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35. “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.”—Bacon.

36. “He who tells a lie is not sensible how great a task he undertakes; for he must be forced to invent twenty more to maintain one." - Pope.

37. “No man is wiser for his learning: it may administer matter to work in, or objects to work upon; but wit and wisdom are born with a man." - Selden.

38. “ It matters not to the sparrov caught in the snare that he is not held tight in every part, but only by the foot; he is a lost bird for all that."-St Chrysostom.

39. “ Marshal thy notions into a handsome method. One will carry twice more weight trussed and packed up in bundles, than when it lies untoward, flapping, and hanging about his shoulders. Things orderly fardled up under heads are most portable.”-Fuller.

40. “ Piety practised in solitude, like the flower that blooms in the desert, may give its fragrance to the winds of heaven, and delight those unbodied spirits that survey the works of God and the actions of men.” -Johnson.

41. “Await the issue. In all battles, if you await the issue, each fighter has prospered according to his right. His right and his might, at the close of the accounts, were one and the same. He has fought with all his might, and in exact proportion to all his right he has prevailed. His very death is no victory over him. He dies indeed, but his work lives, very truly lives.”—Carlyle.

42. “The philosopher sheweth you the way, he informeth you of the particularities, as well of the tediousness of the way, as of the pleasant lodging you shall have when your journey is ended, as of the many bye-turnings that may divert you from your way; but this is to no man, but to him that will read him, and read him with attentive, studious painfulness; which constant desire whosoever hath in him, hath already passed half the hardness of the way, and therefore is beholden to the philosopher but for the other half."-Sidney.

PART II.-THE STRUCTURE OF PARAGRAPHS.

77. A Paragraph is a series of sentences relating to the same subject; and no sentence should be dmitted into it which does not relate thereto.

78. The opening sentence should indicate, though it need not formally announce, the subject which is more fully explained in the subsequent sentences of the Paragraph.

79. There should be as much variety as possible both in the construction and in the length of the sentences in the same Paragraph. It may be of advantage to make the sentences near the beginning brief; and a longer sentence than usual has its appropriate place at the close.

80. As all the sentences in a Paragraph relate to the same subject (or division of a subject), they should be arranged so as to carry the line of thought naturally and suggestively from one to the other. Upon this the excellence of a Paragraph mainly depends.

81. The elements of which a Paragraph may be composed belong to these three classes

I. NARRATION : what happens, or is seen.
II. DESCRIPTION : what a thing is.

III. REFLECTION : what we think about it. The first of these has for its subject, Active Scenes; the second, Objects and their Qualities; the third, the Thoughts and Feelings to which the other two give rise. Though we rarely find a Paragraph that belongs to any one of these classes exclusively, we shall best understand the nature of each element by considering them separately.

Chapter I.--Narration.

82. Active scenes form the proper subject of Narration : or, as Cicero defines it, Rerum gestarum expositio, i. e., the setting forth of things done.

The simplest form of this element is,

1. INCIDENTAL NARRATION, which includes Letters, Stories, and Works of Travel. The highest form is that of,

2. HISTORICAL NARRATION, to which class belong accounts of Mechanical Processes, and the narrative portions of Biography and History.

83. A complete Narrative-Paragraph should state the following particulars,

1. The Event : what happened ;
2. The Persons or Instruments : by or to whom it happened ;
3. The Time : when it happened ;
4. The Place: where it happened ;

5. The Manner : how it happened. The order in which these particulars are introduced cannot be fixed by any rule. The narration of details must conform to the single law: that the circumstances be narrated in the order of their occurrence.

84.

Example.--Incidental Narration.

FUNERAL CEREMONY AT ROME. 1 While at Rome, I one day met in my way home a 'funeral ceremony. *A crucifix hung with black, followed by a train of priests, with lighted tapers in their hands, headed the procession. Then came a troop of figures dressed in white robes, with their faces covered with masks of the same materials. The bier followed, on which lay the corpse of a young woman arrayed in all the ornaments of dress, with her face exposed, where the bloom of youth still lingered. The members of different fraternities followed the bier, dressed in the robes of their orders, and all masked. They carried lighted tapers in their hands, and chaunted out prayers in a kind of mumbling recitative.

