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dren be well looked after; if they, other things, of promoting religion, as is now the case, ragged and bare- morals, and order. What is the exfooted, spend their time in running isting system ? An unconstitutional, about town, let the parish officers despotic police, which endangers be authorized to give them proper public freedom, and invades the clothing and put them to school, and rights and liberties of the subject, then to receive of their father's em- overruns the metropolis; and yet ployer a part of his weekly wages in the great sources of guilt, barbarism, payment, taking care that the sum and tumult, are not reached by it. be no more than a fair proportion of While it spares, it is to a large degree his earnings. This would benefit the in league with, and protects, much parents as much as the children. more than injures, them,-it places
We would confine this to the streets the moral and peaceable under dein question, and subject them in every testable espionage, insult, and oppoint to the most rigorous govern- pression. ment, in respect of both owners of In recommending proper laws, let the houses and occupiers. We would us say a word touching enforcing punish disorders and tumults with them. The clergyman is the espeunsparing severity; and, to a large cial guardian of religion and morals extent, make the owner responsible in his parish; and he is the most for the conduct of his tenants. The fitting man to keep it free from brofact is, when these barbarians enter thels, gaming-houses, and profanaa street, they drive all other people tion of the Sabbath. If the duty were out of it; the peaceable and well- specially imposed on him by lawdisposed have no recourse but flight; it is already imposed on him by a they thus congregate to stimulate much higher authority-of watching each other in profligacy, with nothing it carefully on these matters; and if to instruct and restrain them save on his information, the magistrate coercion. If they were compelled were required to collect evidence, by such government to disperse, and and put the law in operation, this seek lodgings singly in better streets, would be highly effectual. The Lonthey would then be under the ex- don clergy are in general excellent ample and restraint of orderly neigh- men, and yet we never hear of them bours and housekeepers. Every thing taking a single step against the sinks ought to be done to promote their of debauchery and licentiousness dispersion, even for their own bene- which flourish in their parishes. fit.
This cannot at any rate flow from These are the streets which sup- conscience. ply the worst of the mobs—provide The religious people of the metrothe mobs with blackguards and ruf- polis-Churchmen and Dissentersfians, and fill the metropolis with are extremely active and liberal. boys and girls, young men and wo- Let them form themselves into a 80men, of the most infamous character. ciety, subdivided into branch paro
Sunday labour ought, to the far- chial ones, for putting down the rethest point, to be vigilantly prevent- ceptacles of iniquity, and presered by law. We have already recom- ving the Sabbath from violation. Let mended that liquor-shops should not their appeals to law be cautious and be opened before one o'clock on the sparing; and their great means be, Sunday, and that they should not friendly expostulation and assistance. be suffered to sell any thing on the Let them go from house to house same day to be consumed in them, amidst the lower orders, to reclaim save in special cases.
the drunkard, reform the SundayOur general objects in all this are labourer, and civilize the barbarous -1. The suppression of the houses family. Let them freely give chariwhich form the schools and bul- table aid when necessary, and strain warks of vice and crime. 2. The every nerve, both by providing seats, severe, incessant watching of the and all other means, to induce the barbarous, demoralized houses and lower classes to attend divine worstreets, for the purpose of improving ship. We tell them, the aspect of the character of, and duly dispersing, the times demands that they should their inhabitants. And, 3. The pro- provide, not only schools for chilhibition of drinking and working on dren, but churches and chapels for the Sabbath, as a great means, amidst adults-not only distribute Bibles,
but cause them to be read—think ceiving it, should regularly attend less of the ignorant heathen abroad, some place of worship. and more of the debauched heathen 3. Regular attendance at divine at home-labour less to convert fo- service, might most properly be rereigners, and more to civilize their quired of all persons receiving parish own countrymen.
