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then there could be no doubt or this bill, which leaped out of Lord ambiguity as to the wishes and opi- Durham's head, all perfect, like Minions of the multitude, as each man nerva out of the head of Jupiter, in would signify them unequivocally by full panoply of wisdom, is now dishis own individual vote.
covered to bave not a few, but many “ But, according to the learned peculiarities! I love to repeat the Lord's new principle, that voters are word. I hope when the learned only organs and trustees to echo the Lord draws an indictment against sentiments of others, the opinions of some of his 120,000 enlightened and those other influential people, those intelligent friends in Edinburgh, who non-voters, and yet virtual and real may have committed a crime, that voters, are to be collected from peti- he will not forget to designate it as tions and counter-petitions, and, pro- one of the many peculiarities to which bably, in the end, from mobs and coun. his enlightened friends are sometimes ter-mobs, and to be gathered and addicted. counted according to the number of “ Then, as to Scotland, the Learnbroken heads in said mobs.
ed Lord says, ' As to the details “In the next place, let us see what there might be alterations. The the right honourable and learned right of voting might be varied-it Lord says on the Reform Bill. He might be L.10 or L.20—but certainly would take leave only to say this, it would not be raised to the extent that he understood the government of L.100. did not consider themselves pledged “ In short, the plain English of to all the details of the Bill. Now, this is, that, instead of the Bill, the sir, I am bound to believe that this whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill, is the learned Lord's understanding; we are to have a 'spick and span’ but, if so, I believe that it was not new Bill, to use a vulgar but sig. the understanding of any one person nificant expression, and that, as far of the 120,000 enlightened and intel- as Scotland is concerned, the Learnligent people of Edinburgh, nor of ed Lord has not yet made up his any one person in either House of Right Honourable mind as to what Parliament, who heard the speeches the Bill is to be; Minerva is not yet, of the Ministers.
come to full growth in his majestic “Were they not to stand or fall by head. the Bill? Did they not ostentatiously “ Having done for the present with put it forth as the offspring of their the Lord Advocate, I have a word or united and unanimous wisdom ? two to say to his master, Earl Grey, When many of the monstrous absur- and I will convict him of folly and dities, inconsistencies, and partiali- rashness-I had almost said 'madties, both in its principle and details, ness, by the example and conduct of were pointed out by various Mem- Lord Chancellor Brougham, in simibers in the House of Commons, did lar circumstances. they admit any one of them, or rather “ You will remember, sir, that did they not defend every one of some months ago, the Lord Chanthem to the very last ? except that, cellor introduced into Parliament a at the very last, they did admit, in Bill for establishing Local Courts of the case of one or two boroughs, Justice, and Provincial Judges in that they had fallen into a mistake, England, very much on the model of owing to the returns of population the Sheriff Courts in Scotland. in some burghs, including the parish “Now, how did he act on this to landward, and in others, not. But, occasion? The establishment of these in every other respect, they stuck Courts in every county of England by the Bill, to the very last, in all its and Wales, on the scale of expenses details.
contemplated by him, would have “ But now, says the learned Lord, required an allowance to the Judges, Ministers are disposed to free it from Registrars, Clerks, &c., of not less many (mark this) of the peculiarities than 1.200,000 a-year; therefore it that were held to be objectionable. would have been rash to have estaPeculiarities!! elegant and gentle blished all these Courts at once, word! Peculiarities, that is, where without any experience whether by a thing may be considered as pe- they really would prove useful or culiar, which is a very good word! not-and yet, sir, if Lord Brougham Now, it certainly is peculiar, that had so done, the incurring of unnecessary expense would have been what they have got to acquire greater all the evil; for, if those courts were power in the first instance, blind to either found to do harm, or at least the ultimate evils which it may bring to do no good, Parliament, after a on themselves. few years' experience, could have “ Could not Lord Grey, imitating repealed the act, abolished the the prudence of Lord Brougham, courts and the law, and the country have granted members to some great would have fallen back exactly into towns-on any principle of elective the state it was in before it was franchise he sed, even universal passed, under its old jurisdictions suffrage and vote by ballot ? The of Circuit Courts and Quarter Ses- advantages or disadvantages of such sions.
