46%. Some sufferings are altogether disproportioned to the extent

of the injury. 201. The war does not inflict on that nation these sufferings. Note.-A. al adv. time or cond.

X B. (1badv. time, 168 att. 2b* att.4(2badv. time,

3b* att. 4bo att.). 18. la?. Unavoidable difficulties might be expected from the nature

of Columbus's undertaking. 2a*. Other difficulties were likely to arise from the ignorance and

timidity of the people under his command. a'. Columbus had to be prepared to struggle not only with the

former difficulties, but also with such as the latter. A. The early discovery of the spirit of his followers taught Colum

bus this. 78. He had discoveries in view. 12. Naval skill and undaunted courage would be requisite for ac

complishing these discoveries.
61. The art of governing the minds of men would be no less

B. This he believed.
Note.-A. asubs. laatt. 2aatt.

+ B. b2 subs. b* adv. deg. att.
19. 1a-. A person looked on the waters only for a moment.

2a'. The waters were retiring.

A. That person might fancy this.
161. A person looked on the waters only for five minutes.
201. The waters were rushing capriciously to and fro.
B. That person might fancy this.
1c. A person keeps his eye on the waters for a quarter of an hour.
2c. He sees one sea-mark disappear after another.
8c'. The ocean is moved in some general direction.
C. Then it is in possible for him to doubt of that general direc-

Note.-A. lal att. 2a? subs. + B. 1b1 att. 2b2 subs.

x C. 1cm + 2cadv, time, 8c att.
20. a*. Some operations of the mind depend on volition.

a'. In sleep these operations are suspended.
A. From a consideration of these facts (not here stated) it seems

reasonable to suppose this.
168. We are able to withhold the exercise of all our different

powers much. 26*. We fall asleep. 168. Before this, we must withhold the exercise of all our different


161. This is certain.
269. Sleep commences soon.
261. These powers should again begin to be exerted.
B. This is scarcely to be imagined.
Note.-- A. a? subs. ao att.

::: B. (1b2 adv. cond 1b* subs. 1b8 adv. deg. 2b8 adv.

(2b2 subs. 2b* adv. time).

Chapter VI.—The Selection of Words.

52. In language, as in construction, there are three qualities of a good sentence :

I. Perspicuity.
II. Energy
III. Grace.

I. Perspicuity of Language. 53. Perspicuity is that quality of the language of a sentence which renders it perfectly intelligible to those to whom it is addressed. It may be attained by observing the following rules :

54. Rules for perspicuity of Language :I. Use words which are the precise equivalents of the ideas

to be expressed. II. Use neither more nor fewer words than the sense re

quires. III. Prefer those words which are likely to be understood by

the greatest number of those addressed. 55. The first rule may be violated in three ways:1. By using a word wholly inappropriate ; as when it is

said that Queen Mary's actions admit of no alleviation. 2. By using an equivocal word; as when it is said that the

queen did not want solicitation to consent to a certain mea

sure (want wish, or be without). 3. By using an improper synonym; as when one speaks of

the discovery of the printing press, and the invention of polarity.


Exercise 16. Correct the want of perspicuity in the following sentences :

1. Social reformers assert that our deficiencies in this respect are being gradually improved.

2. The king's apprehension was great, but the minister's devotion was greater.

3. Shortly before the fire, the librarian had lent to different people a quantity of the most valuable books.

4. The circulation of the blood was discovered by Harvey, the telescope by Galileo, and the steam-engine by Savery, Newcomen, and Watt.

5. Henry, who had been from his youth attached to the Church of Rome, wrote a book in Latin against the principles of Luther.

6. There was ono unfortunate circumstance which blasted all these promising appearances.

7. Many men think worse than they speak.

8. Many people believe that there are good grounds for questioning the authenticity of Ossian's poems.

9. I acquiesce with you, that his character is undeniable. 10. He would not relinquish his claims to the property without an effort;

but after a long struggle he was compelled to resign his object. 11. Many sons have been observed to assume the cast-off habits of their fathers.