relief. This would be highly instruThere is a matter which we would mental in making such attendance strongly press on the attention of the habitual among the lower orders. exalte I and opulent part of our love If ladies of rank and opulence were ly countrywomen. Very many ser to form themselves into societies, for vant girls are annually driven to pro- the purpose of distributing twice, or stitution in the metropolis by want. only once, in the year, articles of They lose their places, perhaps, from clothing to the wives and children of no fault of their own-they are often the more needy labourers, it would refused characters, when those who be highly beneficial. They might ought to give them are more blame restrict their bounty to women of able than themselves—they have no good morals, and regular attendants friends—they go into lodgings, pawn at a place of worship. Such ladies their clothes, get into debt, and are are extremely charitable, but they then forced on the town. We speak do not use their gifts as a means of of that which is not rare, but which promoting morals. To a large exoccurs continually. It is useless to tent, the wives of the labouring say they have parishes, because they classes in the metropolis are about will not, and often cannot, go to them. as partial to liquor, and as irreligiIf the ladies, to whom we speak, ous, as their husbands. When this is would form an establishment for pro- looked at, with reference to the viding female servants out of place charge which rests on them in regard with board, lodging, and needlework, to their children, every one will adon their producing reasonable evi- mit that it calls loudly for remedy. dence of their virtue and honesty, Who is so fitting to administer such we are sure it would be highly bene- remedy as the more exalted part of ficial to society. It would be the their own sex? more beneficial, if open to all young, In all this, do not look at the mefemales of such character in want of tropolis as a huge undivided whole. employment.
If the magistrates of Westminster be To a large extent, marriage is now in many respects grossly inefficient, dispensed with among the lower why not give it a corporation, on a orders of the metropolis. The me- proper model, for the purpose of sup.chanic must have his mistress as well plying it with competent ones ? If as the gentleman; and great numbers need be, why not do the same in live together as man and wife, with- Southwark?' After giving to each out being married. We mention the grand division a local government, evil, and leave it to others to provide strong in both physical and moral a remedy.
power, give one to each parish ; and With regard to the attendance of where the parishes are too large, dithese orders at divine service, much vide them into districts, and give one might be done by the following to each of the latter. means :-). Masters might stipulate Nothing is of greater importance for it with their workmen; a man to society than good parish governthinks it necessary to send his do- ment, and few things are more nemestic servants regularly to church, glected. Select vestries have been although their general conduct is al- in many matters beneficial, but they ways under his eye; but he makes have become such a source of divino effort whatever to send his work- sion and contention, that they permen and their families thither, al- haps now produce more evil than though a large part of their conduct good. A few active executory offiis free from his inspection. This cers, invested with proper powers, gross inconsistency ought to be aban seem preferable to a parochial pardoned.
liament. The great deficiency of 2. Benevolent assistance to indivi- parish government at present is, it duals and families, might be given on pays scarcely any attentionto mothe express condition, that those re rals. If each church had acertain
number of surrounding streets as
from the better ones-and peace, signed it as a district, and it were saying nothing of order, is only mainmade the duty of the clergyman, and tained by brute force. This is a local a few individuals appointed to act tyranny; its fruits are vice, demowith him, to keep the district free ralization, turbulence, barbarism, disfrom low brothels, &c.-enforce pro- affection, and every thing that can per conduct in places of public resort produce a general tyranny. -watch the morals of the barbarous With regard to country places, we streets — repress drunkenness and will only say a word. In the North Sunday labour-cause the lower or- of England the unmarried servants ders to attend divine worship,&c.&c., board and lodge, and the married this would yield the greatest advan ones board, in the house of the fartages. The latter would be largely mer. This is invaluable, in the first increased, if the wealthy inhabitants place, for giving them instruction; of the district would combine for the in the second, for placing their mopurposes we have described. By ral and general conduct under prothus breaking the population into per control; and, in the third, for small parts, it might, as a whole, be uniting them with their betters. kept in the best state of moral and What flows from it ? A virtuous, political feeling, and also in the best peaceable, well-affected, and, to a circumstances.
