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be other than a theorist, and he is a munity, it was a deliberate insult. fanatical follower of the free-traders, This man is a servile follower of the which is far worse than if he were á very worst doctrines of the very head. He is the Chancellor of the worst Economists—he is publicly Exchequer and Leader of the House pledged against every iota of protecof Commons !
tion to either property or labourWho is Lord Auckland ? asks every he has always manifested a spirit publication;-who is Lord Auckland? which ought never to be found in echoes every member of the com an English Minister-and his parliamunity; and the only reply is mentary speeches have scarcely raiLord Auckland is one of Lord sed him to the third class of politiBrougham's people; moreover, he is cians : yet he is not only the Viceone of the M'Culloch people of the President of the Board of Trade, but, London University, and belongs to according to appearances, the real the Liberals of the Society for Diffu. President also. sing Useful Knowledge; but beyond Are we to be told that Sir J. Graham this, nothing is known of Lord Auck would not have made a more caland! Here, then, is an individual pable Chancellor of the Exchequer who is totally unknown to the coun- than Lord Althorpe-that the Duke try-who is an utter stranger as a of Richmond, who is known to the public man-who never opens his country, and in some respects tried, lips in the Legislature—whose talents would not have made a better head and creed are involved in mystery, of the Board of Trade than the unand who has never put forward the known Lord Auckland—and that a slightest legitimate claim, to entitle Vice-President infinitely superior to him to the meanest office-placed in Mr P. Thompson could not have been almost the most important office in discovered ? No; the audacity of tellthe Ministry ;—that of President of ing us this, will not be ventured on the Board of Trade. What has pro- by any person. Farther, will any one duced this most gross and scandalous say that Lord Althorpe would not do job? for that cannot be other than as well at the head of the Admiralty such a job, which, in the present state as Sir J. Graham; and that Lord of the country, has given such an of- Auckland would not be as efficient fice to such a man. Are we to find in the Post-office as the Duke of its parentage in Lord Brougham's Richmond ? No. anxiety to provide for his friends, Thus, then, leading offices are fillor in the learned Aristocrat's magna- ed by the least competent, and by nimous resolve to be both Lord Chan- very incompetent, men, merely that cellor and President of the Board of one set of opinions may prevail Trade, or in the paternal solicitude against another-that the professed of the whole Cabinet to create a man opponents of the Economists in the of straw, for the benefit of Mr P. Cabinet may have no influence. In Thompson? If not, where can it be regard to disputed points, there is no discovered ?
division of power; but on the conA President of the Board of Trade trary, all is withheld from the one like this has, as his Vice-President, side and given to the other. In so Mr P. Thompson. The latter is the far as there is a party in the Cabinet gentleman who, in former Parlia- opposed to the free-traders and bulments, fought with such desperation lionists, it forms but a stalking-horse in favour of the destructive changes to blind and delude the country; the which benefited the foreign trade he party it pretends to oppose, monopowas engaged in as a merchant-stood Jize every office requisite for enabling between the petitions of the ship- them to give effect to their doctrines. owners, &c., and the legislature- Still the Corn Law is to be saved, and defended Mr Huskisson and Mr For this we are devoutly thankful; Grant, by insulting and defaming but how long is it to be saved ? Earl their victims. The appointment of Grey, the Duke of Richmond, and this person to the office he holds, Sir J. Graham, intrench themselves excited general disgust and indigna- in this law, and surrender every tion; even the more sober friends of thing else ; they give a part to save free trade were ashamed of it; to a part; the other side is only allowvarious important parts of the com ed to take the fortifications at first;
but in this it gets sufficient for insu. It is manifestly a mockery and deluring its possession of the whole. It sion. It is coupled with a counteris ridiculous to think that this law pledge equally solemn, which alone can be preserved, if other protec- is to be redeemed. Demonstration tions are to be destroyed.
