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The pastor came :
locks Hallowed his brow of thought and care ; And, calmly as shepherds lead their flocks,
He led into the house of prayer.
The pastor rose: the prayer was strong;
He spoke of wrongs too long endured,
And grasping in his nervous hand
The imaginary battle-brand,
Even as he spoke, his frame, renewed
A moment there was awful pause,
When Berkley cried, “ Cease, traitor! cease!
God's temple is the house of peace!”
His holiest places then are ours,
That frown upon the tyrant foe;
And now before the open
Its long reverberating blow,
The great bell swung as ne'er before:
Was, “ WAR! WAR! War!”
“ Who dares” this was the patriot's cry, As striding from the desk he came —
“ Come out with me, in Freedom's name, For her to live, for her to die ?” A hundred hands flung up reply, A hundred voices answered “I!”
ENUNCIATION AND PRONUNCIATION
48. The elements of speech SPEECH is made up of vowel and consonant sounds com, bined to form words. Distinctness and accuracy depend, therefore, on the clear and correct enunciation of these elements.
1. The vowels. Vowels are the more open sounds of language. They are made by the vibration of the vocal chords, and differentiated by modification in the shape of the oral cavity, effected chiefly by the tongue and the jaw. When the vowels are well sounded there is little constriction of the tongue or jaw, their action is free and easy, and the mouth is held as far open as the character of the vowel permits. (In speaking “å,” for example, the jaw is dropped farther than for sounding “ē,” but for both vowels the mouth is fairly well opened.)
For the correct utterance of vowels two things are essential. First, the speech organs must be properly placed for forming the sounds; second, the sound must be made. Since the ability to make the sounds of our language is acquired mainly through the sense of hearing, written ins struction in this matter, when instruction is needed, is of doubtful value. Incorrect formation of these sounds can best be remedied by the aid of a teacher. But it is worth while here to call attention to the necessity of sounding the vowels and to suggest certain methods of improving speech in this respect.
Much of indistinctness in speech is due to carelessness in enunciating the vowels. Often they are spoken with slight regard for their quantity, either of vocality or of time, and frequently they are not spoken at all. Every vowel, having a share in the sound of a word, should receive a definite stroke of the voice, sometimes slight, to be sure, but nevertheless audible. If all syllables were accented, it is likely that we should bave little cause for saying much about the utterance of vowels. The unaccented vowels are the ones neglected.
When one speaks to a single individual, most of one's attention is given to that person, but, if others gather about to listen, the attention is directed to them also. While one member of the group may receive more attention than the rest, none is ignored. To turn one's back on one of the number would be rude and discourteous. Now, attention in the utterance of words is analogous in some respects to that given to a small group of people one is addressing. A word of one syllable, when standing alone, is usually treated with due respect, but when several syllables are combined to form a word, the less important ones receive relatively slight attention and sometimes, because of haste or thoughtlessness, none at all. No special effort to give the vowels their proper quantity is necessary in speaking such words as call fall
prove pose But when an unaccented syllable is prefixed to the word, some effort may be necessary, and the speech of many persons would be more distinct and intelligible if the effort were consistently made. Speak this next list of words with attention to the unaccented syllables, as well as to the accented.
Try the following words, in which two unaccented syl. lables precede the accented. Be careful to sound all the vowels.
disavow disapprove contradict'
misconstrue' disappear intervene Unaccented syllables following an accented are no less subject to neglect. Sound both syllables in
voice'less low'ly count'ing coun'ty ar'my
con'scious Unstressed syllables preceding and following the accented syllable afford a good test of one's accuracy and habits of enunciation.
impor'ted dejected discours'ing insip'id
unques'tionable reconcilia'tion intelligibil'ity intellectual'ity fortitu'dinous Practice the following list of words, being careful to sound all the vowels and to give to each its normal quantity. Go over the list often, until careful and accurate habits of enunciation are formed. dis-own' ab-stract
at-tract dis-solve a-bridge
ad-vance' di-rect' di-vert ad-here a-dult'
al-ly' dis-course' re-source