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1692-fortnight of hospitalitys—the evening | R. Effect-to lull into of the 13th-the night—the massacre®—the security. numbers killed—the escape.

R. FeelingsCondemnation of the act,sympathy with the sufferers, a stain on W.'s character, sequences of the whole

transaction.

Exercise 49. Subjects for Historical Themes :1. The Exodus from Egypt. 19. The Parliamentary War 2. The Babylonian Captivity, 20. The Revolution of 1688. 3. The Expedition of Xerxes into 21. The Jacobite Rebellion. Greece.

22. The Thirty Years' War 4. The Retreat of the Ten Thou- 23. The Conquest of India. sand.

24. The Trial and Execution of 5. The Achæan League.

Mary Queen of Scots. 6. The Civil War of Marius and 25. The Murder of Cardinal Bea. Sulla.

ton. 7. Catiline's Conspiracy.

26. The Massacre of St Bartholo8. The Destruction of Jerusalem.

mew. 9. The Roman Invasion of Bri- 27. The Defeat of the Armada. tain.

28. The French Revolution. 10. The Gothic Settlement of Bri- 29. The American War of Indetain.

pendence. 11. The Crusades (separately or

30. The Crimean War. together).

31. The Indian Mutiny. 12. The Granting of Magna Charta. 32. The battles of—Thermopylæ, 13. The War of Independence in Marathon, Salamis, Phillipi, Switzerland.

Actium, Crecy, Poictiers, 14. The Rebellion of Leicester Agincourt, Bannockburn, against Henry III.

Blenheim, Dettingen, Cullo15. The Invasion of Bolingbroke. den, Prague, Austerlitz, Jena, 16. The Wars of the Roses.

Waterloo, Plassey, Sobraon, 17. The Discovery of America.

Alma, Inkerman, Magenta, 18. The Reformation,

&c., &c.

Exercise 50. Write an Abstract of each of the following plays, poems, and other works in the form of a Narrative Theme :

1. Shakespeare's King Lear. 2.

The Tempest.

3. Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale. 4.

Macbeth, 5.

Julius Caesar. 6.

The Merchant of Venice. 7. Spenser's Red-Cross Knight (Book I. of Fairy Queen). 8.

Sir Guyon (Book II. of Fairy Queen). 9. Milton's Paradise Lost (Books 1-4). 10.

5–8). 11.

9–12). 12. Wordsworth's Wanderer (Excursion, Book I.). 13. Scott's Ivanhoe. 14. Heart of Midlothian. 18. Bacon's Advancement of Learning (Book I.). 16. One Book of Homer, or Virgil, &c.

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Chapter II.-Descriptive Themes.

118. The aim of the Descriptive Theme is to convey a clear notion of what the thing described is. It may therefore be regarded as an expansion of the descriptive paragraph (§ 86). amplified by the occasional introduction of narrative and reflective elements. Each of the particulars mentioned in the schemes for descriptive paragraphs ($$ 87, 89, 92), may thus be expanded and amplified so as to form a separate paragraph by itself. Thus, in speaking of the species to which an object belongs, some sentences of narration may be introduced to illustrate the history either of the species, or of the particular object under consideration. An enumeration of its properties, in like manner, will give rise to reflections regarding its qualities, its uses, and the feelings or associations which either the whole object or any part of it suggests.

119. The subjects of Descriptive Themes, as of Descriptive Paragraphs, may be

1. Individual objects.
2. Class objects.

3. Moral qualities. A Model Scheme for each kind of subject is given in the following sections.

120. Model Scheme for an Individual Object.

THE TOWER OF LONDON. 1. The species—A citadel."

R. Comparison.—The capitol; the Acropolis; the Bastile; the citadel of Antwerp, &c. *N. Its history~ William the

Conquerer; Rufus; Charles II. 2. Its properties- Situation, on north ?R. Purpose—To overawe the bank of Thames; separated from Lon- city, and command the river. don by Tower Hille –

-a collection of N. Place of execution of different towers — size — material of state prisoners. which built.

3. Its parts-White Tower;" Chapel; ‘R. Queen Elizabeth's arLion Tower ;8 Middle Tower;& Bell moury. Tower; Bloody Tower ;8 Salt Tower; 'N. The lions in the Tower Brick Tower;' Bowyer Tower ;8 Beau- for 600 years—1834. champ Tower;' Horse Armoury ; ‘R. The princes murdered by Jewel House. 11

order of Richard III.
'R. Lady Jane Grey.
8R. Duke of Clarence.
PR. Anne Boleyn.
1°N. Its history, built in 1826,
arranged by Sir S. Meyrick.
1°D. Its contents in detail.