is before the eyes of all, that it canIn consequence of all this, the not and will not be more than a Ministry has, in general matters, dis- broken promise. abled itself for accomplishing any But perhaps Ministers intend to thing, save public evil, and its own remove the causes of suffering withruin. Earl Grey solemnly pledged out enquiry. Well, what have they himself at the outset, that the fullest done already ? The constitution of enquiry should be made into the this country is a most distasteful causes of public suffering. He has thing to the low Whigs and Liberals; ever since strenuously resisted all no sooner does Mr P. Thompson Parliamentary enquiry, saving the bang on himself the habiliments of Marquis of Salisbury's motion, which office, than in virtue of his own he and the Duke of Richmond were “ economic science," or of “ educabound to before they gained office, tion,” drawn by Lord Auckland from and which only relates to the pau- the London University, or Society pers of certain districts. But then for Diffusing Useful Knowledge, be he pledged himself that government places it under his feet, and strips would enquire :-if you plead this, Parliament of its power over taxalook, we beseech you, at his means tion:-why? Is he so anxious to subof redemption. All sides, including stitute prosperity for loss—to give the noble Premier himself, declare bread to the hungry, and raiment to that the suffering has been in a con- the naked, that his benevolent soul siderable degree produced by the cannot brook the delay of Parliachange of currency; of course it at mentary formalities ? It is to heap. least will be rigidly scrutinised by additional misery on the heads of government. No! asserts the Pre- the many thousands engaged in the mier, and his words are repeated by manufacture of kelp, by reducing the Chancellor of the Exchequer- the duty on barilla. this cause of suffering shall be sacred Thus the first act of this distressfrom the profane gaze of enquiry. removing Ministry is to increase Landowners and farmers are sus- public distress—the Duke of Riche taining great loss, and it is alleged mond's “conservative party” begins that it flows largely from the change its career with a work of destrucof Corn Law: this, therefore, will of tion. Let us look a little more at necessity be investigated. No, says this trumpery experiment—this weak Earl Grey, this cause must only be and wicked violation of promise and touched by enquiry at a future time, pledge. with a view to its enlargement. The
Our readers are aware that the lead-miners have been long in great removal or reduction of a duty fremisery, and the cause here will quently causes a rise of price which doubtlessly be sought. No, says Mr counterbalances it. Leather was lateP. Thompson, we will neither en- ly exempted from duty, and the fruits quire nor regard facts forced on us are, hides have risen, shoes are as respecting it. Will enquiry seek the dear as ever, and the benefits are cause which distresses the people monopolized by foreigners, butchers, employed in the manufacture of tanners, &c. Barilla is used in the kelp? No; Mr P. Thompson declares manufacture of soap, and so is talthat the cause here shall be increased low. If one ingredient in an article without enquiry. In a similar man- be cheapened by the removal of ner, Ministers are rigidly bound, not duty, it is pretty sure to cause a rise only from enquiry, but also from of price, bot! in this and other ingrenoticing voluntary evidence, no mat- dients, particularly if it give the least ter how conclusive, respecting the impulse to consumption. The remost important of the alleged causes duction of duty will add something of public suffering.
to the price of barilla, and the benefit What then becomes of the Pre- here, saving for the moment, will go mier's solemn pledge in favour of mainly to foreigners. Tallow, from the most comprehensive enquiry? the comparatively small number of houses to which the bulk of its im- mon facts, the knowledge of which portation is confined, is, to a consi- is essential for preventing deduction derable extent, under a monopoly, from being false and destructive. It which can regulate its price almost will, moreover, throw light on the at pleasure: a great rise in its price, imbecility, nay, the guilt of legislaconfessedly made by monopoly, has ting on these wretched generalities, therefore very naturally accompanied without reference to facts and cirthe reduction of duty on barilla, and cumstances, when the latter are in the benefit of it must go chiefly to different cases the reverse of each foreigners, merchants, butchers, &c. other.
Thus the gain from this exquisite It is pleaded by Ministers in their morsel of relief from taxation, will defence, that in this barilla matter be principally, if not wholly, mono- they have only done what their prepolized by foreigners, merchants, decessors had resolved to do. Why soap-makers, and butchers. Are they was the Ministry changed, if they in such distress, that it must be mi- gained office to imitate their predetigated, by taking away the bread of cessors? They, however, have made the labouring classes ? Complaint the matter their own in principle. speaks not in the affirmative. If soap Let us now glance at another of be cheapened, let it be remembered their acts. Great as the errors of Mr that the paltry gain to one part of Canning and Mr Huskisson were, the community is bought with the they yet both saw correctly the posiheavy loss of another. The matter tion in which America stood towards concerns more than one kind of ma- this country, and they constantly nufacturers; tallow is an article of shewed a wish to add nothing to her some moment to candle-makers, and power which peace would justify it is consumed to a vast extent by them in withholding. After their machinery; consequently, if its price vigorous and wise stroke for exclube raised, the matter will stand thus ding her ships from the West India -the duty will in effect be taken off colonies, they took ground which barilla and laid on tallow; one part almost precluded negotiation for the of the manufacturers will be injured re-admission of these ships. The as much as another will be benefited, imbecile Wellington Ministry naand the community at large will lose turally disregarded this, and conclumore in dear candles than it will ded a treaty with her, as its scribes gain in cheap soap:
say, without thinking of shipping; Contrast this with what a reduc- this treaty, of course, expels British tion of duty on soap, sugar, and si- ships from the carrying trade in familar articles would have been. Such vour of hers, and places her, as her reduction on soap would have in- President asserts, in more favourable jured no one; it would have been circumstances than ever. To what clear gain to all. The case would portentous cause is it owing that, in have been the same with sugar; not every negotiation between England a soul would have been deprived of and America, the former is betrayed capital, profit, or employment; but and despoiled, to place the latter in the whole community would have better circumstances than ever ? To been benefited; if sugar had risen, this agreement for sacrificing British the profit would have gone, not to ships to American ones, was appendforeigners, but to his Majesty's co- ed another, for imposing protecting lonial subjects, and from them it duties on American produce admitwould have partly returned to the ted into the West India islands, in population at home.
