gaciously touching his forehead with er, and his intellectual sensibilities his finger. 'I tell you again, it is coarser, as he advanced in years. here. As to Walter Scott, his jingle How closely he connected himself will not ourlive the next century. It with these people, we shall shew in is namby-pamby'”. Dr Parr is here the sketch we propose to give of made to speak of Sir Walter merely his political history. For the preas a poet; but for the same person, sent we turn with pleasure to his in any other character, he had no more elegant, though sometimes not higher praise in reserve. In the heroic less violent, friends, amongst the oldand chivalrous spirit of the poetry established Whig leaders. These, in of Sir Walter, we pardon the Doctor their very intemperances, maintained for taking little interest. But what the tone, breeding, and cultivation must be the condition of sense and of gentlemen. They cherished and feeling in that writer, who, without esteemed all parts of elegant letters : participating probably in the Doc- and, however much they have been tor's delusions, could yet so compla- in the habit of shocking our patriotcently report to the world a body of ism or constitutional principles, selextravagances, which terminated in dom offered annoyance to our tastes, placing himself, an author unknown as scholars and men of letters. to the public, conspicuously above Foremost amongst these, as foreone of the most illustrious writers of most in politics, stood Charles Fox. any age ! Dr Parr might perhaps His letters in this collection are uniplead the privilege of his fire-side, formly in the unpretending manner kindness for a young friend, and a which he courted: what we have sudden call upon him for some auda- too generally to regret—is the abeity to give effect and powerful ex sence of Dr Parr's answers, especialpression to his praise, as the apology ly to those letters of Mr Fox or his for his share in such absurdities; but friends, which communicated his Mr Stewart, by recording them in jeux d'esprit in Greek verse. One print, makes himself a deliberate par- of these we shall notice. Meantime, ty, under no apology or temptation as perhaps the most interesting paswhatsoever, to the whole injustice sage in the whole collection of Dr and puerility of the scene.

Parr's correspondence, we shall Mr Bentham, Dr Parr, and Mr make the following extract from a Douglas of Glasgow, are probably letter, in which Mr Fox states the the three men in Europe, who have final state of his feelings with regard found Sir Walter Scott a trifler. to Edmund Burke: the immediate Literature, in fact, and the fine arts, occasion was a plan, at that moment hold but a low rank in the estimate agitated, for raising a monument to of the modern Utilitarian republic- his memory. The date of this means. All that is not tangible, mea morable letter is Feb. 24, 1802:surable, ponderable, falls with them “ Mackintosh wrote to me upon into the account of mere levities, the subject you mention; and I think and is classed with the most frivo- he took my answer rather more Jous decorations of life: to be an favourably than he was strictly war. exquisite narrator is tantamount to ranted to do. When be said I would dressing well; a fine prose style is second the proposition, I told him about equal to a splendid equipage; support was my word. and a finished work of art is a showy “The truth is, though I do not feel piece of upholstery. In this vulgar- any malice against Burke, nor would ity of sentiment, Dr Parr could not I have in any degree thwarted any entirely accompany bis coarsest plan for his advantage or honour : friends ; for he drew largely on their though I feel the greatest gratitude indulgence himself as a trespasser in for his continued kindness to me the very worst form—he was guilty during so great a part of our lives, of writing Latin with fluency and and a strong conviction that I owe striking effect. It is certain, how to his friendship and conversation, ever, that the modern school of re a very great portion of whatever formers had an injurious effect upon either of political or oratorical merit Dr Parr's literary character, by draw- my friends suppose me 10 have dising out and strengthening its hardest played ; notwithstanding all this, I features. His polities became harsh- must own, that there are some parts

of his conduct that I cannot forgive Monstrous as we must consider so entirely as perhaps I ought, and this view of Mr Burke's conduct, as I wish to do.