a mode of election could thus have “ Lord Brougham, however, did been tried upon a small scale, which, not proceed in this wholesale way- if beneficial or harmless, might have but, with the most statesmanlike been extended, but which, if found caution and prudence, (greater, per- to be hurtful, Parliament would have haps, than was to have been expect- had, not only the will, but the power ed from his ardent and sanguine to repeal, and vest the right of elecmind,) Lord Brougham in his bill, tion in those towns in some other proposes at first to establish these body of voters. courts only in two counties--Kent, “ In the same way, he might have at one end of the island, and North- selected one or two counties, and in umberland at the other. By this them have given the right of voting means the experiment would be fair to copyholders, tenants, ten pound ly tried on a small scale, and, if the gentlemen, or any others he thought experiment succeeded, and those best, and have tried for some years local courts were found to act be- how this system worked, and then neficially in the administration of have extended or repealed it, accordjustice, then they could, by a subse- ing to the experience of its effects. quent act, be extended to the whole “ This is the manner in which any kingdom. On the other hand, if the man with common pretensions to experiment did not succeed, the evil be a statesman would have acted. is only local and partial, the expense This is the manner in which Lord trifling, and the act could be and Brougham set him the example of would be, of course, repealed. acting. This is the manner in which
“ Not so proceeds my Lord Grey. even the most rigid anti-reformer He does not cautiously feel his way would have given him credit for act-he does not apply the principle or ing, and probably would never have the details of his bill, or any one opposed him—for an anti-reformer, point, on a small scale at first, in sincere in his opinions, would have such a manner, that, if the measure been glad of a safe opportunity of was found either not to produce the seeing the evils he predicted verified good he predicted, or positively to in practice. lead to some or all of the evils pre- • What should we say of a farmer, dicted by others, it could be amends who, hearing of a new species of ed or repealed.
grain, of which he had no experience, “No-but with true epic frenzy, should sow at once his whole dispohe dashes into the midst of things at sable ground with it, at the risk of once-extends his experiment over losing all, instead of trying it at first the whole system-and this, although on one or two acres? Or what should he must be conscious, that, if he is we say of a physician, who, hearing mistaken in his hopes and expecta- of a new medicine, of which he had tions, if the experiment fails, and no experience, as a cure for fever, either produces no good, or positive should at once give it to the whole evil, it can never be altered, amend- fever patients in an hospital, instead ed, or recalled. You may withhold of cautiously trying it on one or two? a privilege from the people, if you “ Yet this is just what Earl Grey believe that it would prove hurtful has done. He has entered on a path even to themselves; but once give where there is no receding-vestigia them a privilege, and nothing but nulla retrorsum — facilis descensus military force can ever deprive them Averni — sed revocare gradus, hic of it. On the contrary, they will use labor, hoc opus est. It is easy for a VOL. XXIX. NO. CLXXXI.
great country to fall into a demo- the mob shall, in preference even cracy; but the rise from it is only to to the Lord Advocate, elect some military despotism, which was, and worthless demagogue. Their favour would have continued to be, the fate is no secure possession; and rarely of France, but for the madness of has it been long enjoyed by genius the despot.—Yours, &c.
and virtue. What measures may be “ Senex.” popular with an Edinburgh mob, and
what men their idols, after a few Were there a few more newspapers sittings of a Reformed Parliament, in Scotland like the excellentone from it is not for Tories like us to prowhich we have quoted these excel- phesy; but this we know, that some lent letters, (and which we strenu- of the measures will be such as his qusly recommend to the patron- Lordship, if faithful to the principles age of all true men,) maintaining the of his past political life, will spurn same principles with the same talent at with indignation, and some of the and temper—and out of Edinburgh men, such as he, a gentleman, would there unfortunately are now none be loath to admit into his society or such to our knowledge, except the friendship. Democrats must have Glasgow Herald and the Glasgow their demagogue; but “the AdvoCourier-both admirable-and the cate” has few of the good, and none Dumfries Journal, and, may we hope, of the bad qualities that might fit a the Paisley Advertiser- the minds man for that office. For he wants of the lower and middle orders would the vulgar nerve and commonplace have an antidote provided against the decision which may be numbered poison of false notions, and, if we among the good—and of recklessmay use an expression which, we be- ness, insolence, hypocrisy, and ferolieve, is in Junius, false facts, which city, which are a few of the bad, and the ignorant, always credulous, and among the most essential, he is as especially in times of such political ex- destitute as a child or a gentlecitement, unsuspectingly and greedi- man. ly swallow from the hands of de- The democratic spirit, whether signing, and dangerous, and wicked widely extended or not over Scotmen, who, they suppose, are their land, we, who know something of friends and physicians, but who are the population, shall not pretend to the worst of quacks and enemies. declare; but certainly it bas, within
