- yet confirms, by his own statements, the numbers of deaths deavouring to prepare the public mind for their repeal in we have given. this country.

To picture to ourselves the bloody work of the law (which The fact is, the question is one of such extent, and Harrison thought insufficient) in its full extent, it is necesbranches off in so many directions, that it is no easy matter sary to bear in mind that the population of the country three to get that general view of it which is necessary to enable hundred years ago was much less than it is at the present us to pronounce whether, as a whole, the institution is good time. or bad. For so much is there of good and of bad in the These accounts are strongly corroborated by a statement working of it, that any one who enters upon its examina- preserved by Strype, which was written by an eminent Justion, with an impression either in its favour or against it, tice of the Peace for Somersetshire in the year 1596. In will find plenty of materials to support his opinion. enumerating the disorders which then prevailed in that

The public is indebted for a vast amount of evidence, county, the author informs us that 40 persons had there relating to the working of the poor-laws, to the laborious been executed in a year for robberies, thefts, and other feloresearches of different committees of both Houses of Parlia- nies; 35 burnt in the hand; 37 whipped ; 183 discharged: ment, and to those gentlemen who form the present Poor- that those who were discharged were most wicked and desLaw Commission. We shall draw abundantly from the perate persons, who never could come to any good, because stock thus amassed.

they would not work, and none would take them into service: The English poor-laws, as they now stand, were enacted that, notwithstanding these great number of indictments, somewhat more than two hundred years ago,-namely, in the fifth part of the felonies committed in the county were the year 1601, being the 43d year of the reign of Elizabeth. not brought to trial; and the greater number escaped cenFor many years previous, owing chietly to the breaking up sure, either from the superior cunning of the felons, the of the feudal system in the reign of Henry VII., by which remissness of the magistrates, or the foolish lenity of the the retainers of the great landed proprietors were dissevered people: that the rapines committed by the infinite number in vast numbers from their ancient connexion, pauperism of wicked, wandering, idle people, were intolerable to the and crime (which almost always go together) had existed to poor countrymen, and obliged them to a perpetual watch of a frightful extent in this country, and many ineffectual their sheepfolds, pastures, woods, and corn-fields : that the attempts had been made to suppress them. Punishment in other counties of England were in no better condition than its most appalling form had been tried in vain, not only on Somersetshire, and many of them were even in a worse : that the malefactor, but on the mere beggar. In the year 1546 there were at least 300 or 400 able-bodied vagabonds in (Ist of Edward VI.), a law was passed condemning any able- every county who lived by theft and rapine, and who somebodied man or woman, who should refuse to labour, and times met in troops, to the number of sixty, and committed who should be idle for three days, to the punishment of being spoil on the inhabitants : that if all the felons of this kind branded with the letter V, with a red-hot iron, on the breast, were reduced to good subjection they would form a strong and adjudged the slave of the informer for two years. If, army: and that the magistrates were awed by the associaafter tắis, he ran away from his master, he was, on being tions, and the threats of confederates, from executing justice caught, to become his slave for life. Subsequently to this sta- on the offenders. tute, another was passed (in the year 1572), by which begging, It is plain, therefore, that, at the time when poor-laws if by children under fourteen years of age, was punished, were introduced, the country, from whatever cause, was in “ in the first instance, by grievous whipping, and burning such a condition, from the prevalence of beggary and crime, through the gristle of the right ear," unless some creditable as to make the adoption of some measure for the alleviation person would take the beggar into his service for a year; of the evil a matter of absolute necessity. The poor-law of and if a vagabond, above eighteen years old, offended a the 43d of Elizabeth answered at least this temporary pursecond time, he was liable to suffer death as a felon, unless | pose; and whatever may have been its effects on the whole, VOL. I.-SUPPLEMENT. (WILLIAM CLOWES, Printer, Duke Street, Lambeth.]

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