very large extent, religious peasantThis would be highly serviceable ry. In the South of England, the in procuring the requisite knowledge servants, single and married, do not of applicants for parish relief, al. board and lodge with the farmer; though the large parishes should not they never enter his house to gain be thus divided in respect of the knowledge, and they are, saving Poor-rates : it would give to every what relates to their labour, indeparish full knowledge of the charac- pendent of him in conduct. What ter and circumstances of its poorer is the fruit ? A vicious, barbarous, inhabitants individually, and thereby disloyal, and criminal peasantry. We prevent much imposition and abuse. need not dwell on the lesson this Our conviction is, that it would di- supplies; but we will say, it proves minish the Poor-rates materially, abundantly, that if there be not mo
In thus giving to the clergyman ral, there must be tyrannical, governpowers and duties in all things re ment. lating to religion and morals, it would The country is now called on to be better to separate him from other decide between popular government parts of parish government. and the contrary-between self-go
What we have said touching the vernment, and a virtually independmetropolis, is equally applicable to ent Executive-between the govern. all large places." Great manufactu- ment of opinion, feeling, habit, and ring and trading towns have sprung influence, and that of Ainty law and up in all directions since the found- hired mercenaries. Let it be assured, ing of corporations ceased; and they that if it select the new system, the have nothing worthy of being called local tyranny will very speedily crelocal government. On the one hand, ate a general despotism. The trusting there are vast combined masses of of every thing to restrictive law and the working classes in a great mea- police, must, in the nature of things, sure independent of their employ- separate the lower classes still more ers; and, on the other, a high con from their superiors, and sink them stable or bailiff
, a few magistrates, deeper in irreligion and barbarism. perhaps hired ones, and a police, Bad as the present generation of destitute of moral weight, and ruling them has become, it was reared in only by coercion; religion and mo better times, and it received instrucrals are disregarded the mass of tion and feelings which it cannot the poor cannot enter a church-pri- wholly get rid of; but what is to be vate charity is little attended to- expected from the next? The quesrevolutionary newspapers are about tion, what kind of men and women the only sources of political instruc- will the children of these classes be? tion-Sunday labour is made almost ought to make every friend of the necessary by hunger—the lower or- empire tremble. ders are separated and estranged Let us, then, like our fathers, live
without this disguised martial law, ciency of the precious metals, when these spies, informers, and sub-ty- the country has for years had an unrants. Like them, let us be ruled by exampled excess of them; and far morals and feelings, by the virtues of be from us the greater folly of beall classes, and by keeping the poor lieving that the corn law is an evil, in friendly communication and union and that the taxes form the only with their superiors.
obstacle to a free trade in corn; and But where is the ground for hope? far be from us the worse than folly Previously to late years, when the of leaping, in the course of a few government was really a popular months, from one set of opinions to one, a new law was at once repeal- another. Judging from the debate ed, if it were injurious or distasteful on Lord Wynford's motion for ento public feeling; in proof, we may quiry, the present Ministry is now point to a new marriage law, and to the only party of character willing many others. But the laws fabrica- to save what is left of property and ted in these days, are declared to be, subsistence. like those of the Medes and Persians, We say, who can trust a Whig unalterable. A new system or sta- Ministry? because the past affords tute operates destructively, and is no ground for trust–because the condemned by the mass of the po- Whigs have a bad character to get pulation ; but no matter, Parliament rid of, and a good one to establish. has adopted it, therefore it must be We tell the new Ministers that they preserved. The main defence of all are not trusted; and yet that all men pernicious legislation now is, Par- are anxious to trust them, provided liament voted certain resolutions in they will prove by their conduct that one year, and sanctioned certain they deserve it. In this anxiety we principles in another; the public in- share, and grieved shall we be, if terests and feelings must be disre- they give us cause to oppose them. garded. Public men and Parliaments But to gain that confidence which are now in their own eyes infallible; the community at large wishes to and one of them must not, if even bestow on them, they must look at the salvation of the empire depends something more than abstract docon it, undo what another has done. trine. Instead of floundering about This is one of the most despotic and in vague generalities touching the detested violations of the spirit of precious metals, bank-notes, and the constitution which modern times machinery, they must go to work have seen; and it is absurd to say, like men of business; they must ask that where it prevails, there is popu- the farmer separately what he finds lar government. Of course, the es- in bis market to prevent his getting tablishment of the New Police will, proper prices, not only for his corn, we imagine, be pronounced a suffi- but also for his cattle, wool, tallow, cient reason for retaining it.
