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having a feeling for the play of character which Shakespeare takes so much pains to unfold to us.

These phrases, “this present quality of war,” and "the instant action," and "a cause on foot" are synonymous; and the repetition in different forms is simply Bardolph's way of insisting, of drilling into Hastings' head, that we must deal with the thing before us here and now. After Yes” the words it does hurt are to be understood. For in giving a direct answer, yes or no, the query is included in the sense. If the reader will put these words after “Yes” the first time he reads the passage for himself, the grammatical structure of the sentence will become so plain that the length of it cannot possibly entangle him. Hastings has said, “It never yet did hurt,” and when a man replies Yes to this he means of course, “Yes, it does hurt.” The shorter form makes Bardolph's reply more incisive, curt and direct, in keeping with the spirit of the moment.

If the reader will now examine the various texts at the head of this explanation he will see that their statements are impossible.

Neilson's preference, in some regards, is the best. But he has changed "indeed” to “needed,” which is unnecessary and has no authority. His putting a period after action makes a separate statement of what follows: “A cause on foot lives so in hope," etc. This would refer to all causes, or wars, on foot, and

this will not bear examination; for many wars actually on foot are very certain in their outcome and do not stand so entirely “in hope" as is here stated.

The Globe text is the worst, for it has not even the merit of showing that the editors had a notion of what they meant themselves — which the other renderings, to a certain ex

tent, do.

In point of punctuation, that of Malone, which has been much followed, is the best because it shows these three phrases as being synonymous and parallel. But the change to in where the Folio has if, is fatal. It makes Bardolph say, “Yes; in this present quality of war lives so in hope,” which is not even English and could not convey any idea. The reason of all this is simply that the editors have not had the idea themselves; and in editing the text they had to make some effort. The

passage has never been correctly printed. The careless punctuation of the First Folio mixed up the sense, and since then it has gone from bad to worse because of the efforts to make something out of it by changing the words. The printers of the First Folio could not punctuate; for in order to punctuate you must understand the sense. In cases where they did not follow the drift of things they threw in colons or commas at random. The First Folio is the worst edited work of any great importance that the world has ever seen; the palpable errors run

up into many thousands. The original text, reproduced exactly, is as follows:

L. Bar. Yes, if this present quality of warre
Indeed the instant action: a cause on foot,
Lives so in hope: As in an early Spring,

We see th' appearing buds, etc. But, as punctuation is a mere matter of following the sense, and as Shakespeare's sense is so tacit because of the close interrelations and organic cogency of his work, it is an easy matter to remedy the random commas and colons. And when this method makes the most convincing and luminous sense it is a satisfaction to know that we at least have the words that Shakespeare wrote.

THE HUMAN MIND

error.

Duke S. Dost thou believe, Orlando, that the boy
Can do all this that he hath promised?

Orlando. I sometimes do believe, and sometimes do not;
As those that fear they hope, and know they fear.

(As You Like It, v, 4, 4) The words of this last line have been changed in every conceivable way in the effort to get a meaning out of it. Close study over the possible idea began with Bishop Warburton and Samuel Johnson, since when dozens of editors and critics have offered emendations on the theory that the difficulty is due to typographical

As none of these conjectures have proved self-evident, the Globe marks it as a crux. It is still suspected of being a "corrupt line.

The words are correct as they stand. The line deals with the faculty of apperception; and Shakespeare is applying this peculiar ability of the mind to the most embarrassing problem with which it can deal — the struggle between hope and reason. It could not possibly be expressed more exactly than in the above words.

Shakespeare is here dealing with a man whose mind is under the influence of the most passionate hope a man may have — that of

love. The fulfillment of his hope is made to rest on the slightest of all forms of evidence, a promise. The promise in this case is not made by the other person involved, but by a mere boy who has no apparent ability to bring it to pass; the boy's promise is beyond all reason. Thus we have an inward contest of the strongest kind — the contest between hope, which is always inclined to believe without evidence, and reason, which does not believe except with evidence. The man tries to make up his mind, and, as this is impossible, the mind's attention is turned toward itself and is driven to an attempt at self-analysis — apperception.

Orlando is deeply in love with a nobleman's daughter. He has not courted her, has not even mentioned his love to her, and he is away off in the forest where she, it would seem, could not possibly be. Along comes a boy who most emphatically promises that he will bring the young woman in a short while and that she will at once marry him.

The human mind, with its embarrassing apperceptive faculty, could hardly be put in a more distressing plight than such an inward struggle - the contest between hope and reason over so important and so insistent a thing as love. A man cannot stop thinking about it and yet he can never come to any reasonable conclusion.

We only hope in a case of doubt. Doubt arises from a lack of evidence. To believe

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