And now, in good earnest, we these few weeks, shewn itself more are about to conclude, and, as we undisguisedly, and spoken more viobegan—and hope likewise continued lently, than we had ever feared to -in good-humour, at least with our- see or hear among our rural dwell. selves, and about one half of the ers. The disgraceful conduct of the world. We do not mean that better mob in Lanark, at the county elechalf which is called the fair sex-but tion, kept the Edinburgh mob in the Tory Segment of the Circle, countenance, and shewed that the which is in itself, we firmly believe, town had stained the country; while were it visible through mist and gentlemen of birth and education, cloud, at least a semicircle, and yet while pretending to be shocked, or destined—for webehold itcrescent- perhaps really so, with the scene in in clear autumnal nights to expand the church, and averse to the murinto the most beautiful of all figures, dering of the Tory candidate with and, like the full harvest moon, hang broken bottles, held such language like a silver lamp in Heaven. in the inn as was admirably calcu
In bidding farewell-perhaps for lated to foster the savage spirit that ever and a day-perhaps but for a gave rise to such an outrage. But few months—to the Edinburgh Election, allow us to say that the
“ The blood of Douglas will protect it
popular candidate may not always be
self," such a man as Mr Jeffrey. When And with that sentiment—which is the hustings have been erected at of general application to all good the Cross, the day may come when men-Farewell !
DR PARR AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES.
ABOUT the year 1789, Dr Parr was punished openly." Finally, coming involved in two literary broils—the nearer to the true purpose of the one purely offensive, the other nearly whole, he avows that " it was inso—though, as usual, the doctor tended to lessen the number of those coloured them to his own mind, as who speak too well of Bishop Hurd.” measures of just retaliation. The Vain and tortuous disguises of first was his republication of a for- malice self-betrayed! Now, let us gotten pamphlet, written by Bishop hear the true lurking motives to this Warburton, and afterwards anxious- almost unprincipled attack, which ly suppressed by his orders; and Dr Parr so studiously masked under to this he united another, “by a pretexts of public purposes. One Warburtonian,” viz. Bishop Hurd; writer tells us, that Parr, on a visit prefixing to the whole a preface, to Hartlebury, (the Bishop of Worand a most rhetorical dedication, cester's residence,) had been disfrom his own pen, in which he la- missed with little ceremony, and bours to characterise both the bi- with hospitable attentions either none shops, but especially the living one, at all, or so chilling as to pique in terms that, whilst wearing some his pride. This anecdote, however, shew of justice, should also be as we have reason to think, refers to a sarcastic and as injurious as possible. period subsequent to the original The mere act of reviving what the offence. Perhaps this might first authors themselves had been zealous arise, as a mutual offence, in a case to suppress, is already sufficiently where the bishop drew upon himself offensive, and expressive of a spite the ferocious resentment of Parr, by ful mind, had the preface even been his hesitation in passing one of Parr's spared. What are we to consider friends, then a candidate for holy orthe provocation to a piece of mischief ders. Even this resentment, however, so puerile, and apparently so wan- was possibly no more than the first ton ? Listen to the doctor, and you expression of Parr's secret mortificawill suppose that no motive but the tion at the bishop's private opinion purest and most philanthropic had of his sermon on education. Nogoverned him: Leland had been thing travels faster in this world than “most petulantly insulted, and Jortin the ill-natured critiques of literary most inhumanly vilified.” Well- men upon each other; and Parr proand what then? Better men than bably heard from a thousand quarever stood upon their pins have ters that Hurd had expressed his disbeen insulted and vilified, nay, hus- like to the style, or the prepostetled, floored, smashed, and robbed of vous length of this “vernacular sergold watches and seals. Besides, mon.” That this anecdote is true, hard words break no bones. And nobody doubts who remembers the why could not the two dissenters pointed manner in which Parr bimhave settled their own quarrels with self alludes, in his dedication, to the two bishops? In effect, they had Bishop Hurd's “ rooted