1 Time.
2 Place.

Event. + Manner.

8

Exercise 35. Write a Narrative Paragraph (Incidental) telling what you saw on any of the following occasions : —

1. A visit to Windsor Castle (or any other Castle). 2. A walk along Regent Street (or any other Street). 8. A visit to the Bass Rock (or any similar scene). 4. An Excursion to the Top of Ben Lomond (or any other Mountain),

5. A Fire in a City. 6. A Pic-Nic Party. 7. A Snow-storm (in the Highlands). 8. A visit to a Picture Gallery. 9. A visit to a Farm. 10. An Eclipse of the Moon. 11. A sail down the Thames (or any other river). 12. Meeting the Simoom in the Desert, &c., &c.

Exercise 36. Write a Narrative Paragraph (Incidental) giving the substanco of the following fables and stories :

1. The Frogs desiring a King. 2. The Stag admiring his horns. 3. The Countryman and the Snake. 4. The Wind and the Sun. 5. The Ass in the Lion's skin. 6. The Cat and the Mice. 7. The Hare and the Sparrow. 8. The Old Man and the Bundle of Sticks. 9. The Shepherd Boy and the Wolf. 10. The Old Man and his Ass. 11. King Alfred and the Cakes. 12. William Tell and the Apple.

Example.-Historical Narration. THE LANDING OF THE SPANIARDS ON SAN SALVADOR. " As soon as the sun arose, all their boats were manned and armed. They rowed toward the island with their colours displayed, with warlike music, and other martial pomp. As they approached the coast, they saw it covered with a multitude of people, whom the novelty of the spectacle had drawn together, whose attitudes and gestures expressed wonder and astonishment at the strange objects which presented themselves to their view. 8 Columbus was the first European who set his foot on the new world which he had discovered. He landed in a rich dress, and with a naked sword in his hand. His men followed, and, kneeling down, they all kissed the ground which they had so long desired to see. They next erected a crucifix, and, prostrating themselves before it, returned thanks to God for conducting their voyage to such a happy issue. They then took solemn possession of the country for the crown of Castile and Leon, with all the formalities which the Portuguese were accustomed to observe in acts of this kind in their discoveries."

85.

2 Place. 3 Event. Manner.

1 Time.

Exercise 37. Write a Narrative Paragraph (Historical), telling what happened on any of the following occasions :

1. The landing of Julius Cæsar on the coast of Britain, B.C. 55.
2. The death of Edmund of East Anglia, A.D. 871.
3. Harold's oath to William of Normandy, A.D. 1060.
4. Rolf the Ganger's homage to Charles the Simple, A.D. 912.
5. The death of General Wolfe at Quebec, A.D. 1759.
6. The offering of Isaac.
7. Any one of the miracles of Christ.
8. A shipwreck.
9. A battle.
10. Cromwell's expulsion of the Parliament.
11. Galileo's experiment on the leaning tower of Pisa.

12. The opening of Parliament, or any similar pageant. [Note to Exercises 36 and 37:-No particular description of objects seen,

no reflections upon them, should be admitted into these Exercises, as the nature of these elements, and the manner of treating them, are discussed in the subsequent Chapters.]

Chapter II.-Description.

86. The Descriptive Paragraph has for its proper object the exposition of what a thing is. It aims at shewing wherein the whole essence and character of a thing consist. It may have for its subject :

1. Individual objects, (Proper nouns).
2. Class objects, (Common nouns).
8. Moral qualities,

(Abstract nouns).

1. INDIVIDUAL OBJECTS.

87. A paragraph describing an individual object should contain the following particulars :

1. The species (or class to which it belongs).
2. The properties : form, size, situation, material, uses,

&c.
3. The parts; which may be separately described.

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