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USED TO PUNISH THEM WHEN THEY NE

falsehood, that the 800,000 slaves in rected against all, instead of being, the West India colonies were brand as he makes it, directed against a fraced with red-hot irons !

tion of his. What dishonesty! MoreTo understand Mr Stephen's spe- over, because a black man is intrustcial-pleading practice more clearly, ed with a whip for the purposes however, I lay before your Lordship above mentioned, is this country to entire the accusation and the refuta. be told, that every slave is driven to tion alluded to, thus :

his work and at his work? Why, my Anti-colonist,—“ The slaves, whether lord, we may with equal propriety male or female, are driven to hard labour by

be told, that British soldiers and the impulse of the cart-whip, for the sole

British sailors are driven to their benefit of their owners, from whom they re

duty and at their duty—to exercise ceive no wages; and this labour is continued

and to battle, bythe cat o' nine tails(with certain intermissions for breakfast and

and halberds, because these weapons dinner) from morning to night throughout are, under superior authority, used the year."

to designate authority, and to punish

offences, or any neglect of duty To this my answer, page 256, amongst

them.

The Report of the Legislature of “ This is either wholly false, or else the

St Vincent's, adduced by Mr Stefacts are misrepresented. The slaves are not phen, confirms my statement, that no driven to their work; THE WHIP IS ONLY

driver is permitted to use the whip,

unless he is commanded. To refute GLECT THEIR DUTY OR COMMIT A CRIME; this, Mr Stephen, with special-pleadthe persons called drivers, so far from dri- ing sophistry, quotes (p. 199) a secving them to the field, leave their houses and tion of the St Vincent's Slave law, reach the places where they are to work, at

thus : least half an hour before a single negro turns out or approaches the place. Wherever they

“ That in order to restrain arbitrary pugo, and whatever they are about, he be

nishment, no slave on any plantation or

goes fore them, and stands before them, nor dare

estate shall receive more than ten stripes at he use the whip to any one unless he is com

one time, and for one offence, unless the manded. The master indeed gives his slave

owner, attorney, guardian, executor, admi. no wages, in that acceptation of the word;

nistrator, or manager of such plantation or but he gives him better, what the slave can

estate, having such slave under his care, less easily abuse, viz. : clothing, food, a house, shall be present.” utensils for it, lands to cultivate for himself, Mr Stephen knows, and must know, implements to cultivate his own fields; he that there is still one subordinate protects and supports him in sickness, infir- authority on every estate, besides mity, and old age; good or bad times make

those above enumerated, namely, the no difference to him, he is still provided for ;

overseer,” as he is called in the justice is obtained for him without a fee, and

Windward Islands, and in Jamaica he has no Taxes To PAY. Are these things nothing? Are they not wages such as mil

“ book-keeper," a white man; and it lions of free men cannot possibly obtain ?

is his authority, not the authority of Why should those undeniable truths be so

the driver, which is limited to ten disengenuously concealed ?"

stripes. There is, therefore, no error

or contradiction on the part of either This was my reply and refutation. the Legislature of St Vincent's, or Mr Stephen has refuted no part of it; your humble servant. but your Lordship will observe, that But the contradiction already alluhe has, with “ inconceivable confi

ded to extended to the latter clause of dence,” suppressed the chief point at the anti-colonial accusation, thus :issue, in the words in capitals, viz.

“ The nature of this labour, and whe• The whip is only used to punish them when they neglect their duty be ascertained by laying fully before the read

ther it was hard labour' or not, will best or commit a crime.” Suppressing

er a plain and undeniable statement.” this, omitting a portion of what he

“ The days and nights in our West India had written, and withholding above islands are so nearly equal, that the difference three-fourths of my refutation, which is not worth taking into account, and may bore on his whole charge, he makes be taken at twelve hours each. The negroes it appear as if the part he quotes are called to their work in the morning, on were the whole, and that whole di.

some estates by a bell, on some by the blow.

ing of a shell, and on others by the crack of ing to the distance which the fields the whip; they seldom assemble till half are from their homes; but which may past six o'clock, and they quit their work average on estates thirty-five minutes again at six in the evening. During this more; while the nine hours also is period they have two hours to dinner, and applied to the average of the year, one hour to breakfast, the latter of which exclusive of the extra labour which is meals is carried out to them by women ap- performed by the able-bodied slaves pointed for that purpose, and who also carry on some estates during crop, six water during the heat of the day to such as

hours more every third night. But may require it to drink.

