« 前へ次へ »
THE STATE OF IRELAND.
Our readers will remember, that sive proprietors of talent, wisdom, in opposing what was called Catho- and honesty, of course acted diffelic Emancipation, we took no narrow, rently. They could not deign to see or abstract grounds. Respecting any thing, save abstract principle and highly many of its more distinguish- generality; for people so perfect as ed opponents, we yet deeply regret- themselves to look at vulgar fact and ted in private the line of argument circumstance, men and things, at the they adopted, and we, in silence, actual condition of Ireland and the avoided what we thought a capital empire, was a matter not to be thought error in them. In consequence, we of. On their wild abstract generalirested not on the Coronation Oath, ties, they protested that unconditionor the Protestantism of the Constitu- al emancipation would be an infallition, and we called for no perpetual ble nostrum for every Irish maladyexclusion; putting other things aside, would destroy the power of O'Conwe argued the matter on right and nell and the demagogues--annihilate expediency, with reference to the the political influence of the Catholic actual condition of Ireland. We in- priests--extinguish the strife besisted that emancipation ought to be tween Protestant and Catholic-condelayed until it could be granted vert the Catholics to Protestantismwith safety—that it ought to be pre- replace tenant under the control of ceded by the destruction of the des. landlord-fill Ireland with British potism of the Catholic priests—the capital -reduce the army-create in reconstruction of Irish society by two years a clear sinking fund of ten means of the removal of surplus in- millions-bestow incalculable benehabitants—the introduction of poor- fits on the Established Church-inlaws,&c.—the proper repair and pur- dissolubly unite Ireland with Britain gation of the Established Church- -overwhelm Ireland with prospethe production of due obedience to rity-and produce we know not how law—the formation of a balance of many other similar benefits. The Protestants in the Catholic parts of Irish black and grey horses were to the country—the restoration of its draw together at so furious a rate on legitimate political influence to Pro- the uphill road of wealth, as to comtestant property, &c. &c. While we pletely distance the slow, heavy Engthus strenuously maintained that fish ones. The English national team power ought not to be conceded until was to be put in no small danger of the essential qualifications and safe- being run over by that of the sister guards for preventing its abuse, island. should be created, we laboured to In what condition has experiment make the agitation of the question a placed these sages? These self-same means of spurring Protestant and identical people are proclaiming Catholic, ruler and subject, into co- · that emancipation has created a new operation for civilizing, pacifying, and Catholic Question infinitely more enriching Ireland. On the confes- mischievous and dangerous than the sions of the demagogues, we predict- old one-has only emancipated the ed that the Duke of Wellington's Catholics from the disabilities which "great measure” would only add to restricted them from attempting to evil
, and clear the field for the intro- dismember the empire. According duction of infinitely more dangerous to their asseverations, the power of questions.
the demagogues and priests is even Experiment has refuted us as little more irresistible than ever-in so on this, as it has done on other mat- far as Protestant and Catholic have ters; we stand not among those whom been reconciled, they have been comit has covered with contempt and bined in guilt, convulsion, and reinfamy.
bellion — the religious labours of Our opponents, the Cabinet, Par- Protestantism are suspended, and it liamentary, Review, and Newspaper, is put in peril of extermination-the sages--the monopolists of knowledge influence of the landlord is farther -the great "Taught”--the only
"li- destroyed-not only is British capital beral and enlightened”--the exclu- still excluded, but Irish is in course of
banishment—the need for troops is smote, the Church has been mutilagreatly enlarged-the sinking-fund ted, the Landed Interest bas been is likely to be replaced by a great plundered, therefore the change is a deficiency of revenue-the existence most proper and beneficial one, even of the Church is endangered—the if it have ensured public destruction. separation of Ireland from Britain is If these men and publications were made a matter of open attempt and known to be lunatic and treasonable probability—and the sufferings of in the last degree, they would be the former are increased. The Irish followed with the same servility, blacks and greys still pull in oppo- provided they should war against site directions, or only draw together the laws and institutions of the realm, on the road of civil war and ruin. and assist one part of the population
In all this these sages really say, in robbing and starving the other. " People of England, we insulted, The confession is, that Catholic deceived, and betrayed you-the Emancipation has not left things as mighty change of law and institution it found them, but has made their which we forced on you by tyranny state infinitely worse. The old Caand fraud is operating in a ruinous tholic Question, not only made the manner-our liberal opinions are Irish Protestants determined adhealike false and destructive and we rents of the constitution, governare the knaves, boobies, bigots, and ment, and England, but restricted intolerants, we asserted our oppo- the Catholics from revolutionary innents to be. We are utterly un- struction and objects. Granting that worthy of belief and trust!"
