lution, yet some of the things which its favour, will soon become tolehave contributed to this state of rated, and in the end will probably mind lie upon the surface, and these be adopted by him, unless he use I shall briefly notice. The most im- means to counteract the effect of haportant has been the unremitting ex- bitual repetition. If, then, the leadertion of the newspaper press, which, ing newspapers, which every man with but very few exceptions, has who mingles in the world, or the been devoted to the promotion of world's business, must read, have revolutionary principles. At the been gained over to the advocacy of present crisis, nine-tenths of the revolutionary principles, there is, and newspapers read by the people la- there can be no chance of adequately bour daily or weekly to inflame and meeting this evil but by making newsmislead the minds of their readers, papers as good in every matter of by every species of fraudful and ex- detail as those which are emphatiaggerated statement which consider- cally said to “ lead” the public, and able skill and habitual perseverance which shall direct the minds of the in lying can suggest. It is no won- people to sound and sober views of der that this should have produced rational liberty, and to the valuablea very powerful effect upon a people ness of the remarkable institutions who are almost all, more or less, which have so long preserved the readers of newspapers. Even those nation powerful and glorious upon who do not read are impressed by the earth, amid the distractions of others who do, and every village ale- political conflict, and the crash of rehouse where a newspaper is taken in, volutions with which Europe has becomes a fountain of dangerous and been visited. revolutionary principles, which find Again it has been said, and with their way into the house of every truth, that the personal habits and farmer and yeoman. This is an evil deportment of the Tory lords and which cannot be combatted without gentlemen have not been such as to great exertion ; but if not met, it win the affection of the middle classes alone would in time be sufficient to and yeomanry in the country. They destroy the good spirit and the salu- have not mingled with them, nor tary institutions of this country. identified themselves with them as Every thing must sink before the they should have done; and thereviolence of an industrious and skil fore there lurked secretly, in the fully conducted press, if that press breasts of a great many, a desire to is allowed to be all but unanimous avail themselves of the first plausible on the side of revolution. But why opportunity to evince their sense of is it so ? First, because the news- the cold, and, as it appeared to them, papers which flatter the people and disdainful conduct of the Tory magtheir prejudices, and tell them agree- nates of the district. This disposition able lies, are the most likely to be was easily seen, and readily taken preferred by them; and, secondly, advantage of by the Whigs, who have so far from an additional exertion made it their business personally to being made by the conservative ingratiate themselves with those very party on that account, to meet the persons whom the Tories had alienarevolutionists upon their own ground, ted or offended; and thus not only and outwrite them in the newspapers, was political support very much as they are outwritten in other peri- withdrawn from Tory candidates, on odicals, these great engines of politi- grounds merely personal, but even cal influence have been greatly ne- where support was given, it was by glected, and with disgraceful tame- no means with that heartiness and ness and quiescence the Tory party zeal and lively spirit which distinhave looked on, while almost the guished the support of the other side. whole force, both of the metropolitan On the side of the Tories, support and provincial newspaper press, has was in many cases given as a politibeen zealously directed against them. cal duty merely ;-on the other side The doctrine on politics, or on any it was given with that vivacity which other subject, which at first appears accompanies an action that is perto a man foolish or revolting, if it be sonally agreeable. The influential continually presented to him day Tories have been so long accustomed after day, with fresh arguments in to high office-have been so habi

a fit

tually occupied with official busi

ever might have been the success ness, and so far removed from the there, Cumberland would have been necessity of attention to those par- saved from the undivided domination ticulars which ensure popularity, of revolutionary feeling, and the that it must be confessed they have absurdity of sending a person to something to learn in this regard, Parliament who himself declared on and they will now see how useful, the hustings, that he was not and I should hope agreeable also, it and proper representative” for the will be, to cultivate a more friendly county. “I know it may be said that personal intercourse with those who these counties could not have been expect that the confidence which contested without a vast expendithey give will be requited with ture, and without exciting much courtesy. There is no doubt that tumultuous agitation, and I well so far as political feeling went, the know how naturally any man of good Marquis of Chandos was as likely feeling must turn away with loathing to lose his County seat as other from the prospect of the disgusting Tory lords and gentlemen whom the scenes of a contested election ; but reforming frenzy has ousted, yet he we should not let the revolutionary was triumphantly returned through party get all the advantage of thus his personal popularity. He per- scaring us from our right, and if sonally interests himself in whatever there ever was a time in which great is of interest to the resident gentry sacrifices for the sake of county reof the county, and therefore there is presentation ought to be made, that no power which the combined zeal, time was on the late occasion. cunning, and hatred of the Whigs Something however must be alcan bring to bear against him, which lowed to the unpopular candidates will avail to deprive him of the con- on the score of the danger of perfidence of the county to which he sonal violence which in many inbelongs.