If a heavy rain this night labour is, I understand, falls, they are ordered to their houses, and if they get wet, they receive, each who may duction of improved machinery.

generally abandoned, from the introchoose to take it, a dram. Women who have

Mr Stephen spins out eighty closely families are allowed to remain in their houses till nine o'clock, in order to take care of their printed octavo pages with miserable children, and cook their husbands' break quibbles, to which a few words are fasts, which they carry to the field warm,

a sufficient reply, beginning (p. 109) leaving their children under the care of an

his labour with a senseless and silly old woman, who receives a quantity of rice sneer, thus :and abundance of milk to feed them with.

“ She, the mother, is allowed to go home “ The courageous Mr Macqueen assures half an hour before noon, to stay half an hour us, in what he calls a plain and undeniable later than the other negroes when they turn

statement, that the days and nights in the out in the afternoon, and again gets liberty to

West India islands are so nearly equal, that go home half an hour before sunset; she never

the difference is not worth taking into acworks above six hours in the day, nor does

count, and may be taken at twelve hours each : any negro out of crop work above nine hours."

and from which, and other premises equally I remark here, in order to prevent serts, that no negro out of crop works above

undeniable, he concludes, and expressly asall cavil and dispute, that what is

nine hours !" meant by nine hours' labour each day, applies to the average time the slaves The slaves work from sunrise till are actually at work, and does not sunset. Any nautical almanack will include the time which is taken up determine this time. In three pain coming from and going to their rallels the length of the days stands work, which is more or less, accord thus :

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N. Lat.
60 Demerara
120 Grenada
189 Jamaica

Longest Day.
Sun rises,
5h. 50m.
5 39
5 28

Sun sets.
6h. 10m.
6 21
6 32

Shortest Day.
Sun rises. Sun sets.
6h. 10m. 5h, 50m.
6 29

5 39
6 32 5 28

Garbling, dislocating, and suppress- including two hours set apart for ing documents and words in the man meals, and exclusive of the time ocner mentioned, Mr Stephen makes up cupied in going to, and in coming his work, extending his own labour from, their labour, work fourteen without being able to extend the hours each day. Hand-loom weavers daily labours of the slave. What that work sixteen and eighteen hours each is has been seen, and is well known. day, and housekeepers of the middle Compared with the labours perform- classes frequently work twenty hours ed in this country, how does it stand? each day, and a portion of Sunday Exclusive of the time taken up in besides, without one day's relaxation going and in coming from his work, throughout the year, unless their the day labourer in Britain works wages cease; and all this without a twelve hours each day, with only two single whimper or whine ever being hours out of the twelve for his meals. heard from any anti-colonial mouth Agricultural servants and house ser- about it. vants work still longer hours each " Judge not, lest ye be judged :" day, exclusive of the extra hours _" with the same measure which ye which the former labour in harvest, mete, it shall be meted unto you and on other emergencies. Indivi- again,” says the highest authority. Mr duals, and even children employed Stephen has subjected himself to be in cotton and other manufactories, judged by this, when he comes be

fore us, Preface, p. 15, in the follow. sich] about questions and strifes of words, ing character, forcibly drawn by him. Whereof cometh envy, strife, railing, evil surself :

misings, perverse disputings (Greek, gallings “When I first knew the West Indies I one of another) of men of corrupt minds, and was a very young man, and no less ignorant destitute of the truth, supposing that gain and regardless of Christianity, as of all at

is godliness : from such withdraw thyself.” least that exclusively belongs to it, than young

Mr Stephen denies that, in his men in my own sphere of life then too ge

anti-colonial proceedings, he is acnerally were. I had carly imbibed such tuated by religious enthusiasm ; but theological opinions as are commonly called if the following is not religious enliberal, and though religion was not wholly thusiasm, and that of the most danleft out of my scheme, either in theory or gerous description, I confess myself practice, it was a religion in which not only ignorant of the terms. In pages Christians of the lowest standard, but en 395-6-7 of his new work, Mr Stephen lightened heathens, might have concurred," tells us, that the murder of Louis &c.

the XVI., the dethronement of Louis True Christianity, my Lord, is the XVIII. by Bonaparte, in 1815, that system of theology—" which the misfortunes of two Kings of thinketh no evil—which rejoiceth not Spain, and two of Portugal, and the in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.” Prince of Orange, and also the exile Mr Stephen, in all his colonial war of Charles the X., were all produced fare, never rejoices but in iniquity, because the nations which they ruled nor mourns but at the appearance of bought African slaves, and maintaintruth. Consequently, his boasted ed colonial slavery! He further inChristianity cannot be genuine Chris- forms us, that this country, from the tianity.

