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All the officers examined by the this infamous den of deception, deCommittee, condemn Sierra Leone lusion, extravagance, waste, pestias unfit for any useful purpose, and lence, and death, or the system for give the most unqualified and deci- which it was established ? He must ded testimony in favour of the salu- be a bold man indeed who will do brity and fertility of Fernando Po, and of its superiority over Sierra National insanity, my Lord Duke, Leone in every respect, for any pur was never before exhibited to the pose that this country can require in world in more striking and in more its future connexion with Africa. remarkable characters, than it has The delusive tales of free labour on been in the conduct pursued by this the coast of Africa are also complete country in whatever concerns our ly set at rest by the reports in ques- settlements on the coast of Africa, tion, but more particularly so from and whatever relates to our West the following extract from a letter, India Colonies. In the former we dated 1st May, 1829, from Lieut. have, after repeated violations of the Colonel Finlay to R. W. Hay, Esq.: law of nations, and in the face of all
rational counsel and advice, spent “ I beg leave to state to you, for the millions, many millions of money, not information of the Right Honourable the only to no purpose, but absolutely, Secretary of State, that a great portion of after a labour of forty years, left the inhabitants of St Mary's, in the Gambia, are composed of SLAVES belonging to things where we found them, and the French of Goree and Senegal, who have, at last, been compelled to acresort to the British settlement for em.
knowledge, not only that the Afriployment; and although many of them
cans, whom we have, at such a vast have resided on the settlement for years,
expense, collected in Sierra Leone, they are strongly attached to their owners, have not improved in character, inand regularly remit to them the produce dustry, and civilisation, but that they of their labours, which draws a large sum never can improve, (see Mr Macof money out of the settlement annually." ORMICK's evidence, a friend to the
place, in the official report already This, my Lord Duke, is a new and referred to,) unless we cease to bring a remarkable fact, but what is more any more of their brutal and barremarkable is, that while French barous countrymen amongst them! slaves are permitted to labour in this This is the result of forty years' lamanner in British settlements on the bour, and the expenditure of upwards Coast of Africa, French slaves, who of ten millions of money! With recome from French colonies to any gard to the latter, the West India CoBritish colony in the West Indies, are Ionies, we have, in order to benefit confiscated and liberated. Whence the former quarter, pursued and comes this African partiality ?
pursue a system, which paralyzes, The official report last alluded to crushes, and destroys that vast confirms, in the fullest manner, the branch of British capital, trade, and fact, that the slave trade is actually, industry, which had been planted in at this moment, carrying on in Sierra them, and not only so, but while Leone, almost openly, and with ap- thus forcing on the ruin of British probation. But this is not all. Is subjects and British property in these your Grace aware that Major Rick• possessions, we are driving. British Etts, lately governor of the place, capital, withdrawn from them, into has brought with him to the Colonial the cultivation of foreign countries, Office a petition, signed by almost thereby giving employment to the all the Nova Scotians and Maroons population of those countries instead in the place, PRAYING, in the most of our own, and also creating wealth, earnest manner, that they may be capital, and trade to those countries, carried away from it, and sent to Ja- at the expense of our own. My Lord maica, and placed upon any estate Duke, the fact is notorious, that great that Governinent may choose in that London capitalists have lately been, island !! What can the advocates of and are at this moment, investing this wretched place say to these large sums of money, on the security facts, or where is the minister or the of slave-cultivated sugar estates in legislator who will, after such dis Louisiana and in the Brazils. How closures, stand forward and defend humiliating must it be to British states,
men to have it thus shewn unto them, property. Having done this, Mr Horthat British subjects consider their ton proceeds in a tone wholly unbe. capital, when fixed and employed in coming the statesman of a free coundistant foreign countries, more se try, to inform his readers, that unless cure than it is, or can be, under the the old British Colonies surrender dominion of their own country ! their birthright and privileges as
It might have been prudent and Britons, and submit to be ruled as politic in this country never to have the conquered colonies are ruled, had any thing to do with colonies so that “their ruin would be as inevipeopled and so cultivated, as our table as the case of the infatuated tropical colonies are, and it may now Ministry of Charles the Tenth ;": be politic and prudent to abandon and, moreover, " that they might dethem. The first point I am not called pend upon it, they will neither have upon to discuss, neither am I called success nor pity,” if they perish in upon to discuss or to determine the their attempts to resist such autholatter, further than to observe and to rity. maintain, that having established Mr Horton never attempts to shew these colonies, the property in them the justice of the application of this can neither be destroyed nor taken authority. On the contrary, he tells away without a fatal departure from us, that “ they are not called upon to true national policy, 'and the most approve of the change” which its approfligate violation of national cha- plication will create, but, nevertheracter, honour, and justice.