stances threatened them. No man is A third reason for the Tory candi- called upon rashly to peril his life in dates being so generally unsuccess- an election brawl, and some who ful, is that they too easily give way. have thus ventured' have become the In every case where the Tory candi- victims of the brutal ferocity of the dates withdrew, not only was there revolutionary mob. It would be an immediate loss on one side, and well if those who sit at home in their a triumph on the other, but the con- closets, or by their firesides, and sequences extended themselves to write or talk of the increased “inother places, and caused a total telligence” of the people, as the cause alteration of the previously existing of the change in the selection of their balance of influence. Had London representatives, would take a jour, not been given up so early in the ney to a contested election now and field, it is by no means clear that then, and see how this “intelligence” Kent might not have been contested manifests itself—that they would with success—but the panic of “re- witness the shocking brutality—the signation” spread, and people stood gluttony and drunkenness—the yells, aghast, instead of fighting their battle and the ferocious violence of a mob manfully, even with the least hope of whom nothing but force, such as insuccess. In the northern Counties fluences cattle, can control. At the the consequent loss to the Tory party late elections in England, there were is manifest-Yorkshire, Lancashire, several carried by mere brute force Northumberland, and Cumberland, -the voters on one side were escortwere all to have been contested, but ed to the poll with acclamation, in all except the last, the candidates while, on the other, they were pregave way without a struggle—the vented from going to the poll by viowhole force of money, and elec- lence offered to their persons-many tioneering materiel which the minis- were severely wounded, and some terial party had collected for all these dangerously.' In other places the contests, was of course immediately terror of physical force was such devoted towards Cumberland, and that contests were not attempted. Is the County was lost to the Tory party. this the “intelligence of the people?" Had contests taken place in Lan- Is it of such patronage as this, that cashire and Northumberland, whate those calling themselves Parliament

ary Reformers are so proud? And ly ought to lead the country, also let it not be said that it is to the mere furnish us with an example to be mob and none other, that this vio- imitated. Bad as the aspect of affairs lence is to be attributed. Those who may be, and it is sufficiently gloomy, set them on, or who “hallooed” it would be worse than madness to them on, to use one of Mr O'Con- sit down in inactive despondency. nell's strongest expressions, were not There is yet much remaining to be of the mere mob, but such as make done, and, by spirit, energy, and disspeeches and write in newspapers; cretion, much may yet be accomand some instances there were of plished. It is not presuming too men of property, with a number of much, from the returns that have persons in their employment, who been already received, to take the were not voters, letting loose their number in the new Parliament who workmen at the time of the election, will be opposed to “the Bill, the with no other conceivable intention whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill,” but to overcome, by brute force, the at two hundred and seventy. This freedom of election, and to effect to be sure will leave a large majority that by the violence of a mob, which in its favour; but a strong minority is they could not effect by fair and un- something, and a few minorities of obstructed voting.

270 would make Ministers feel in Amid the general defection from rather an uncomfortable position. old principles and old friends, it is a Besides the Bill,-even the amended cheering reflection that the Univer- Bill,-was full of errors which every sities have done their duty. If there be man acquainted with the localities any just criterion of the sentiments of of the places where the measure has the educated classes of England, it is to operate could point out. These to be found in the decision of the large must not be lost sight of; some sense constituency who elect the Universi- of common justice, or the shew of it, ty members. With regard to Dub. must still remain with the ministerial lin, where the election lies in the side of the House of Commons, and Corporation of the University alone, when palpable errors are held up bethere may be some ground for alle fore them they must pause, and conging that no particular weight is to be descend, at least, to their discussion. attached to its decision; but in the Let then the Bill be fought point by English Universities, whose Masters point-temperately, fairly, discreetof Arts, with the right of voting, are ly, but with unflinching boldness, scattered all over the kingdom, and let there be no flagging, no runactively engaged in the affairs of life, ning away from the difficulty and it is of the very highest importance trouble of a determined struggle to find them at such a time promptly upon every part and parcel of the and vigorously deciding against the Bill, and much-very much will be headlong proceedings of the King's gained. The people have gone headgovernment. I rejoice more espe- long in ignorance of what the Bill is ; cially over Cambridge, upon the old -long and arduous as were the deprinciple, that there is more joy over bates upon it in the House of Comthat which was lost and is found mons, it was upon the general quesagain, than over that which we have tion of the goodness or badness of always had in possession. In Cam- our present representative systembridge an earnest and vigorous strug- the new measure has yet to be siftgle was made-minds and bodies ed—its inadequacy shewn—its inwere heartily and zealously engaged justice exposed- let that be done as in the good cause, and thus the vic- it ought to be- let the ground be tory was obtained. Had any lan- contended inch by inch, and a vicguor, or indifference, or relaxation of tory will be won, in winning round exertion, crept into the proceedings, the common sense of the people. a different result would have follow- But without, as well as within the ed, but the young men of the pro- walls of Parliament, a victory is yet fessions had their hearts in the mat- to be gained by vigorous, patient, ter, and carried the day. Let then and good-humoured exertion. For the result of the Cambridge Election, the moment the Tory lords and genas it fills us with good hope concern- tlemen are perhaps sore at the treating the principles of those who real- ment they have received,—they well may be --but to let such a feeling calculate upon. In elections, more continue were folly ;-perhaps they than any thing else, knowledge is have deserved some of the disap- power, and no exertion should be pointment they have met with. Let spared either in obtaining and digestthem deserve it no more,- let them ing this knowledge, or in conciliating cultivate the personal good will of the good will of the people, and inthe gentry of their counties, and or structing them upon the real nature gauize matters against the next elec- of the Reform Bill, respecting which tion. If every Tory gentleman took they have imbibed such vague and the pains to make a list of the names extravagant notions. of all the freeholders in his neigh- In Scotland you have made a betbourhood, -to ascertain the side in ter fight than we can boast of. I politics on which they generally voted, flung my hat in the air until it al—and to teach those of his own party most hit the sun, when I heard of the the means of making their freeholds ejection of Jeffrey from Edinburgh. legally perfect,—so that no doubt T'he county, too, has returned a good could exist about their right to vote man and true, and his speech was wben the election came on,-a great excellent; but Sir George Murray's part of the trouble and difficulty speech at Perth is the best we have which generally attends a contest yet had upon the present state of would be saved, and the party pos- political matters, and every one,sessing such information would come even the Times newspaper,-is loud into the field with almost a certainty in its praise.--Your old friend, of the quantity of support he might