it produced party strife and convulThus Catholic Emancipation is sion, these very evils formed a source confessed by those who advocated it of inflexible loyalty amidst one part to be a total failure-a failure as of the inhabitants, and a bulwark complete and destructive as Free- against disloyalty amidst the other; Trade, and the other nostrums which they disarmed the rebel, and comhave filled the empire with calamity pelled the traitor to wear the mask and convulsion. Liberal opinions- of fidelity, and caution his deluded modern Whiggism and Liberalism- followers against disaffection and have now been in essentials brought treason. The party contention would to the decisive test of experiment, not have been in any material deand the result is, overwhelming re,
gree injurious, had it not been for futation throughout. In all material the Whig and Liberal Tory factions points of creed and measure, the in England. When these profligate Greys, Broughams, and Plunketts- bodies were silent, and government the Goderichs, Grants, and Thomp- did its duty, the party war caused sons--the Edinburgh and Westmin- by the Catholic Question in Ireland ster Reviews-and the liberal news- was not more violent and injurious papers, stand covered with such than that between English Whigs blasting demonstrations of false prin- and Tories. The Broughams and ciple, incorrect view, and imbecile Plunketts were the leading agitators understanding, as never before fell who enabled the O'Connells and on men and publications in any age Shiels to labour in security and or nation.
with effect; it was solely owing to Why are they still followed ? Be- the criminality of men like these, cause not only public spirit, but ho- and the criminality of Ministers, nourable party spirit is no more. British and Irish, that the Catholic From the sordid, blind, unprincipled Question produced any evils worthy mountebankism which seems to have of notice. Taking into account what taken possession of Whig, Liberal, kind of subjects the Irish people alOld Tory, and Peelite alike, the ob- ways were, it has long been our deject of creed and measure now is liberate opinion that this Question, personal and factious profits. What on the fair balance between good matters it, if a change involve the and evil, yielded vast benefit to the empire in calamity and peril? this empire. Present events amply prove faction has gained, or that has pre- that without it Ireland could only served, power; one part of the com- have been retained by the extreme munity has beaten and ruined an- of despotism; and they almost prove, other—the Aristocracy has been that on several occasions during the
war, the sword could scarcely have ing away her wealth and strength retained her.
merely to injure Ireland as much as So long as the Catholic Question herself. remained, that for repealing the The time has come when the truth, Union could not be agitated; it was
and the whole truth, must be spoken confessed by the demagogues, and to the Irish people. For several years obvious to all men, save the cloud- they have been treated like petted gazers- the knowledge-manufactu- children; boasting of themselves as rers—that the one kept down the perfection, the boast has been faother, and that the choice lay be- shionable in England; and all sides, tween them. Of course the death of Whig and Tory, Anti-Catholic, and the Catholic Question has been the the reverse, have joined in lauding birth of the Repeal one. And what them as the “faultless monsters” of are the fruits of the exchange? For the human race. Have they scrama religious question of individual pri- bled and blubbered for the most previlege, we have got a political one of cious of England's possessions—it national dismemberment; for a ques- has been pronounced hugely praisetion which caused Protestant to ba- worthy; have they wallowed in the lance and govern Catholic, we have darkest crimes—it has been tortured got one which combines them on the into excessive merit; every thing side of insubordination, or neutrali- amiss in their condition and conduct zes the former; for a question, which, has been fathered on English guilt. on the balance, was greatly in favour Even at this moment we are oracularof Protestantism, we have got one ly cautioned against saying any thing which is as much in favour of Catho- which may offend them; they are licism; for a question which sup- like the French-they are deaf to pressed seditious instruction, we English admonition—they are this, have got one which teaches rebellion they are that; and the obstreperous to the whole population ; for a ques- babies are to bear nothing from this tion of party, we have got one of side the Channel, save bland panegyrevolution. The bridle which kept rics on their beauties and good be. Ireland in subjection to law, the bond haviour. For their own sake, this of feeling which united her to Eng- must be endured no longer; they land, the checks and balances in must be told strongly and unsparingwhich consisted the slender portion ly of their defects and infirmities, of Irish self-government and free- not to insult and upbraid, but to redom, have vanished with the Catho- form and instruct them. lic Question.