same cause, was unsuccessful in the This liberal Christian and half-en war in which she was engaged, unlightened heathen system of theology, til she abolished the African slave Mr Stephen informs us, first induced trade in 1807; after which,“ the fahim to turn his attention and his vour of Divine Providence continued energies to the emancipation of the manifestly to be with us,” causing Colonial slaves. The world, it ap- Napoleon to go to Spain, Portugal, pears from history, has aforetime had and Russia, when we were in it individuals guided by similar derfully rescued from dangers more “ theological opinions" and objects. alarming than the country had ever

The Apostle Paul in the course of his known, and by means not less exministry was much annoyed with men traordinary than unforeseen. Pubprofessing similar principles and opi- lic credit, national prosperity, comnions, and who, acting upon those merce, and manufactures, flourished principles and opinions, wished, by and increased until within the last rash, precipitate, and unjust acts, to six years, when lo! because we have break' asunder hastily, and by vio- not emancipated the African slaves lence, the bonds of civil society then which we have in our colonies, “ Disubsisting. In 1st Timothy, chap. vi. vine vengeance” is “armed against ver. 1-5, he has drawn their

charac- us ;” and we consequently have a ter in a very forcible manner, and “ licentious, seditious press, poor which equally applies to all men in laws, taxes, debt, depressed landevery age who follow their footsteps: owners, farmers, and agricultural “ Let as many servants (slaves] as are

peasants,” and dissatisfied "starving

labourers,” and “ the portentous under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God

movements on the continent,” the and his doctrine be not blasphemed. And forerunners of revolution and civil they that have believing masters let them not

war !! despise them, because they are brethren; but

Mr Stephen forgets that colonial rather do them service, because they are faith- slavery existed during all those years ful and beloved, partakers of the benefit. These in which, by the “ interference of a things teach and exhort. If any man teach righteous Providence,” Europe saw otherwise, and consent not to wholesome Napoleon overthrown. Mr Stephen words, EVEN THE WORDS OF Our Lord also forgets that all our glorious naJesus Christ, and to the doctrine which is val victories, which swept the navies according to godliness ; he is proud, (Greek, of all our foes from the ocean, had a fool] knowing nothing, but doting (Greek, been gained before this country abo

won

lished the slave-trade,and I leave him from which a large portion of the to reconcile the facts according to heavy taxes raised in this country is his doctrine; how comes it to pass, procured to fill that Treasury. Away that while this country is suffering with the stupidity of a nation and a in the way he describes, because she Government which can suffer themmaintains slavery in her colonies, the selves to be rode rough-shod over American President only the other by such mischievous fanatics ! day is found ascribing thanks to the The party to which I allude are Most High, for the peace and pro- in fact the rulers of our colonial sperity which these States are enjoy- empire. The heroes who bore our ing, although, by their laws, they flag in triumph through blood and maintain personal slavery in them death at Trafalgar and at Waterloo, to a much greater extent than that if appointed to command in our which exists in the colonies belong colonies, tremble before the cabal ing to Great Britain ? According to which assembles in Aldermanbury Mr Stephen, if this country had not Street, and which has been allowed abolished the slave-trade in 1807, to beard our Government, to insult Bonaparte would not have invaded our Legislature, and to trample upPortugal, Spain, Germany and Rus. on our laws, and to endanger the sia, nor France, and he have been existence of our colonial empire. humbled after such a prodigious ex It is a fact, notorious to the most pense of blood and treasure on the attentive observer, that they seek to part of all concerned ! Such doc- have every authority in the colonies trines, my Lord, are truly distress, the creature of their hands. Govering, when we thus see the Creator nors, judges, lawyers, protectors, of heaven and earth brought into customhouse officers, &c., must either action as the heated, prejudiced, and all be their slaves, or, if they preerring mind of a human individual sume to do their duty, and to tell the thinks proper to point out and to truth, submit to have themselves determine; and Mr Stephen must traduced, and rendered obnoxious in consider the intellect of the people the eyes of their fellow-countrymen, of this country very limited, or very by those periodical vehicles of falsedisordered indeed, before he could hood which the faction I allude to call upon them to take such doc- patronise and control. All the distrines for their guide; and which, if turbers of the public peace, incenput in practice, will most assuredly diaries, canting tyrants, and legal cover our empire with anarchy and plunderers, which the colonies are destruction.

compelled to see and to suffer-every It is sickening to contemplate such discontented knave, clerical and lay, proceedings and such principles, who has been driven in disgrace more especially on the part of one from colonial society, has only to who, from the interest which he has throw himself into the arms of gained by calumniating our colonies, the party alluded to, and commence has fastened himself, his family, and a system of calumny and falsehood his relations, upon the richest quarter against the colonies, when he is inof the British Treasury; and having stantly taken by the hand and prodone so, proceeds with impunity to vided for, and set beyond the reach defame and to ruin those vast and of the laws and the indignation of valuable appendages of our empire, an insulted people. *

