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15. The sic volumus of the secretary and the commissioners superseded the directions contained in their patent.

16. Is it not grievous to see such a muck-worm spirit in one so highborn and influential ?

Chapter VII.-Paraphrasing. 75. Paraphrasing is the process of expressing an author's meaning in a different form. A sentence was defined to be a “complete thought expressed in words;" a sentence paraphrased is the same thought expressed in different words.*

* * It would probably be too great a tax upon the pupil at the present stage to ask him to write entirely original sentences, in which both the thought and the language would be his own. Preparatory to this, however, which he will be required to do in Part II., these exercises in paraphrasing should be gone through, in which the thoughts are given him, and he is required only to express them in

other language. 76. This process requires in the first place, that the author's meaning should be fully and correctly understood. It should then be expressed in the most perspicuous, energetic, and graceful language the pupil can find.

Example “ I envy not in any moods

The captive void of noble rage,

The linnet born within the cage,

That never knew the summer woods.”—Tennyson. The meaning of this stanza may be thus expressed :

“ I can only despise the indifference of those who, never having enjoyed the sweets of freedom, cannot sorrow for its loss.” The succeeding stanza in the poem,

“ I envy not the beast that takes

His licence in the field of Time,

Unfettered by the sense of crime,
To whom a conscience never wakes :"-

* This must be distinguished both from Substitution 31), in which single expressions are varied, and from Transposition (ě 32), in which the order of the words merely is changed.

has been thus paraphrased :

“I do not esteem as of any value the mere gratifications of passion, where no moral feelings of divine law and personal responsibility are blended.”—Poetical Reading Book, p. 7, Note.

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Exercise 34. Paraphrase the following passages; that is, express their meaning in different language :

1. “By night, an atheist half believes a God.”- Young.
2. “ Ill blows the wind that profits nobody.”—Shakespeare.
3. “ The better part of valour is discretion."-Shakespeare.
4. · It is a wise father that knows his own child.”Shakespeare.
6. “One touch of nature makes the whole world kin."

-Shakespeare. 6. “ To reign is worth ambition, though in hell :

Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven.”Milton. 7. “For solitude sometimes is best society,

And short retirement urges sweet return." -Milton. 8. “There's a divinity that shapes our ends,

Rough-hew them how we will.”Shakespeare. 9. “How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is

To have a thankless child.”- Shakespeare. 10.

“ The evil that men do lives after them,

The good is oft interred with their bones.”Shakespeare. 11. “Men's evil manners live in brass,

Their virtues we write in water."-Shakespeare. 12. “ Stone walls do not a prison make,

Nor iron bars a cage."-Lovelace. 13. “0, what a tangled web we weave

When first we practise to deceive.'- Scott.
14. “ He that complies against his will,

Is of his own opinion still.”Butler.
15. “ The bell strikes one. We take no note of time

But from its loss : to give it then a tongue

Is wise in man. -Young.
16. “ A thing of beauty is a joy for ever ;

Its loveliness increases ; it will never
Pass into nothingness."-Keats.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

“ Loveliness
Needs not the foreign aid of ornament,
But is, when anadorned, adorned the most.”—Thomson.

“To put the power
Of sovereign rule into the good man's hand,
Is giving peace and happiness to millions.”—Thomson.
“ Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just;

And he but naked, tho' locked up in steel,
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted.”-Shakespeare.
“ 'Tis the mind that makes the body rich ;

And as the sun breaks thro' the darkest clouds,

So honour peereth in the meanest habit.”-Shakespeare. “And say, without our hopes, without our fears, Without the home that plighted love endears, Without the smile from partial beauty won, Oh! what were man? a world without a sun.”- Campbell. " That loss is common would not make

My own less bitter, rather more:

Too common! Never morning wore
To evening, but some heart did break.”—Tennyson.
“ There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life

Is bound in shallows and in miseries."— Shakespeare.
“ The sense of death is most in apprehension ;

And the poor beetle that we tread upon,
In corporal sufferance finds a pang as great

As when a giant dies.”Shakespeare.
To gild refined gold, to paint the lily,

To throw a perfume on the violet,
To smooth the ice, or add another hue
Unto the rainbow, or, with taper light,
To seek the beauteous eye of heaven to garnish,
Is wasteful and ridiculous excess.”-Shakespeare.
EVE.—“But that thou should'st my firmness therefore

doubt
To God or thee, because we have a foo
May tempt it, I expected not to hear.
His violence thou fear'st not, being such
As we, not capable of death or pain,
Can either not receive, or can repel.
His fraud is then thy fear; which plain infers

24.

25.

26.

Thy equal fear that my firm faith and love
Can by his fraud be shaken or seduc'd;
Thoughts which how found they harbour in thy breast,

Adam, misthought of her to thee so dear?”Milton. 27. “And if that eye which watches guilt

And goodness, and hath power to see

Within the green, the moulder'd tree,
And towers fall'n as soon as built;
“Oh, if indeed that eye foresee

Or see (in Him is no before)

In more of life true life no more,
And love the indifference to be,
“ So might I find, ere yet the morn

Breaks hither over Indian seas,

That shadow waiting with the keys

To cloak me from my proper scorn.”—Tennyson. 28. SATAN."

-"Princes, potentates,
Warriors, the flower of heaven, once yours, now lost,
If such astonishment as this can seize
Eternal spirits : or have ye chosen this place,
After the toil of battle to repose
Your wearied virtue, for the ease you find
To slumber here as in the vales of heaven?
Or in this abject posture have ye sworn
T'adore the conqueror ? who now beholds
Cherub and seraph rolling in the flood
With scatter'd arms and ensigns, till anon
His swift pursuers, from heaven's gates, discern
The advantage, and, descending, tread us down
Thus drooping, or with linked thunderbolts
Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf !

Awake, arise, or be for ever fall’n."--Milton. 29.

MACBETH.-"He's here in double trust:
First, as I am his kinsman and his subject,
Strong both against the deed; then, as his host,
Who should against his murderer shut the door,
Not bear the knife myself. Besides, this Duncan
Hath borne his faculties so meek-hath been
So clear in his great office, that his virtues
Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against
The deep damnation of his taking-off ;
And pity, like a naked, new-born babe,
Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubim, hors'd
Upon the sightless couriers of the air,
Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye

That tears shall drown the wind. I have no spur
To prick the sides of my intent, but only
Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself,

And falls on the other —"-Shakespeare.
30. To be, or not to be, that is the question :-

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind, to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And, by opposing, end them ?- To die,- to sleep,-
No more ;-and, by a sleep, to say we end
The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to,—'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish’d. To die;—to sleep ;-
To sleep! perchance to dream ;-ay, there's the rub:
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come,
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause : There's the respect,
That makes calamity of so long life:
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay,
The insolence of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? wbo would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life;
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscover'd country, from whose bourn
No traveller returns,-puzzles the will;
And makes us rather bear those ills we have,
Than fly to others that we know not of!
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought;
And enterprises of great pith and moment,
With this regard, their currents turn awry,

And lose the name of action.”Shakespeare. 31. “Oh! 'tis cruelty to beat a cripple with his own crutches.”— Fuller.

32. “Every man desireth to live long; but no man would be old.”Swift.

33. “In youth is the time when some ignorance is as necesary as much knowledge.”-Ascham.

34. “We know by experience itself, that it is a marvellous pain to find out but a short way by a large wandering.”-Ascham.

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