of which was played by a body of six thousand foot, and the other by a vast number of sailors; which may serve to give us some idea of this terrible engine. —It is mentioned by the prophet EZEKIEL, chap. iv. 1, 2. and xxi. 22; and Ne

buchadnezzar, we find, made use of it at the siege of Je1024. [Joshua vi. 4, 5.) And seven priests shall bear be- rusalem, fore the ark seven trumpets of rams' horns :—and it shall

Univer. Hist. vol. xvi. p. 593, Note (9). come to pass, that when they make a long blast with the rams' horn, and when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout ;—and the wall of the CITADEL shall fall down fut, and the people shall 1027. [Joshua vi. 20.] In India, Chica Nayakana Hully ascend up, every man straight before him.

is a large square town, strongly fortified with mud walls, and The trumpets, to be used by the priests, having bruches, or cavaliers at the angles. In its centre is were made of silver. See Num. X. 2,3, 4, 5, &c.

a square citadel, fortified in a similar manner. In the outer If we refer to Deut. xx. 19, 20, where direction is given

town a wide street runs all round, and on both hands sends respecting the using of trees in the siege, and examine the

off short lanes to the outer and inner walls. The houses do not true import of the Hebrew terms used in this passage, we

really occupy the whole space within the walls : they are in shall see reason to conclude that the walls of Jericho were

number about 600, of which 80 are occupied by Brahmins. beaten down by the horns of the battering-ram.

- Bellurce, also, is a large town, and both suburbs and citadel Of this instrument there were different kinds. The first

are strongly fortified with a mud-wall and ditch. simply a large beam, which the soldiers bore in their arms,

Buchanan, in Pinkerton's Coll. vol. viii. and with one end of it, by main force, assailed the walls.

pp. 692, 697. The second is thus described by JOSEPHUS : “ The ram is a vast long beam, like the mast of a ship, strengthened at une end with a head of iron, somewhat resembling that of a ram, whence it took its name. This is hung by the middle, with

1028. [Joshua vi. 20, 21.] TIMUR ordered, that the inharopes, to another beam which lies across two posts; and

bitants of Balk, who had shut themselves up in the citadel, hauging thus equally balanced, is by a great number of men

with their late princes, should return to their old city, and violently thrust forward, and recoiled backward, and so

rebuild it. The citadel, as well as palaces of Hussayn, were shakes the wall with its iron head ; nor is there any tower or also razed to the foundations; and every thing belonging to wall so thick or strong, as to resist the repeated assaults of

him destroyed, that there might remain no footsteps of a this forcible machine”. –The third only differed from the

prince so hated. former, in that it was covered with a screen to guard the

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v. p. 227. soldiers.

Mr. FELIBIEN describes a fourth sort of battering-rams, which ran on wheels; and was the most perfect and effectual of them all. — But it is not probable that either this, or the third

1029. sort was used on this occasion. It is more likely, that seven

The emperor Napoleon contented himself of the first or second kind were carried to the assault,

with ordering the destruction of the citadel and military pre

establishments in Moscow, without doing any thing to ruin ceded by seven priests with seven trumpets, which they might sound as a signal when the engines were to be forcibly

individuals already too much unhappy by the consequences of impelled. See 2 Sam. xx. 15. - JOSEPHUS (Antiq. lib. v.

Twenty-sixth French Bulletin. Borowsk, c. 1.) calls these simply horns. They were rams' horns, as

Oct. 23, 1812. they were sounded for direction in playing the battering-rums.




At Corinth, says Dr. EDWARD DANIEL CLARKE, we saw nothing worth notice, except an Arcadian pipe, ou which a shepherd was playing in the streets. It was perfectly Pandæan; consisting simply of a goat's horn, with five holes for the fingers, and a small aperture at the end for the mouth. It is exceedingly difficult, he adds, to produce any sound whatever from this small instrument; but the shepherd made the air resound with its shrill notes; and we bought his pipe.

1030. [Joshua x. 12.] And Joshua said to the LORD, In the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon ; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.

Philolaus, the Pythagorean, taught long before Copernicus, that our Sun is at the centre of his system. —Galileo was the first in Europe who found out the gravity of the air, and demonstrated the Earth's motion round the Sun.-Yet he, in a prison of the Inquisition, was


APPIAN relates, that the Romans-battered the walls of Carthage with two rams of immense size, one

Similar appearances of an opposite movement occur at the southern pole, under that infernal sun which Joho saw black as sack-cloth of hair ; Rev. vi. 12.

obliged to retract on his knees the sublime truth which he had demonstrated.

This inquisition, commencing at Rome in 1204, during the first Crusades, spread rapidly over Italy, Spain and Portugal; and soon, through those nations, devastated greatly the Coasts of Asia and Africa, and more than half depopulated America. In 1566, it instigated the Dutch to cast off the Spanish yoke, and the Northern nations of Europe to separate from the Church of Rome; it also obliged those to the South who

remained Catholics, to oppose the most powerful barriers to - it: afterwards, like a ferocious wild beast, turning on its

keepers for want of other prey, it ceased not to diffuse terror
over the Countries which had given it birth ; it being the
will of God, by an act of universal justice, that intolerant
Nations should find their punishment in the very tribunals of
Their intolerance.
St. PIERRE's Works, vol. ij.

p. 18.-
vol. iv. pp. 286, 288, 316.