• The Anti-Colonists pitch upon as champions all weak heads and heavy purses, and fatter the one while they fleece the other, and especially they call to their aid all clergymen who like to hear themselves declaim everywhere rather than in their own pulpits, young ones seeking churches and wives, and widowers seeking widows and jointures,-- all, in short, who have influence with the fair sex, and both these they doze with their publications till they render them incapable of discovering between truth and falsehood ; and joining to these cunning Quakers, old sinners pretending repentance, and needy liberal lawyers, they form a noisy body which guides and misleads the public, or prosecutes individuals as may suit their purpose.

If it was worth while, many remarkable examples of this kind might be adduced. About the commencement of the anti-colonial crusade, an Episcopalian clergyman, who had been

Every thing is done to and for that ter, yet that it should be maintained party which they think their interest as it is, in order to compel the ruined requires. They pitch upon the coast master to emancipate his slave on of Africa, as a gutter through which impoverished land, where they know they may draw the wealth of the Bri- well no labour could ever raise any tish Treasury into their purses, and thing to injure that forced labour, it is accordingly fitted up for them. which they could readily obtain, and To secure, as they think, wealth from which competition done away with, its shores, the African black, liber- they would just as readily seek on ated in our other tropical possessions, the coast of Africa. These are the is prohibited from being employed in real springs which direct the prothe labours of agriculture. To se- ceedings of our domineering anticure this object, the labour of free colonists, and which deceive, and are men in the Mauritius has, as I shewed suffered to deceive, the population of in my last letter, been annihilated; this country. and to secure the same object, the The colonial regulations are, in labour of free agriculturists in Hin- fact, their regulations; and the colodostan is secretly and insidiously dis- nial appointments too frequently their countenanced and opposed. In order appointments; and when enquiry is to throw the tropical commerce of sought into colonial matters, the goGreat Britain into the coast of Africa, vernment is obliged to consult them, which they control and direct as they and even to saddle every commission please, the industry of the West In- with individuals of their stamp, and dia colonies is everywhere crushed, of their choosing. Whenever the goand the population of them in many vernment proceeded to deliberate on places is fixed by law to barren colonial affairs, they were obliged, as rocks, where even the wild goat can the compulsory manumission laws hardly find food sufficient to live. shew, to inform that party of their Their interest, their contemplated proceedings, and it would appear, to interest, hatched the oppressive and follow their directions, otherwise the iniquitous law, which, in several co- enacting of these laws in the teeth of lonies, plunges master and slave into the evidence brought forward upon, equal want and misery, while they the enquiry, remains inexplicable. To have dared and been suffered to tell the disgrace of our country, the gosome of your predecessors in office to vernment have, in every colonial protheir faces, that though they knew the ceeding, been forced to truckle to law to be oppressive and unjust, and that party, while a dozen of men, as much so to the slave as to the mas which the same number of old wo

obliged to leave St Kitt's on account of the detestation in which he was held for severity to his slaves, comes to England. He got acquainted with Mr Wilberforce, and by representing the general treatment of the slaves as most barbarous, he ingratiated himself with the party, got a good fat living by their influence in the west of England, where he continued a bitter anti-colonial enemy to the day of his death!

Amongst those who in Parliament and out of Parliament last year declaimed most loudly and violently against the colonies, we find Edward ProTheroe, jun. in order to catch Bristolian radical votes. This gentleman's whole fortune is derived from the West Indies ; and at the moment he was declaiming most loudly against West India slavery, the proceeds of the sale of estates and slaves were daily tumbling into his coffers, or into coffers from which he partakes, and which will be wholly his if he live!!

A similar instance of inconsistency and popular vanity lately occurred in this city. Dr Wardlaw, a clergyman of some celebrity in the Independent persuasion, has, during the last six years, allowed himself to be made the slave of Quakers and other Anti-Colonists, and has on every occasion stood forward a most violent enemy to the colonies, denouncing all West India property as the “ accursed thing,” and “meat offered to idols.” Dr Wardlaw, however, when he was about twenty-three years of age, and about the time he was licensed for the ministry, sold, along with other branches of his family, to a gentleman in the vicinity of Glasgow, his share of an estate and slaves in Jamaica, left by an uncle, and for which he received L. 2000 sterling, and stating, when the bargain was made, that it was a most advantageous one for all concerned ! In this way the colonies are black-balled by men who have been enriched by them.

VOL. XXIX. NO. CLXXVIII.

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