London, 19th May, 1831.


Advocate, the Lord, on Reform, 980; Christopher, Old, a Word to the Wise

the Tory Press called on to unfurl their from, 721.
standards, 981; Denman, Jeffrey, and Colonies, British, and Anti-Colonists, by
Cobbett on Loyalty, 981; the Deacons James Macqueen, 186.
referred, for Mr Jeffrey's opinions on

and James Stephen, by
Reform, to the Edinburgh Review, James Macqueen, 454.
articles on " Memoires de Bailly" and Corn Law, and a fixed Duty, 645.
“Filangieri on Legislation,” 985; Dan- “ Coste Firme," Scene on the, 45.
gerous tendency of Cobbett's Schemes Cringle, Tom, his Log, 977,
of Reform exposed by Mr Jeffrey, (who Deaths, List of, 574.
now adopts them,) 987; Vindication Delta, Thomson's Birthplace, by, 127
of the present system of Representation Winter Wild, by, 327—the Early lost,
in the Edinburgh Review of 1816, by,344 The Highlander's Return, by,
991; Article against Universal Suf- 914.
frage in 1818, 996; Review of Lord Demos, 277.
John Russell's speech in 1829, 997; the Desert, Burial in the, by Mrs Hemans,
Lord Advocate's present contrasted

with his former opinions, 998; Venal Diary of a late Physician, Passages from.
and profligate character of the new vo- See Physician.
ters, 1002; effects to be expected from Early lost, the, by Delta, 344.
the Bill, if it add weight to the demo. Edinburgh Election, 867; Mr Robert
cratical interest, 1006; its effects should Adam Dundas, 869; the Lord Advo-
it increase the influence of the aristo- cate, 872 ; Petitions in favour of the
cracy, 1009.

Lord Advocate, 873; means used to
Agony of Thirty-eight Hours, by Jour- inflame the rabble in his favour, 875;

gniac St Meard, 935; Fourteen Hours abilities not the only thing to be looked
in the Committee of Surveillance de la to in a candidate, 877; Mr Croker's
Commune, 936, Ten Days in the Ab- castigation of the Lord Advocate, 878;
baye, 937; My Thirty-eight Hours' difference in the character of a Scotch
Agony, 938; the Last Crisis of my and English mob, 879; outrages after
Agony, 942.

the Election, 887; Lord Advocate's
Ambrosianæ, Noctes. See Noctes.

carriage-and-fourscore, 892; attempt
Anti-Reformers, Reformers,and-a Word to throw the Lord Provost over the

to the Wise from Old Christopher, 721. North Bridge, 893; the Lord Advo-
Arts, Fine, Ignoramus on the, No. I. 214. cate's indignation because the military
No. II, 508.

had been called in, 894 ; the placards
Azimantium, Story of, 224, 446.

intimating that the Riot Act had been
Bill, the Jacobin, a Song, 708.

read, destroyed by his order, ib. ; his
Bill, the Reform. See Reform, Revolu- Addresses to the mob, imploring them to

tion, and Parliamentary Sayings and disperse, ib. ; his Notice next day, not

threatening punishment to those who
Biron, Duke de, Fate of, 629.

had been rioting, but to such as should
Births, List of, 672.

riot in future, 896; Remarks by Senex
Budget, the Whig, 968.

on the Lord Advocate's conduct, ib.
Cabinet, the Present, in Relation to the Elections, the late in England, in a letter

Times, 143~Opinions of Earl Grey from the Whig-Hater, 1011; delusions
on Reform, 144~ Those of Lord which have been propagated, and pre-
Brougham, 153— Note on the Bishop vail, among the English yeomanry con-
of Exeter, 157.

cerning the Reform Bill, ib. ; exertions
Causeway, Giants', Sonnets on the, by of the newspaper press to produce these
Leodiensis, 342.

delusions, 1013; unpopularity of the
Champions, the Five, of Maga, a Song, Tory Lords and Gentlemen, ib. ; the
by the late Dr Scott, 271.

Tory Candidates gave way too easily,
Child, to my, 626.

1014; violence of the mobs, ib. ; the
Christmas Carol, in honour of Maga, 11. University Elections, 1015; exertions

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