The LORD appears in the third heaven to the celestial angels as a sun; and to the spiritual angels as a moon. (SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 1529.) See Matt. xvii. 2. Isai. XXX. 26. Rev. xxi. 23. —xxii. 5. Exod. xxiv. 10.

Thy Sun shall no more go down ; neither shall thy Moon withdraw itself; for the LORD shall be thy everlasting light. Isai. Ix. 20.

That sun is not the LORD Himself, but from the LORD. His Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, proceeding, appear in that world as a Sun; and, subordinately, as a Moon.

The sun of the natural world is far beneath the sun of the spiritual world. It is in a mean distance : above it is the spiritual world; below it, the natural world.

Divine life is internally in the fire of the sun of the spiritual world, but externally in the fire of the sun of the natural world.

Respecting the Sun from which angels have their light and heat, it appears above the earths which they inhabit, in an elevation of about forty-five degrees, which is a middle altitude; and it appears distant from them, as the sun of this world from men.

It appears also constantly in that altilude and at that distance; and neither does it move.

The spiritnal suu around the LORD is similar to the sphere around every angel proceeding from his affections and thoughts. By this sphere an angel's presence is exhibited equally to those near and afar off.

SWEDENBORG, Divine Love, nn. 86, 97,

s , 153, 157, 104, 291,


The best astronomers of Hindostân hold the sun to be in the centre of our system.

See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi.

p. 274. Note (M).


Spinosa is of opinion, that there was no cessation of the sun and moon's motion; and attributes the extraordinary length of that day to the refraction of the sun's rays by the clouds, which were more than usually loaded with hail.

THOMPSON's Trav. vol. ii. p. 81.


In the sight of Israel.] The SUN OF 1033.

It seems

as if this command (Joshua HEAVEN appeared indeed to the Israelites; but, like the x. 12) were in the evening, when the light of the (natural) PILLAR OF THE CLOUD to Pharaoh and his host, it was invisisun came from the west, and that of the moon from some ble or complete darkness to the Amorites: See Exod. xiv. 20. other point. (HUTCHINSON's Nat. Hist. p. 208.) -None of the Antients, nor of the Inspired Writers, ever said or even supposed, says HUTCHINSON, that the snn moved round

1037. [Joshua x. 12, 13.] Then spake Joshua to the LORD the earth.

in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before See his Princip. part ii. p. 445.

the Israelites; and he said, In the sight of Israel stand Thou still, a Sun, upon Gibeon, and a Moon in the valley of Ajalon. And He stood still, a sun; and stayed, a moon, until the

people had avenged themselves on their enemies. —Thus the 1034.

The earth daily inclines one of its Poles LORD is a sun and shield. Ps. lxxxiv. 11.-God is that toward the sun, till its axis has formed on the plane of its glorious Sun, from whom (as beams) all created perfections annual circle an angle of twenty-three degrees and a half; flow, and in whom they all concentre. (Boyle's Seraphic it then by a retrograde motion presents to him with equal Love, p. 56.) - The earth tnrning towards the natural sun, regularity the opposite Pole. (See St. Pierre's Studies of and from the spiritual; when the natural sun sets in the west, Nature, vol. ii. p. 257.) —Whilst the earth inclines her the spiritual sun must necessarily rise there and proceed in an no.thern pole to the natural sun over which she is revolving, inverse direction, till, after a whole spiritual day, the two suns she presents at the same time her upper surface to the spiri- again meet in the east, and the natural proceeds , as usual, in tual sun under which she is passing; and whilst in appear- || its regular course. ance, the natural sun passes from east to west, the spiritual | See No. 796, 579. sun is passing in a contrary direction from west to east.


the storms and thunders they produce fall on that globe they came from, and there do all their mischief: so the wicked may wrong God indeed, yet do they really harm but themselves by all their greatest sins, which trouble his compassion, only as they necessitate him to return from his heavenly Presence their own evil spheres in just punishinents on their own heads.

See Boyle's Seraphic Love, p. 87.

1038. [2 Kings xx. 11.] And Isaiah the prophet cried unto the LORD: and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down in the dial of Ahaz.

A similar effect is mentioned to have been produced at Metz, in Alsace, in the beginning of the eighteenth century; where, says Rosenmuller, by the refraction of a cloud, the shadow of the gnomon was turned back to the hour and half preceding.”--See the Comments of Scheidius apud Rosenmuller.