and other produce; in like manner, Yet, if the Whig doctrines touch- they must ask of every producer ing a standing army-the employ- separately, what he finds in his ment of the military-public opi- market to cripple his trade, and nion-popular rights, privileges, and grind down his prices. By this they government-and the power of the will soon discover causes and remeCrown, be not wholly fable ;-if the dies. Whigs have not abandoned the es- As friends, we tell these Ministers sence of Whiggism for the reverse; further, that names are now nothing the Whig Ministry is bound to sup- —that it will do no longer to plead press the New Police and stipendiary principles and systems, the work of magistrates, and to restore to Eng- predecessors, and their own past land her popular government.
sanction-and that they must reBut who can trust a Whig Ministry? move loss and suffering, or lose office
It is not from hostility to the pre- to themselves, and the monarchy to sent Cabinet, that we put the ques- the country. The times are perilous tion. We, at least, think it the best infinitely beyond what the Legislaamidst the bad, and more trust-wor- ture seems to dream of; and, alas thy than any other party. Far be for all ! if remedy be again refused from us the folly of believing that until extorted by insurrection. public distress flows from a defi
PASSAGES FROM THE DIARY OF A LATE PHYSICIAN.
The Turned Head-The Wife.
THE TURNED HEAD,
sistency in the delusion, in spite of
the incipient rebuttals of sensation. HYPOCHONDRIASIS,* Janus-like, has In short, when once a crotchet, of two faces-amelancholy and a laugh such a sort as that hereafter menable one. The former, though oftener tioned, is fairly entertained in the seen in actual life, does not present fancy, the patient will not let it go! itself so frequently to the notice of It is cases of this kind which baffle the medical practitioner as the lat- the adroitest medical tactician. For ter; though, in point of fact, one as my own part, I have had to deal imperatively calls for his interference with several during the course of my as the other. It may be safely as- practice, which, if described coolly serted, that a permanently morbid and faithfully on paper, would apmood of mind invariably indicates a pear preposterously incredible to a disordered state of some part or non-professional reader. Such may other of the physical system; and possibly be the fate of the following: which of the two forms of hypo- I have given it with a minuteness of chondria will manifest itself in a par- detail, in several parts, which I think ticular case, depends altogether upon is warranted, by the interesting nature the mental idiosyncrasy of the patient. of the case, by the rarity of such narThose of a dull, phlegmatic tempera- ratives,-and, above all, by the pement, unstirred by intermixture and culiar character and talents of the collision with the bustling activities well-known individual who is the of life, addicted to sombrous trains patient; and I am convinced that no of reflection, and, by a kind of sym one would laugh more heartily over pathy, always looking on the gloomy it than he himself-had he not long side of things, generally sink, at some lain quiet in his grave! period or other of their lives, into You could scarcely look on Nthe “slough of despond”-as old without laughing. There was a sorry Bunyan significantly terms it-from sort of humorous expression in his whence they are seldom altogether odd and ugly features, which suggestextricated. Religiousenthusiasts con- ed to you the idea that he was always stitute by far the largest portion of struggling to repel some joyous those afflicted with this species of emotion or other, with painful effort. hypochondria-instance the wretch. There was the rich light of intellect ed Cowper; and such I have never in his eye, wbich was dark and full known entirely disabused of these —you felt when its glance was settled dreadful fantasies. Those, again, upon you :—and there it remained of a gay and lively fancy, ardent concentrated, at the expense of all temperament, and droll, grotesque the other features;- in the clumsy appetencies, exhibit the laughable osseous ridge of eye-bone impendaspect of hypochondriasis. In such, ing sullenly over his eyes—the Pittyou may expect conceits of the most like nose, looking like a finger and astounding absurdity that could pos- thumb full of dough drawn out from sibly take possession of the topsy, the plastic mass, with two ill-formed turvied intellects of a confirmed holes inserted in the bulbous extrelunatic; and persisted in with a per- mity-and his large liquorish, shapetinacity-a dogged defiance of evi- less lips-looked altogether anything dence to the contrary-which is it- but refined or intellectual. He was a self as exquisitely ludicrous, as dis man of fortune-an obstinate bachetressing and provoking. There is lor--and was educated at Cambridge, generally preserved an amazing con where he attained considerable dis
* Arising, as its name imports, from disease in the hypo-chondres (itò córðgos) i.e. the viscera lying under the cartilage of the breast-bone and false ribs, the liver, spleen, &c.