Iess, that it must be obeyed. No act of The government recommended Polignac or his colleagues, or of any and called for by all the Anti-colo- other ministry, however “ infatua. nists for our Colonies is a pure and ted,” ever can be compared, in danunmixed despotism. Mr Twiss, late ger and folly, to Mr Horton's threatUnder Secretary for the Colonies, enings. The framers of the Orders when lately writing to MR STEWART, in Council were, in fact, the Poligof the Treasury, about the liberated nacs and "infatuated” ministry, and Africans, who swarm idle in our Co- not the ill-treated and ill-ruled cololonies, stated, that if they did not nies. forthwith become industrious and In order that the colonists"
may independent,“ the Crown would re- have the country with them, to seSUME ITS ARBITRARY DISPOSAL of cure them equitable compensation them,” in order, as Sir George Mur- for loss,” Mr Horton requires of ray, in a circular letter, states, that them-for such is the real meaning of they might be “ constrained to la- the words, when the declarations are bour.” If these British pets, the free stripped of the veil thrown over blacks, are to be thus governed, what them by the jargon,“ public opinion" are the white Colonists to expect that, after having denuded themfrom the sway of a country, the ears selves of a large portion of their proof which are every hour poisoned perty, they should in future, and in against them ?-What are they to ex order to make African savages induspect—but that which they feel- trious, moral, and civilized, apply pamely, degradation, insult, and their time, their talents, their indusruin ?
try, their capital, and their credit, to I observe, with regret, that Me enforce such regulations as the arbiHorton's first, and otherwise able and trary will of the mother-country, and excellent letter, addressed to the Elec- a prejudiced party in it, may think tors of Yorkshire, is disfigured by such necessary to accomplish their obanti-British and anti-constitutional jects ;- in other, and in a few words, principles and sentiments. He boasts that, politically speaking, the slaves how the Orders in Council had been should be emancipated, and the masenforced in the Crown Colonies, al ters constituted slaves ! Such would though these orders, by their direct in- be the results ; but such doctrines are terference with private property, vio- not yet become “public opinion” in lated the capitulations on which the Great Britain, and I trust they never colonies surrendered, and also the will. resolutions of the House of Com. “Who are the West Indians,” said mons of 1823, which both alike gua- a limb of office, “ that they should ranteed the inviolability of private complain of the proceedings of go
vernment, or consider themselves ing, proceedings of open violence entitled to dwell in streets and which go on without restraint, censquares in the West-end of London ?
sure, or punishment, in Tortola; and In early life, they were only accus- look at St Lucia, where proceedings tomed to receive bread and beer, and are going on which are an indelible they never ought to have any thing stigma to a British Government, and better.” Such is the language of men which continued must bring ruin on who, if we had not colonies and of the colony. Look at what was done fices to govern them, would never by a Judge in Grenada, and at what have had any thing but bread and was attempted by an Attorney-Gebeer, and never seen either the neral in Tobago ! Look at the imWest-end or the East-end of London. portant colony of Jamaica, connecte Their country disowns men who ed with which the Colonial Secretary trample in this manner upon the of Great Britain is compelled to infeelings of their industrious coun- sult the constitutional understandtrymen, and it would be well foring of the British empire, by placing such individuals to remember that the fables of the anonymous informer, insult from public servants is worse and the irresponsible and unconstito bear than injustice and oppres- tutional authority of the upstarts of sion.