favour of similar produce of British This will shew the absurdity of Mr America. P. Thompson's wild generalities, that Well, it might have been hoped raw produce used in manufactures that America had got enough in reought not to be taxed, &c. These spect of her shipping, and that, after generalities are more frequently false befooling Mr Herries and his brethan true. That tremendous mass thren, she would not have an opporof errors which is called the science tunity of befooling a second set of of political economy, is really a body official sages in the selfsame negotiof deductions formed in utter igno- ation. Alas! what can escape illrance of three-fourths of those com- luck! Just after the treaties, per
VOL, XXIX, NO, CLXXVII.
fectly completed, are laid before and evils. They will be delighted Parliament, the Grey Ministry as with his proposal, but he must not sumes being; it of course warmly hope that it will be wholly acceded sanctions that for transferring the to. The Cabinet must be consulted, carrying trade from British to Ame- and in all probability Earl Grey, Sir rican shipping; but the other fares J. Graham, and the Duke of Richdifferently. What! that Lord Al- mond, will demur; the latter, howthorpe, who is so passionate an “ad- ever, on being pressed by their colmirer” of Mr Hume's principles of leagues, will doubtless consent for free trade-that Lord Auckland, who him to have part; and if he shew is the associate of Professor M‘Cul- common dexterity, we imagine he loch-that Mr P. Thompson, who may gain all save Nova Scotia. maintains that industry, like the Thus far we have no more acts to “ mountain plant,” thrives the best look at, therefore we turn to other without shelter and aliment, approve things. Ministers are making every of a treaty which gives advantages to thing fly before them in the way of British colonies at the expense of a retrenchment, and are even surrenforeign nation! No-no, political dering a part of their own salaries. economy shudders at the enormity. We say that retrenchment ought to These scientific statesmen can carry be carried as far as possible; but in into effect a mere intention of the saying this, we must soberly enquire late Ministry touching barilla, be- what quantum of relief can be drawn cause the evils will fall solely on from it; and the crime shall not be British inhabitants; but they must ours of asserting that it will remove annul a completed treaty, because it distress and disaffection. The nature is intended to operate for such inha- of things demonstrates that it is utbitants against foreigners. The trea- terly impossible for reduction of ty is hastily withdrawn, and the ne taxes to afford any sensible relief to gotiation is reopened, solely to injure national loss and want. Ten times British colonies for the benefit of more taxes have been repealed in America. And what America ? That the last fifteen years than these Miwhich equals Britain in quality and nisters can repeal, yet the population tonnage of shipping-always dis- is far more distressed than it was plays a hostile spirit
to her-and is when it had the whole to pay. A only separated by a disputed bound- large amount was removed in the ary-line from some of her most va last year, yet the cry of distress conluable colonies, is a near neighbour tinues, and discontent has been fearof others, and asserts even through fully enlarged. Is there the slightest her rulers a natural right to the ground for believing that if even whole.