antipathy done so. Why must Dr Parr in- to long vernacular sermons from Dr trude his person into the row, long Parr." after it was extinct, and when three Such are often the true motives out of four parties interested were even of good men, when their perin their graves ? Oh, but, says Drsonal feelings are roused. The whole Parr, the example was the thing: pretence of Parr was a fiction. Jorneither of the offenders had been tin and Leland were already avenpunished; and their impunity, if to- ged: both had retaliated upon Hurd, lerated, would encourage future and, as Parr fancied, with success: bishops to the same species of offence. the one, he said, had “ chastised” He was resolved to deter others Hurd with “ wiť-the other had from supposing “that what has been “baffled” him with “argument.” So repeatedly and deliberately done in many cudgellings for one crime were secret, will not, sooner or later, be out of all rule. « These two.excel
lent men,” says Parr, “ were not to tempt of Hume. He was incensed be annoyed again and again by the with another worthy bishop for insipoisonous arrows of slander.” Nei- diously calling Lardner " industrither was this excellent bishop to be ous," as though, in raising such a “ again and again” pulled up to the pile as the Credibility of Gospel public bar, and annoyed for having History, (a work which, to our knowannoyed them.“ Tit for tat” all the ledge, once broke a man's spinal world over; and if a man, being bone, so many and so stout are its fap," as Pistol observes, and also too volumes !) he had no other merit lively with young blood, will “try than that of supporting his " wife conclusions, and perhaps "assault and family." Why, then, my Sam, and batter” a leash of worthy men, did you not visit for these offences ? he must pay. But having paid-(as, This question, so far as it regards suppose, five pounds)—then, at Bow- Hume, Sam answers himself. street or anywhere else, he is held land and Jortin,” says he," had entitled to his five pounds worth of a right to expect from their clerical battery. He has bought it, settled opponent a milder and more respectthe bill, and got a stainped receipt. ful treatment than that given to a For them to claim further payment sceptic who scoffed at all the princi-entitles him to further battery. ples of religion.”
." * By no means, But one argument shall put down doctor; we beg your pardon. LeDr Parr's pretences. Were Jortin land and Jortin had a right to fair and Leland the only parties to whom play; and to so much, every man, Hurd or Warburton had furnished Tros Tyriusve, has the same right. actionable matter? Not by a hun- But, once for all, let us hear an andred. They had run a muck at all swer to this: If Leland and Jortin the men who lay in their path. To had a privileged case by comparison go no farther than one of Parr's with Hume, and a claim upon Hurd's friends : Bishop Lowth and Hume forbearance, much more had Lowth had been assaulted with more injus- a privileged case as regarded Parr, tice than either of those for whom and a claim, it any man could have, Parr stood forward. Hurd had called upon his vindictive friendship. For Hume“
a puny dialectician.” Now Lowth had been Parr's earliest pathis was insolence. Hume, even as tron. How comes it, then, that he a litterator, was every way superior left Lowth to the protection of Proto the bishop; but, as a dialectician, vidence ? Lowth, it will be said, reHume to Hurd was a Titan to a dressed his own wrongs. True. He pigmy. The Essay on Necessary did so; but so did all of themConnexion, which was the seed that Hume, Jortin, Leland, and the “tottle has since germinated into the mighty of the whole.” Supposing, thereforest of German philosophy, was fore, Dr Parr sought a case for hardly in one sentence within Kurd's his Quixotism, in which he might comprehension. As to Lowth, we avenge a man that was past avenging would not quarrel with those who himself, why did he not swinge his should fasten a quarrel upon him. patron, Lowth, for taking liberties
But, if that is our way of think- with Richard Bentley? This case ing, it was not Parr's. He was in- was a very bad one; the “petulance" censed at Hurd for his depreciation of Hurd could not be worse than the of Lowth. He was incensed with petulance of Lowth; and what a difhim, and justly, for his affected con- ference in the objects of their attack !
* Dr Parr adds" and who had endeavoured to loosen the strongest obligations of morality." These words are likely to be overlooked, as though they were thrown in merely to round the rhythmus of the sentence, or (if really significant) importing no more than that relaxation of morals which naturally accompanies the shaking of religious sanctions. But more is meant than this; and there is a mystery in the matter which we cannot fathom. For elsewhere (vol. iii. p. 378), he speaks of the destructive consequences of Hume's Essays “ to the sacred interests of morality :"-and still more pointedly in another place (on Politics, Jurisprudence, &c. vol. iii. p. 283), he speaks of Hume as having
taught the inconsiderate and the innocent to think with diminished horror not of adultery only, but of other impurities too flagitious to be named.” What does he mean?