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a particular organisation, like that of a ragged school, in order to bring them in.

3352. But would you not consider that those classes would require that provision should be made for their wants ?-Yes. But the first point is this: if you find in ragged schools generally a large number of children who belong to neither of those classes, but are, in fact, not only able but willing to pay 1d. a-week for their education, I say that is an abuse of the ragged school institution, as it is understood by its promoters. The presence of those children who are able to pay, in those ragged schools, is an evil which you must either prevent in some way, or else the Government will be assisting the same class of children on two different principles.

3353. Did you find any large proportion of children who both could and would pay in the ragged schools in Bristol ?-I should say that a large number of those whom I saw there were perfectly able to pay.*

* The summary of these minutes should be such a brief narrative as, in a history of the question, would express Mr Cumin's opinion, and the reasons by which he supported it.

PART III.—THE STRUCTURE OF THEMES.

107. A Theme* is a series of paragraphs discussing the different parts of a subject, so arranged as to give a complete exposition of the whole subject of which it treats.

108. The elements of which a Theme consists are (as in the paragraph), Narration, Description, and Reflection; and, while no Theme is likely to be composed of any one of these elements exclusively, they may be classified, according to the prominence which each of these elements assumes in their composition, into

I. NARRATIVE THEMES.
II. DESCRIPTIVE THEMES.

III. REFLECTIVE THEMES.
To these, however, we shall add two classes of Miscellaneous
Themes or Essays, viz. :-

IV. DISCURSIVE THEMES.
V. ARGUMENTATIVE THEMES.

Chapter I.-Narrative Themes.

109. The Narrative Theme has for its object, to give a complete account of all that happened in connection with a particular event; and only such details are to be introduced into it as are necessary for that purpose.

110. The Narrative Theme may therefore be regarded as an expansion of the narrative paragraph ($ 81), with the addition of occasional descriptions and reflections.

111. The particulars enumerated (s 82) as belonging to the narrative paragraph were, 1. The event; 2. The persons or instruments ; 3. The time; 4. The place ; 5. The manner or accompanying circumstances. In the Theme, the last head will afford the greatest scope for amplification, as it will include an

* The word Theme is here used in its secondary sense of a short dissertation, or methodical essay on a given subject; primarily, it signifies the subject or topic itself.

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account of the course of events to which the special incident under consideration belongs.

112. Narrative Themes may be divided, according to the subjects treated of, into these three classes :

I. Incidental Themes, including miscellaneous subjects,

as Mechanical Processes, and Incidents of every day

life.
II. Biographical Themes.

III. Historical Themes.
113. Rules for Narration :-
I. Narrate the events in the order of their occurrence.
II. Introduce description, only when really necessary to ex-

plain objects referred to in the narrative. III. Introduce reflection sparingly, and always keep it sub

ordinate to narration, which is the main object of the

Theme. IV. Each circumstance which forms a distinct unity should occupy a separate paragraph.

* As the drawing out of a scheme or skeleton before writing any Theme is an important exercise in itself, only a model scheme is here given. It is recommended that, as a first exercise, the pupils should be required to prepare the scheme, and as a second, to write the Theme therefrom. The following directions for scheme-making are given to aid the pupil in doing this

for himself. 114. Directions for Scheme-making > I. When the facts are not derived from personal observation,

read some plain and authentic account of them; and in the course of reading, make notes. II. From these notes,

select the points most worthy of attention, and arrange them in the order in which they are

to be taken up in the narrative (S$ 103, 104). III. Indicate by marginal notes those objects that may re

quire description, and those which suggest reflections. IV. Write the Theme from the scheme and notes alone,

and not from the author consulted. V. The division into paragraphs is most conveniently made

in the course of composition.

1. Incidental Themes. 115.

Model Scheme.-Paper-Making. Rags collected- dusting-sorting-cutting' | 'D.* knife, cylinder. - washing — teasing – bleaching – stirring pulp in vat-passage through strainer-over ?D. Machine. wire cloth-vacuum box:_lateral vibration R. Purpose of this. -passage of film between iron rollers-on •R. Effect of this. to felt web-rollers again-under steam-heated cylinders-on to a drum or reel, a perfect web •R. Beauty of the conof paper.

trivance; ingenuity; effects,

spread of knowledge, &c.

Exercise 47.

Subjects for Narrative Themes
1. The process of making a book.
2. The process of photographing.
3. The process of calico-printing.
4. The process of glass-blowing and casting.
5. The process of sugar refining.
6. The opening of Parliament.
7. A journey.
8. A voyage.
9. An ascent of Mont Blanc.
10. A visit to London, Paris, Rome, Berlin, &c.
11. A visit to a picture gallery, or other exhibition.
12. A military review, or other spectacle.

II. Biographical Themes. 116. Model Scheme.-Frederic the Great.

Birth-Education-occupations of youthtreatment by his father— imprisonment

R. Frederic William's liberation-first campaign.

character, Accession-Silesian wars_treaty of Dres- ?R. Their origin, & D. den, 1745— Voltaires; verse-making-seven 8R. Treatment of Vol. years' war, 1756—battles of Lowositz, Prague, taire. Kolin, Hochkirchen, Leuthen Disasters of ' •D. One of the battles.

+ R. reflection. In every case the pupil should be required to prepare a scheme, and submit it to the teacher, before writing the Theme.

* D. description.

third and fourth campaignss-treaty of Hubertsburg, 1763—partition of Poland, 1772— armed neutrality, 1781-death, 1786?.

'R. Fortitude in ad-
versity.
GR. Fate of Poland.
'R. His character as a
general, a ruler, a poli-
tician, and a man.

Exercise 48. Subjects for Biographical Themes :1. Alexander the Great.

24. Milton. 2. Hannibal.

25. Cowper. 3. Cyrus the Great (the elder). 26. Watt. 4. Julius Cæsar.

27. George Stephenson. 5. Alfred the Great.

28. Washington. 6. Charlemagne.

29. Benjamin Franklin. 7. Charles XII. of Sweden. 30. Lord Bacon. 8. Peter the Great. 9. Napoleon Bonaparte.

81. Boadicea. 10. Lord Chatham.

32. Joan D'Arc. 11. Lord Clive.

33. Queen Eleanor (Edward I.). 12. Warren Hastings. .

34. Catherine de Medici. 13. Marlborough.

35. Queen Elizabeth. 14. Wellington.

36. Mary Queen of Scots. 15. Nelson.

37. Maria Theresa. 16. Sir Walter Raleigh.

38. Marie Antoinette. 17. Sir Philip Sidney.

39. Catherine of Russia. 18. Sir Isaac Newton.

40. Mrs Hemans. 19. Thomas à Becket.

41. Flora Macdonald. 20. Alcuin.

42. Mary Wortley Montagu. 21. Lanfranc.

43. Mrs Browning 22. Wycliffe.

44. Cleopatra. 23. Cardinal Wolsey.

45. Queen Victoria.

III. Historical Themes.

117. Model Scheme.-The Massacre of Glencoe.

William's (III.) authority established in England-in Lowlands of Scotland—" Pacification”l with Highlanders, Aug. 1691-Mʻlan *D. Provisions of the of Glencoe, head of Macdonalds—his delay-pacification. arrival at Fort-Augustus—No officer there- | D.Glencoe, its scenery sent to Inverary-arrives, 6th Jan 1692—his and situation. oath received-Dalrymple's plot8—the war

8R. Its origin. rant procured-signed by William, 1st Feb. ! •R.W.'s share of blame.

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