which, under every provocation from “His public conduct may have ari- the underlings of Mr Fox's party, sen from mistaken motives of right, continued irreproachably honourable carried to a length to which none but towards those whom he had been persons of his ardent imagination compelled (and whom others had would have pursued them. But the been compelled) to abandon,--still, letter to the Duke of Portland and under the perverse prejudices which Lord Fitzwilliam, with the worst had possession of Mr Fox, we must possible opinion of me, is what I ne- allow his temper and his conduct, as ver can think of without sensations here stated by himself, to have been which are as little habitual to me as sincere, manly, and liberal. That to most men. To attempt to destroy he did not speak with more fervour me in the opinion of those whom I of admiration, in summing up the so much value, and in particular claims of a man so immeasurably that of Fitzwilliam, with whom I beyond bis contemporaries in the had lived in the strictest friendship fineness and compass of his underfrom our infancy; to attempt it too, standing, is not to be imputed to at a time and in a way which made jealousy of his powers, or to the it almost certain that they would smothered resentments which Mr not state the accusation to me, and Fox acknowledges—but entirely to consequently, that I should have no the extreme plainness, simplicity, opportunity to defend myself—this and almost homely character of his was surely not only malice, but base- own mind, which laboured under a ness in the extreme; and if I were specific natural inaptitude for appreto say that I have quite forgiven it, ciating an intellect so complex, subit would be boasting a magnanimity tle, and elaborate, as that of Burke. which I cannot feel.

We see how readily he clings to “In these circumstances, therefore, the slang notion of Burke's imagiI think that, even not opposing, much nation" as explaining the differences more supporting, any motion made between them; and how resolutely in honour of his memory as an indi- he mistakes, for an original tendency vidual amongst the rest, without put- to the violence of extremes, what in ting myself forward as a mover or fact was the mere breadth and deseconder, is all that can be expected terminateness of principle which the or desired of me by those who are extremity of that crisis exacted from not admirers of hypocrisy. I shall a mind of unusual energy. Charles have great pleasure, however, in Fox had one sole grandeur, one oriseeing your plan for an epitaph for ginality, in his whole composition, him, and will tell you freely my opi- and that was the fervour, the intensinion of it, both in general and in the ty, the contagious vehemence of his detail. He was certainly a great manner. He could not endure his man, and had very many good as own speeches when stripped of the well as great qualities; but his motto advantage they had in a tumultuous seems the very reverse of pendir afav; and self-kindling delivery.. “ I have and, when his mind had got hold of always hated the thought,” says be an object, his whole judgment, as to to Di Parr, “ of any of my speeches prudent or imprudent, unbecoming being published.” Why was that? or indecent, nay, right or wrong, Simply because in the mere matter, was perverted when that object was he could not but feel himself, that in question. What Quintilian says there was nothing to ensure attenof Ovid, ' Si ingenio temperare tion, nothing that could give a chaquam indulgere maluisset,' was emi- racteristic or rememberable expresnently applicable to him, even with sion to the whole. The thoughts respect to bis passions. Si ani- were every body's thoughts : Mr mi sui affectibus temperare quam Burke's, on the other hand, were so indulgere maluisset quid vir iste peculiarly his own, that they might præstare non potuerit ?' would be have been sworn to as private promy short character of him. By the perty in any court of law. way, I do not know that affectibus is How was Dr Parr affected by the the right word; but I know no other." great schism in politics, the greatest

which ever hinged upon pure dif

Even in this personal accident, as ference of abstract principle ? A it may seem, taken in connexion schism which was fatal to the unity with the fetters of party, lay a snare of the Whig Club, could not but to the sobriety of Parr's understandimpress new determinations on the ing. The French Revolution, with political bias, conduct, and language him as with multitudes beside, unof every Whig partisan. At the hinged the sanity of his moral judgtime of the Bellenden Preface, it was ments. Left to the natural influences a matter of course to praise Burke; of things, he, like many of his polihe was then the ally of Fox, and the tical friends, might have recovered glory of the Whigs. But what tone a steady equilibrium of mind upon of sentiment did Dr Parr maintain this great event, and “all which it towards this great man after he had inherited.” He might have written become an alien to the revolution. to others, as Lady Oxford, (once the ary cause which he himself conti- most violent of democrats,) sickened nued to patronise, and the party by sad experience of continental whom he continued to serve ?" For frenzies, had occasion to write to previously to that change his homage him,"Of Burke's writings and prin. was equivocal. It might be to the ciples I am now a very great admirer; man, or it might be to his position. he was a great lover of practical