12. The attempt, however laudable, was found to be impracticable. 13. He is a graceful scholar, and has a lovely face.

14. If I am exposed to continuous interruptions, I cannot pursue a perpetual train of thought.

15. A virtuous youth, in his case, promised a prosperous manhood. 16. One of the first masters learned him French.

17. The physician's conduct on that occasion struck me as being very inconsistent; and one whose practice so plainly contradicts his profession must be pronounced incongruous.

18. The intercourse of nations is beneficially felt in their mutual influence upon opinion and the progress of society.

19. He who discovereth secrets seldom makes friends.

20. The noble Lord has spent the best years of his life in promoting plans intended to forward the welfare of mankind.

Exercise 17. Write sentences exemplifying the proper use of each of the following words :

1. Coincidence. 3. Servile. 5. Piquancy.
2. Endeavour. 4. Mediocre. 6. Sanguine.

Exercise 18. Write sentences exemplifying the shades of difference in meaning between the following words :

1. With, through, by.
2. Affirm, assert, aver.
3. Shall, will.
4. Earth, world, globe,
5. Self-love, selfishness.
6. Bright, shining, brilliant.

Exercise 19. Write sentences exemplifying the different uses of the following equivocal words :

1. Resolution. 3. Season. 5. Apparent.
2. Charge.

4. Light. 6. Order. 56. The second rule for perspicuity forbids the opposite errors of redundancy and ellipsis.

57. Redundancy,* defined by Cobbett as “the using of many words to say little,” consists in saying the same thing twice over, though in different words. A sentence is redundant 1. When it contains more than one expression of the same idea,

as, “ The whole nation applauded his magnanimity and

greatness of mind." 2. When it contains a logical cross division ; as,

6. The inhabitants of Great Britain may be divided into Englishmen, Welshmen, Scotchmen, and Gaels."

Exercise 20.
Correct the REDUNDANCY in the following sentences :-

1. The author could now regard his future prospects with the most entire satisfaction.

2. Unable to declare the use or service of all things in this universe, we are yet assured of the certain perfection of all.

3. There is no such thing in England that I know as persecution for opinion, sentiment, or thought.

* A legalised redundancy is called a pleonasm. Thus the psalmist sings, “ I cried unto the Lord with my voice ;" and Shakespeare, “ Cannons overcharged with double cracks."

4. They were bold and fearless in their civil dissensions, ready to proceed to extremities, and to carry their debates to the decision of force.

5. He was a great traveller, and an equally great reader of books, by which means he was acquainted with nearly all the continents, islands, and peninsulas into which the land on the surface of the globe is divided.

6. Almost all difficulties may be overcome by industry, for it is a common saying, that perseverance overcometh difficulties.

7. Individual men stood distinguished by their person, spirit, and vigour, not by the valuation of their estates, or the rank of their birth.

8. Not even when he had reached and attained to the highest summit of his ambitious aspirations, was he satisfied that his career was perfectly completed.

9. In his retirement he gave himself up to the allurements of science, literature, and books.

10. Were men omniscient, then would they be as gods, which cer. tainly they are not; therefore they do not know all things.

11. The very first discovery of it strikes the mind with inward joy, and spreads delight through all its faculties.

12. Never did Atticus succeed better in gaining the universal love and esteem of all men.

13. Those who duly inform the faculties in the search of truth, take especial care to weed out of their minds, and extirpate all such notions.

58. Ellipsis,* or the omission of words necessary to the accurate expression of an idea, may consist in1. The omission of the preposition ; as, “ Let us consider the

works of nature and (of) art with proper attention." Without the preposition before “art," this means that the same

works are produced by nature and art combined. 2. The omission of a distinguishing adjective; as, “The wise

and (the) foolish, the virtuous and (the) vile, must often be blended together.” Without the particle before “foolish ” and “vile,” the meaning is, that persons who are both - wise and foolish ” are often blended with persons

who are both “ virtuous and vile." 3. The omission of some primary element of the sentence ; as,

“ The wildness pleases ” (us, or the observer). +

* Ellipsis only becomes a fault when it leads to ambiguity. Thus the relative is often omitted without detriment to a sentence; as, Every one was prepared for the part (which) he was to take.” † See 27, and Ex, i.


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