What, then, are the great causes The demagogues, or, to speak of Irish penury and misery? Withmore correctly, the traitors, intimate out hesitation,
we reply-The indivivery intelligibly that the struggle for dual deficiencies and misconduct of the Repeal is to be really for national the Irish people. separation—that the Irish Parliament It is self-evident that the very best is to be only the mask and stepping- laws and institutions cannot preserve stone for grasping Irish independ- the individual from want and barence. They thus, in regard to both barism, who is improvident, incaduration and consequences, provide pable, vicious and turbulent—that he as terrible a contest as could well be is the cause of his own sufferings : it conceived for England and Ireland; is of necessity equally so, that the and of course both have the deepest case is precisely the same with a interest in examining well the grie- nation. Before, therefore, Ireland vances on which they found their trea- can prove any thing against English son. What are these Irish grievances ? rule, it is incumbent on her to prove Penury and misery. To what are that her inhabitants differ not in chathey owing? The misdeeds of Eng-racter from those nations which are land ! respond the traitors—the Sub- rich and happy. letting Act, Jury Assessments, and In the more shewy kinds of natural similar things ! reply the scribes of ability, the Irishman has no superior; the Treasury ;-but none will reveal in the more solid kinds, and the the great causes. The burden is thus qualities of disposition essential for cast wholly on England; and she is producing national prosperity, he to go on, as she has done, throw- stands the lowest of civilized men. Irish improvidence and prodigality present; they were allowed to choose are matters of general notoriety; one their representatives, and although of the Irish liberals--we think Mr they were compelled to elect ProtestSpring Rice-said in Parliament two ants, the compulsion, so far as conor three years ago, it would be of cerned the law, was little more than small use sending British capital to a nominal one, for it only prohibited Ireland, if it were not placed under them from electing men who in fact British frugality and foresight: an- had no existence. They still are, other Irishman, in writing of his from inability to find Catholics, countrymen, pleasantly remarks, that bound in a great measure to Proeach ought to possess ten thousand testants as representatives; and they a-year. Looking at this alone, it are worse represented than they renders it impossible for the people were before the Question was carried. of Ireland to be other than poor and The Catholic disabilities did not miserable ; it not only keeps the press on the means of wealth and better classes in debt and poverty, happiness ; in essential matters they but prohibits them from providing were only a name, and their removal the lower ones with food and em- has injured more than benefited the ployment
general interests of Ireland. But it This inordinate capacity for enjoy. is alleged, and allegation can invent ment is combined with the utmost nothing better, that they caused strife incapacity for creating the means of and convulsion. Was this the fault enjoyment. Pugnacious in the last of England ? Her wish was peace; degree, the Irishman's pugnacity is in so far as she took a side, it was eternally levelled against the sources matter of compulsion; and when of property and subsistence : the she was neutral, the Irish people tore people of Ireland are engaged in an each other to pieces. It is amply incessant struggle to banish and proved by the present conduct of repel from them every thing which the Catholics, that the nominal griecan raise them above the condition vance formed by the disabilities was of the destitute savage,
but a pretext, and that their own bad Were the old penal laws, which feelings were the real cause of the are so much railed against, wantonly strife and convulsion. imposed without provocation, on a Thus for a very long term of years peaceable, unoffending people ? No, before the Catholic Question was carthey were provoked by the worst ried, Ireland, in so far as accountamisconduct; they were resorted to bility rests on England, enjoyed the as the only means by which Irish freedom, security of property, and turbulence and crime could be re- general advantages, which were enpressed. Indefensible as they were, joyed by England and Scotland. She they were not more so than the Irish was in an incalculably better situaguilt which gave birth to them; and tion for the acquisition of wealth than England's great object in them was any continental nation. If, previousto strike the criminal leader for the ly to late years, she were treated as good of the follower, and to ex- a colony, this had little practical eftinguish that which was more de- fect on the side of injury, while it structive to Ireland, than to herself. had much on that of benefit. During We do not stoop to seek shelter for the war, she had the immense marher under Irish Parliaments.