There are many ways of arriving liberty. In my days of darkness, at a decision : in letters, in tracts, prejudice, and folly, I never read a (Letter on Fox's James Il.) and in line of Burke; but I am now, thank recorded conversations, Dr Parr's heaven, in a state of regeneration." sincere opinions on this question (a Obstinacy, and (except by occasional question as comprehensive as any starts) allegiance to his party, made personal question ever can have been) this noble confession of error imposwere repeatedly obtained. He wrote, sible to Dr Parr. And the intellectual besides, an inscription for Burke's results to one who lived chiefly public monument; and this, which in the atmosphere of politics, and (in common with all his epitaphs) drew his whole animation from the was anxiously weighed and medita- fluctuations of public questions, were ted in every syllable, happens to bave entirely mischievous. To those who been the most felicitous in the opi- abided by the necessities of error, nion of himself and his friends of all which grew upon a systematic oppowhich he executed. What was its sition to Mr Burke, the French revoprevailing tone?" I remember,” lution had destroyed all the landsays Parr bimself, writing to Lord marks of constitutional distinctions, Holland, “one or two of Mr Burke's and impressed a character of indeadmirers said to me that it was cold; terminate meaning upon ancient poand I answered, that I had indeed litical principles. From that time been successful; for as I really did forward, it will be seen, by those who not feel warmth, I had not attempted will

take the trouble to examine, that to express it." Perhaps in these Dr Parr, struggling (as many others words, Dr Parr, with a courtier's did) between the obscure convicconsideration of the person whom he tions of his conscience, and the dewas addressing, has done some in- mands of his party, or his personal justice to himself. Enough remains situation, maintained no uniform opion record, both in the epitaph and nions at all; gave his faith and his elsewhere, to shew that he had not hopes by turns to every vagrant adindeed attained to a steady conscious- venturer, foreign or domestic, miliness of Burke's characteristic merits; tary scourge, or political reformer, but it is manifest that he struggled whom the disjointed times brought with a reluctant instinct of submission forward; and was consistent in noto the boldest of his views, and fought thing but in those petty speculations up against a blind sense of his autho- of philology, which, growing out of rity as greater than on many accounts his professional pursuits, served at it pleased him or suited him to ad- last no end so useful as that of reliemit.

ving the asperities of his political life.





CHAPTER 1. The great object of Mr Mal- happy or miserable, had been erthus's celebrated 'Essay on the Prin- roneously ascribed. eiple of Population, is, as he himself The Principle of Population was has told us, almost, we believe, in laid down so clearly, that he who ran the words we are now using, to ex- might read; the illustrations Mr amine the effects of one cause in- Malthus collected of it from historic timately united with the very na cal and statistical works, and from ture of man,-one cause that has books of voyages and travels, were hitherto impeded the progress of striking and impressive; the order mankind towards happiness—to wit, and arrangement of his materials the constant tendency in all ani were free from confusion, and his mated life to increase beyond the style clear, animated, and eloquent, nourishment prepared for it. That so that the work speedily attracted population has this constant tendency notice, and Mr Malthus all at once to increase beyond the means of acquired the reputation of original subsistence, and that it is kept to its genius, and became founder and necessary level by some or other of head of a School. the various forms of misery, or the But though adopted by many zealfear of misery, sufficiently appears, ous, and, as they bave always cho. he thinks, from a review of the dif sen to call themselves, scientific disferent states of society in which man ciples, this doctrine of a supposed has existed. It may, he thinks, be great Master in Political Economy, safely pronounced, that population, revolted not only the feelings, but when unchecked, goes on doubling the reason, of men who studied the itself every twenty-five years, or in nature and condition of their own creases in a geometrical ratio; and race in the schools of common huhe thinks that it may be fairly pro- manity; and was thought by them nounced, that, considering the pre- irreconcilable with much of what sent average state of the earth, the they humbly believed it had been means of subsistence, under circum permitted them to know of the attristances the most favourable to hu butes and providence of God. man industry, could not possibly Accordingly, many answers to the be made to increase faster than in Essay, from time to time, appeared an arithmetical ratio. The checks -written by men of very various which repress this prodigiously su. powers--some good, some bad, and perior power of population, and put some indifferent-but, we confess, its effects on a level with the means all more or less unsatisfactory, and of subsistence, are, according to him, leaving Mr Malthus intrenched beall resolvable into moral restraint, hind the position he had so skil. vice, and misery. To shew thisfully and laboriously taken up, and then, is, as we said, the object of his which his devoted followers contiEssay-which necessarily takes a nued to affirm he maintained against wide and various historical view of all such assaults, in a state, not only the conditions of human nature in of security, but triumph. many countries, and at many eras But though the opponents to whom and necessarily comprehends many we have now alluded, cannot be said enquiries into the operation of other to have severely shaken the Princauses to which that condition, ciple of his Essay, they forced him