four or five millions be removed in The American negotiator is evi- the current year, it will have any dently, in cupidity and craft, a ge- material effect in abating suffering, nuine scion of Brother Jonathan; but and subduing dangerous feelings? still, perhaps, he does not wholly A more astonishing and humiliaknow the men he has to deal with. Letting spectacle was never seen in the him take a hint even from us. Mr world than this-in such a boasting P. Thompson belongs to the school age as the present one, the British which holds that the colonies of this government and legislature, amidst country form a pernicious burden to national loss, hunger, convulsion, and her. Lord Auckland must be a dis- revolution, content themselves with ciple of it also, of course, and so bawling“retrenchment!" and assertmust Lord Althorpe, he being such ing that a paltry reduction of taxes a devoted admirer of Mr Hume's po- must form the only, and the infallilitical economy. Let Jonathan, then, ble, remedy. In charity to the inpropose to these Ministers, that, as tellect of man, let us for once have a Britain is in such great suffering, his government and legislature of old country, with such generosity as only women! we are sure they would disa republic could exhibit, will gratui- play infinitely more knowledge and tously reliere her from the ruinous wisdom than have been found in the burden formed by her American co male ones of late years. Jonies—will actually, without equi The important question now comes valent, take the ownership of these before us--what taxes will Ministers colonies and all its attendant losses repeal ?. Mr P. Thompson's scheme, as
he developed it lasť session, is, to for its sins doomed to overthrow, remove duties from articles used in such a man could scarcely have gainmanufactures. Many of these duties possession of the Board of Trade. are protecting ones; therefore, like This is one of the principles of which that on barilla, their abolition cannot Lord Althorpe is so passionate an benefit one producer, without inju- admirer; and we may safely take for ring another. Others are duties of granted, that it is an immense farevenue, and their removal would vourite with the mute Lord Aucknot enable the manufactured articles land. From, therefore, their pledges they bear on to sustain foreign com- and acts, it must be the policy of petition, or to be sufficiently reduced Ministers to continually sweep away in price to yield general relief. In protection. Commencing with the great part they rest on imported com colonies, they are at this moment modities. It may almost be taken as striking a deadly blow at the trade, an axiom, that price must be in some property, and labour of the North degree raised by repeal of duty; of American ones. Slavery must be course the relief gained by repeal- abolished, and foreign sugar admiting the duties in question must, to a ted for home consumption, almost large extent, go to foreigners. Far- immediately; and this can hardly ther, the repeal will injure some, as fail of plunging the West India ones much as it will benefit other parts into ruin. Then, to bring British Inof the community, in many cases;
dia and the other colonies into the and in other cases, the profit will be vortex of calamity, the discriminaconfined to manufacturers and the ting duties on cotton, &c. &c. must wealthy classes. Ministers, there. cease to exist. fore, will make such a reduction of At home, all this must have mighty taxes, as will not reach, in any sensi effect in enlarging suffering. The ble degree, the losing and starving abolition of the discriminating dupart of the community; on the con ties on timber, and various other cotrary, it will frequently add to dis- lonial productions, must operateruintress in one quarter, by giving relief ously to the shipping interest and not needed in another.
all connected with it, chiefly to enThis is not the whole. Ministers rich foreign producers of different are pledged to an immediate settle- kinds, and foreign shipowners. The ment of the slavery question, and it loss to one part of the community will is acknowledged by their adherents, not be counterpoised by gain to anthat it must give compensation to the other; on the contrary, the gain will colonists for the loss of their slaves. be principally reaped by foreigners. If such compensation be paid by an Then every interest in detail must nual instalments, it will, for some have suffering heaped on it. The years, exceed in amount any reduc- kelp manufacturers are now smitten; tion that can be made in taxes. Of from them the blow will pass in succourse, retrenchment can produce cession to the silk throwsters, linen no decrease of taxation.
manufacturers, producers of butter, The childish, silly, guilty cry of cheese, and salted provisions, hopRetrenchment and Economy, kept growers, &c. &c., until it reaches the up by Ministers, is, in motive and heart of agriculture. object, mockery and delusion. It We need not appeal to common feeds the spirit of revolution in every sense; we have only to look at the way; and it is resorted to for the history of late years for the most conpurpose of blinding the country to clusive proof that all this must conthe real causes of its distress, that tinually increase public suffering and this distress may be increased by the discontent. It is idle to tell us that empirics of the Cabinet.
the loss of the part must be the gain What general measures are Minis of the whole; because the whole ters bound to ? It is one of the grand must lose as much as the part. It is principles of Mr P. Thompson, as he ridiculous to speak of extracting restated in Parliament a year or two ago, lief from the repeal of taxes, because that there ought to be no protections the loss of means for paying the latof any kind-that property and labour
ter far outstrips the reduction of them. ought to be stripped of all protecting Why is the landed interest distressed duty. If this empire had not been at present, when the property-tax