ket of Britain and her colonies for In the very long interval which her agricultural produce and linens; has elapsed since they ceased to have she obtained those prices for corn material operation, why has not Ire- and cattle which filled the agriculland advanced in prosperity? The ture of England and Scotland with Catholic Question has stood in the riches, and her general manufactures way, reply her traitors, and the were protected. Since the war ceaTreasury scribes. Did it cripple her sed, she has stood on an equality agriculture, manufactures, or trade? with England and Scotland; in reIt did not affect them. Did it pre- gard of taxes, she has enjoyed a great vent her from being properly repre- advantage over them. On the whole sented in Parliament? In this mat- of the term she has had an excellent ter, the Catholics had a greater ex- market for her agricultural productent of privilege than they have at tions. She has possessed a superi
ority in the linen manufacture—she not, according to quality, yield half has enjoyed comparative immunity the produce which is drawn from from taxation. In the mighty natu- that of Britain. ral advantages of soil and geogra Who is to blame here? Why did phical situation, she has stood infi- not the things fill Irish agriculture nitely above Scotland, and on a level with capital, skill, and improvement, with England; the latter has not which filled English and Scotch agriequalled her in natural fertility of culture with them? The traitors and soil, and has not been better situated gentlemen of the press vociferously in regard to the cotton trade. She respond-England !--All the blame has had an ample share of the Legis- belongs to English misgovernment! lature; if she have pointed out any The fine and perfect people of Irereal evil, it has been promptly at- land are guiltless. The ludicrous tended to. Various special com- falsehood is devoutly swallowed, mercial advantages have been grant- and England cannot sufficiently woned her; in any collision of interest, der at her own enormities ! England and Scotland have always Ireland is an agricultural country, given way to her, and England has and here is demonstration that the long made it a principle to sacrifice sole reason why her agriculture has herself in every respect to Ireland. not been long about as full of capi
Why, in despite of all this, is Ire- tal as that of England and Scotland, land in penury, want, and barbarism ? is to be found in the misconduct of Why, amidst this outcry for British her landowners and farmers. As the capital, is there no Irish capital ? cry is kept up for British capital, let How happens it that her agriculture us enquire how it is likely to fare, if is distressed, her manufactures are it chance to get into the hands of vanishing, and her population is suf- Irish agriculture. fering the extreme of wretchedness ? Do the Irish landowners crave it
During the war, the Irish land- for the purpose of building, drainowners and farmers-taking into ac- ing, enclosing, and improving ? No; count the advantages they possessed they wish to use it for the payment in cheapness of labour and fertility of debts, or as revenue. They exof soil-got about as good prices as pend little on, and to a great extent the English and Scotch ones. The they never see, their estates. We will latter converted their profits into not repeat what we have so often said capital; the landowners built, en- on the baleful system of Irish landclosed, and drained the farmers letting ; but we will observe, that it manured and carried the science of incapacitates the cultivator from both agriculture to perfection. In Eng- accumulating and retaining capital. land and Scotland, the high prices If he have a sufficiency when he takes made the soil fertile as a garden, his land, a rack-rent and an unbendand covered it with quick fences, ing landlord, soon get it from him. substantial farm-steads, comfortable Thus the landowner, no matter how cottages, rich landowners, wealthy high his rents may be, expends them farmers, and happy husbandry la- as income, and, in a great measure, bourers. The Irish landowners and out of Ireland; and the tenant, no farmers spent their profits in extra- matter how high corn and cattle may vagance: speaking comparatively, be, is prevented by exorbitant rent they neither improved their land, from making profit, and rising above nor gained agricultural knowledge. penury. The naturally rich land of Ireland, Under such a system, it is absurd saving in the North, is still a com- to call for British capital. Let Engparative wilderness, destitute of pro- land furnish millions of it annually, per buildings, fences, and culture, and what will follow? The money the occupier is still without capital, will only go into Ireland as capital, implements, and skill-the blaze of to come out of it immediately to be agricultural improvement, which has wasted as individual revenue; it will shone so long in England and Scot- be monopolized by the extravagance land, has not been able to enter Ire- of landowners, and the cupidity of land—the land of the latter is yet so middlemen. Granting that a portion cultivated as to make the smallest of it could reach the occupiers, it possible return, and it probably does would speedily be transferred, by