* The Law of Population, a Treatise, in Six Books, by Michael Thomas Sadler, M.P. London : John Murray, 1830.-- Edinburgh Review, No. CII, Refutation of an Article in the Edinburgh Review, No. CII. ky M. T. Sadler, Esq. M. P. London : John Murray.

to modify it; and Mr Malthus, who ted out of the pale of humanityin the first edition of his work, we measures which, as they were adbelieve, did not mention moral re- dressed, we believe, so could they straint as a check at all, in subse- only have had any temptation, to a quent editions attributed to it more tailor. Others, again, who did not and more power; and at last allowdirectly recommend men to become ed that it was always the more and monkeys or monsters, aimed abuse more operative as society advanced -in words to us unintelligible -in civilisation—when the checks of against marriage. Thus one Oracle vice and misery were less brought delivers this dark and dubious re. into play. It appears, therefore, that sponse to the kneelers at the inner Mr Malthus was not deaf to the shrine—“Legislation can sometimes outcry Nature herself may be said produce considerable effects by its to have raised against his doctrine indirect operation; as when a desire, as it was first promulgated ; and that which gratifies itself in a hurtful it assumed a shape and character course of action, (which seems, in the less painful and revolting-though instance of these suppliants, to mean even with that important modifica- marriage,) and cannot easily be coun. tion, most melancholy and humili- teracted by reward and punishment, ating still—and hanging like a dead. is drawn to gratify itself in a less weight on the hopes of all who hoped hurtful or innocent direction.Rehighly of the future happiness and sponse second—“ The progress of virtue of man.

legislation, the improvement of the For many years, however, the education of the people, and the deMalthusians were even more in, cay of superstition, will in time, it is tolerant than their master of all ob- hoped, accomplish the difficult task jections to the creed of the only of reconciling those important obtrue faith. He answered bis op- jects.” In these oracular responses, ponents, generally, though not al- who may expound the meaning of ways, with temper and moderation the words “innocent direction” and -for Mr Malthus is an amiable man; “superstition ?” but many of his followers shewed In all this horror of the pure“ wa. a bad spirit-a spirit of contumely ters of life," which domestic enjoy. and contempt towards all who ven- ments have been always esteemed tured to dispute or deny a single-thus preying on the very vitals dogma of the School; and as if na- of some irrational and disgusting ture had endowed them exclusive- wretches, and disturbing the reason ly with faculties capable of under- even of such intellectual persons, standing the principle of population and blameless in their practical -hooted and yelled at every man ethics as the authoritative writer who called it in question, and im- whom we have ventured to call an pugned it by reasoning, or by facts. Oracle, the People of England,- for A revelation had been made to them really in Scotland we do not seem alone of the Great Truth-they alone ever to have cared, or indeed to had been initiated into the mysteries have known, much about the anti-poof the Faith-and in the pride of their pulationists, --saw the hydrophobia, philosophy, they shewed themselves in its most hideous and loathsome the worst of bigots and fanatics. shape: and, though little afraid of

Some of them, too, would not being bitten by the rabid animals even suffer the modifications of the running fast and loose in all direcLaw made by Mr Malthus bim- tions, not only along High-ways but self; and pushed it to consequences By ways, they issued what may be --and to the recommendation of un-called a national edict, or decree, to hallowed practices, from the horrid send the monks to Coventry, a town whisper of which his kinder, and of which it is not easy to ascertain purer, and higher nature instinctive- the latitude, and there most of them ly recoiled with abhorrence. We at present abide. That is often sound have seen in bad Latin, schemes and salutary advice, which counsels proposed to thwart the principle of young persons not to marry and bepopulation, which, as they were dis- get children, till they see a reasongraceful and disgustful to manhood, able prospect of providing for them it was satisfactory to know origina--and it is too often set at naught;

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