11D. The crown jewels.
D. and R. The different purposes to which it is now applied.

10

Exercise 51. Subjects for Descriptive Themes (Individual Objects) :1. The Houses of Parliament. 7. York Minster. 2. Westminster Abbey.

8. Stonehenge. 3. St Paul's Cathedral.

9 The Giant's Causeway. 4. St Peter's, at Rome.

10. The Bass Rock. 5. The Bastile.

11. The Isle of Wight. 6. The town of Chester.

12. The International Exhibition.

121.

Model Scheme for a Class Object.

A CAMERA OBSCURA. 1. The species. — (1.) Genus. Opti- , 'N. Its discovery, improvecal instruments.

ment. (2.) Difference. Receives images of external things.

PR. Resembles the human eye.

2. Its properties.Used for photographic purposes ; presents the image 8N. History of the art ; and inverted and reversed; small aperture R. Its wonderful powers, and for light to enter ; size, various.' useful applications; extent to

which it is practised. 3. Its parts.—1. The lens ;* 2. The “R. The lens of the eye. chamber;" 3. The ground glass.8 3R. The eye chamber.

4. The kinds.—Stationary ; portable; R. The retina; images made stereoscopic;' microscopic; magnify- | permanent by chemistry. ing, &c.

D. Solid pictures.

Exercise 52. Subjects for Descriptive Themes (Class Objects): 1. A Steam Plough.

7. A Distillery 2. An Armstrong gun.

8. An Observatory. 3. An Iron-clad Ship.

9. Telegraphic apparatus. 4. An Electric Battery.

10. A Bank, 5. A Paper-making machine. 11. Gas making apparatus. 6. A Cotton-printing work. 12. A Lithographic Press. 122. Model Scheme for an Abstract Quality.

DIVISION OF LABOUR. 1. Definition.-(1.) Genus, Economic principles."

°R. Importance of this science (2.) Difference. Makes labour more -its influence on human productive by requiring each man to well-being. devote himself to a special branch of labour.

R. Contrast thestate in which 2. Application. To alllabour-some each man produces everything men are doctors, some teachers, some for himself, and each man manufacturers, &c. To a particular something for his neighbour. branch of labour,: effect in securing greater perfection in each labourer. 'D. Pin-making. Leads to interchange — trade — be- R. Promotes social virtues. tween individuals ; between countries.s *R. International feelings.

| Exercise 53. Subjects for Descriptive Themes (Abstract subjects) :1. Wealth.

7. Imagination. 2. Profit.

8. Extravagance. 3. Civilisation

9. Revenge. 4. Barbarism.

10. Criticism. 5. Taxation.

11. Presence of mind. 6. Poverty.

12. Common sense.

Chapter III.-Reflective Themes.

123. In a Reflective Theme each of the particulars mentioned in $ 98, as elements of a paragraph, should be so amplified as to form a separate paragraph by itself. The composition may also be relieved by the introduction of narrative and descriptive elements. The particulars referred to ($ 98) were :1. The cause,

origin, or motive. 2. The effect or consequence. 3. The illustration, including comparison. 4. The feelings excited by the subject. 5. The application, its influence on life and conduct; the

moral inculcated.

124. Model Scheme.—Magna Charta. * 1. The cause.

The king weak and tyranni- | N. Previous history of cal; the nobles powerful; disgusted with his John's reign ; Prince conduct; their motive, to weaken his power ; Arthur; expulsion from his motive, to stave off a crisis, and deceive France; quarrel with them into a false security, &c.

Rome; interdict; ex-
communication ;
French war; the rising
of the nobles.
D. Runnymede, the
scene of granting the

charter, &c. 2. The effects. Great good to the nation ; D. Its articles and laid the foundation of British freedom ; secured leading provisions. property and personal liberty, &c.

3. The illustration. Compare it to the planting of a noble tree, or to the discovery of the law of gravitation in physics, &c.

4. The feelings. Hearty approval; admira- D. Langton, Pembroke, tion of the men who secured it; gratitude to Fitzwalter, &c. them for associating the people with them, &c.

5. The application. Good brought out of evil; we cannot see the end at the beginning; patriotism a duty, &c.

* To shew the different treatment which a subject should receive in a Paragraph and in a Theme, we here give the same subject as is ana. lysed for a Paragraph in $ 99.

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