Aldermanbury Street, above and beSuch feelings and such principles fore the enquiry, and the decisions by having obtained a seat in high places the laws and the legal tribunals of that in the mother-country, they quickly, colony! Good God, my Lord Duke, and in every shape, and on every oc- are such proceedings to be permitted casion, find their way into the co- to continue, without check or con-lonies, where they are acted upon trol, to degrade our country, and, by without shame and without compas- oppressing parts of our dominions, sion. The colonies are thus for every produce a mischief which will go to valuable purpose abandoned by the dismember our empire? Impossible! mother-country. They are oppress- From the slavery to, from the ed and fleeced at the will and plea- galling chains of, that ambitious party sure of every theorist and hypocrite. which has brought my country to Complaint is unavailing, remon- this contemptible and degraded state, strance is set down as "contumacy;" by “ SAVING HIS MAJESTY'S MINISand on which ever side we turn our TERS THE TROUBLE OF THINKING," I eyes upon our colonial possessions, pray, and most sincerely, my Lord we find injustice and oppression the Duke, in the language of the Liturgy, order of the day, and capital, indus- “ Good Lord deliver us," this try, and character in despair, lan- country, your Grace, and every guishing, and becoming heartbroken, Statesman who may in future be and extinguished under the galling called upon and appointed to direct rod which is permitted to rule them. the affairs, and to watch over the Law and justice are prostituted and interests, of this country ! trampled upon, until there is no
I am, &c. longer any security for character,
JAMES M'QUEEN. liberty, or property. Look, my Lord Glasgow, 4th Jan. Duke, at the desperate and unblush
IGNORAMUS ON THE FINE ARTS.
“ “Painting is a mystery.” Strange that Spring, the lightsome lassie, does that an art which addresses the most not wear green grogram, nor Autumn perfect of the senses should not be invest her maturer charms in a red plain as daylight. Yet the more pic- and yellow Manchester print-I was tures I see, the more I read, and hear, totally unable to make any practical and reflect about painters and their use of the knowledge, except indeed works, the more I am convinced that . to convince myself, that a precocious Pompey the clown is right in his ob- passion for pencils and colour-boxes servation. The more I seem to know, is no infallible sign of a genius for the nearer I approach the Socratic the fine arts. conviction, “ that I know nothing !" In truth, I am well contented to
I speak not of the mystery of ma be ignorant of the mechanical arcana king pictures, but of that which in- of art. Secrets of practice are provolves their merits and demerits, fitable to none but practitioners. when made. That there should be When I look on a fine picture, I technical secrets, mysteries of the would gladly forget the laborious, craft, is no more than might be ex greasy, dirty-handed process that pected. I can easily conceive, that produced so much beauty, and beto paint air, may be as difficult as to lieve it a living emanation of the inraise the wind, and that I never could spired intellect—a magic mirror of do by whistling--that middle tint, the artist's mind. What youthful poet, like other happy middles, is hard to wooing his Fancy's Queen with tender hit, and harder to keep-that a true poesy, would choose to have her witcarnation is as skilful a compound as ness to his “poetic pains”—the blots, a haggis—that to group a picture the erasures, the gnawing of his pen successfully may be as delicate a -his stolen glances at the rhyming concern as to marsbal a country dictionary, his furtive forays into the dance at a country assembly, (and Elegant Extracts,” and the “Beauthat would puzzle a modern herald, ties of the Living Poets ?” What or seneschal of the olden time,) extempore preacher would expose that the inner light of the Venetian his note-book to his congregation ? colourists may be as unaccountable as For my own part I like a good beefthe inward illumination of the elect steak, but have no desire to follow ---nay, I apprehend and appreciate it from the stall to the gridiron. I the science and dexterity which can dearly love a Christmas pantomime. distinguish a horse from a crocodile, Old Prynne and Jeremy Collier, if and a tree from a birch-broom. As their bearts were in the right place, for chiaroscuro, tone, keeping, con- (and Jeremy was a sound nonjuring tour, repose, &c. they are words Tory,) would have uncursed the which I venerate and understand as stage, had they seen the bliss of wonwell as your worthy precentor doth derment, the bright, round, rosy, inSelah, Michtham, Negonoth, or Hal- nocent faces of the children, the lelujah. Yet I doubt not they have a smug, rustic, half-childish delight of meaning, as precise and categorical country cousins, and the glorious as the polarity of moral truth. Of independence of the one-shilling galthe executive difficulties of art I may lery, at these silent dramas. But I be allowed to judge—inasmuch as, would not, like the gallants of Shakafter many years' self-instruction, and speare's days, place my stool on the six lessons from an itinerant draw. stage during the performance, for ing-master, I never could represent fear of slipping through a trap-door, a joint stool in just perspective, or nor venture behind the scenes, lest delineate the correct profile of a gib- I should forget to give Columbine bet. As for colouring, though I was her title, or mistake some venerable early aware that light and shade in Peer for Pantaloon. nature do not lie in jagged patches like the skin of a spotted negro, nor
But there is a mystery in art which
I would fain dive into—a mystery of resemble London snow, or a damsel grace, of grandeur, of harmony-a in a white gown newly emerged from power in lines and colours, which I the embraces of achimney-sweeper cannot explain, and only balf enjoy.
It never was my fortune to visit can more than believe it) that bis .the foreign seats of art, and my ac canvass glowed with the gorgeous quaintance with English collections light of prophetic vision, and melted is neither intimate nor extensive; of with the voluptuous hues of lovers' .course, therefore, my notions of the fancy—that he clothed his naked godgrand style are vague, metaphysical, desses with beauty as a garment-reor at least poetical, for engravings of vealed young seraphs trailing clouds epic or tragic pictures, are as unsa- of glory, and shed immortal sunshine tisfactory as prose versions of epic on Elysian plains. Salvator Rosapoems. They shew what the work never was man so blessed in a name! is about, not what it is. The temples - But I once did see a landscape of of Greece and Italy, sublime in de- Salvator's, which taught me what an -solation, lovely in widow's weeds, imaginative thing a landscape may are to me unreal as the hidden bowers be, when drawn by a painter, not a of Izem. I never trode the long gal- land-surveyor—by apoet-painter, not Jeries of the Escurial, where the Ti a mere portrait-maker of wood, earth, tians slumber in peaceful beauty, and water (Nature's three flat notes, ripening with mellow years. The as Sir William Chambers* called Louvre and the Luxembourg are hard them, like a flat as he was.) That words, which I dare not pronounce, shall positively be the last pun-this and scarce can spell. The Vatican, page-Such shaggy rocks-such dark the Sistine Chapel, the Florentine and ruinous caves-such spectreGallery, are fair imaginations, or ra- eyed, serpent-headed trees, wreathed ther indistinct yearnings, not so defi- and contorted into hideous mimicry nite or vivid as the hall of Valhalla. of human shape, as if by the struggles Michael Angelo is like Demogorgon, of evil spirits incarcerated in their an awful name, and that is all, trunks—such horrid depths of shade Raphael, Titian, Salvator Rosa, I --such fearful visitations of strange have heard and read of. I believe light-such horrid likenesses in them-love them—but what are they to me? Were Raphael's
miracles “Of all the mishaped half-human thoughts
That solitary nature feeds," of grace decayed-if nought remained to shew where they had been, were surely never congregated in but such quaint mockeries of shapes any local spot, assuredly not in merry as mouldy damps describe on the England, nor Scotland either, for Ró walls of a deserted mausion, I could bin Hood and “brave Rob Roy" dream of him still-still could I drearn were outlaws of another vein than of faces whose beauty was no formal
Salvator's banditti,who seem not men symmetry of outline, no bloom that of women born, nor fed with mother's Time bestows and takes away-buta milk,“nor ever dandled on a father's permanent law and generative prin- knee,” but natural kindred of the murciple of loveliness, a visible efflux of derous woods and unholy dens they divinity-still would I believe that lurk in. They are no more sib to what to me was but a dream, the fa- the free dwellers of Sherwood, than shion whereof I strove in vain to re to the gentlemen of the Beggar's call, was to Raphael a waking intui Opera. And then, such women! tion, a clear idea, distinct in part and horribly beautiful! It is pleasant to lineament, informing his skill, and talk of Corregio, Caravaggio, Julio ruling his hand, and substantiated in Romano, Carlo Dolci, Domenichino, his " human forms divine.” Had Parmegiano, and the rest of the Titian's colours been evanescent as Roman, Venetian, and Bolognese the rainbow, I could yet believe (and schools, their names are so musical. alas! the time must come, when none I have a superstitious reverence for
* See the “ Heroic Epistle," attributed to Mason, one of the most vigorous satires of latter times. One should hardly have expected it from so grave and reverend a gentleman. Yet who more grave and proper than Virgil, and he has displayed a strong satiric vein in more than one passage.
" Qui Bavium non odit--amet tua carmina, Mævi," is worth a wilderness of Baviads and Maviads. Gray, too, precise as he was, could yield the knout with a knowing spirit. See his lincs upon Tophet.