Meghaloth (Hebr.), signifying steps or stairs, is rendered by the Septuagint anabathmous (Grk.); and hy the Chaldee paraphrasts a stone of time, the Jews not having a name for hours before the captivity. -As the invention of gnomon-dials is attributed to Anaximander, who did not flourish till nearly 200 years after the reign of Hezekiah ; we feel inclined to believe that this meghaloth must have been a kind of steep ascent, leading up to the gate of the palace, and marked at

proper distances with figures, shewing the division of the day; rather than a regular piece of dial-work. —Some ornaments, such as pyramids, obelisks, flower-pots (stone-lions -1 Kings X. 20), or the like, might have been placed ou the rails or battlements of the ascent, whose shadow being in time observed to go over those steps, at certain periods of the day, might naturally induce some curious observer to mark down the several portions of the day; first into four parts, according to the Jewish custom of dividing it, and then into as many subdivisions as were thought proper. Thus by the refraction of a cloud or other means, the shadow of the lion or other oruament serving as a gnomon, might be thrown back again over the ten steps or degrees which it had already past.

See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 84. Also Frag.

to CALMET, 3d Hundr. p. 161.

1041. [Isai. xlv. 7.) The good and true spheres sent down from the Lord through the heavens into the hells, are in their descent changed by degrees into evil and false spheres; and, as received in the hells, are direct opposites to what were sent down : just as the white light of the sun is turned into disagreeable colors, even into black, in objects whose substances are interiorly in such a form, as to suffocate and extinguish the light. Thus it may appear, that things evil or injurious to man are from the spiritual sun of heaven, but that what are good and useful are turned into the things evil and injurious in hell. Hence it is evident that the LORD never did nor does create any but good and useful things ; but that hell reproduces them evil and injurious.

SWEDENBORG's Divine Love, n. 348.

1042. (1 Sam. xvi: 23.] We have an instance, in the His. tory of the Academy of Sciences, of a musician who was cured of a violent fever by a concert played in his chamber.

St. Pierre's Wonders of Nature and

Art, vol. ii. p. 40, Note.


Pythagoras, we are told, composed mu. sic capable of removing the most violent passions, and of reclaiming vicious characters to order and moderation. (See Rational Recrea. vol. ii. p. 430.) —At Cairo there is a large hospital where the sick and insane were formerly provided with every thing that could tend to soothe their distress, not excepting eveu music. From the insufficiency of the funds, the music had been retrenched, but has been since restored by the charity of a private person.

NIEBUHR's Trav. vol. i. p. 61.


The first son-dial among the Romans, which divided the day into hours, was fixed on the temple of Quirinus by the censor L. Papyrius, about the 12th year of the wars with Pyrrhus.

See PLINY, Nat. Hist. l. i. cap. 20.



Music, it seems, has a temporary effect in soothing even ferocious animals. —There are dancing snakes, carried in baskets throughout Hindostan, that procure

a maintenance for a set of people, who play a few simple [1 Sam. xvi. 23.] And it came to pass, when the evil notes on the flute, with which the snakes seem much spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an

delighted, and keep time by a graceful motion of the harp, and played with his hand; so Saul was refreshed, head; erecting about half their length, and following the and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him. music with gentle curves, like the undulating lines of a swan's

neck. When the music ceases the snakes appear motionless; 1040. (1 Sam. xvi. 14.] As, when the earth sends up

but if not immediately covered up in the baskets, the spectators black, noisoine, and sulphureous exhalations towards the sky,

are liable to fatal accidents. they reach not heaven, nor discompose the spheres; but all

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.



Alexander, says Plutarch, did not aban- point. He believed that the address came from one of the don bimself to those excesses which sullied the conclusion of dead in the chapel, waruing him to prepare for death.” his life, till he believed himself forsaken of Divine aid.

GARNETT's Tour in Scotland, vol. i. p. 138. In illustration of this melancholy sentiment, there is said to be in the gallery of Florence a fine bust of the Grecian Hero, with the face half turned toward Heaven, deeply impressed 1047. (1 Sam. xxviii. 8.] The Pythoness, who gave the with an indignant air of chagrin and dissatisfaction. —How answers of the Delphian oracle, the most famous of all antipowerfully would such a bust illustrate the state of Saul's quity, washed berself and ate soine laurel leaves, a plant well spirit, ungraciously deflected "from God.

known for its intoxicating powers, before she ascended the See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, tripod. Thus prepared and seated, a prodigious noise was vol. iii. p. 131.

made in the hollow body of the tripod beneath her, which added to the effect of the laurel, and an empty stomach, soon threw her into convulsions and a temporary madness; when, from the ambiguous rhapsodies she uttered, the deluded consultors were obliged either to deduct some meaning, or depart

in the same ignorance in which they came. 1046. (1 Sam. xxviii. 7.] Then said Saul to his servants,

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, Seek me a woman that hath a familiar spirit, that I may

vol.ii.p.54. go to her, and enquire of her. And his servants said to him, Behold, there is a woman that hath a familiar spirit at En-dor.

1048. (1 Sam. xviii. 15.] The pretenders to the art of What Saul here does is expressly forbid

necromancy, who were chiefly women, had an art of speakden, in Lev. xx. 27, and in Deut. xviii. 11. In both which

ing with a feigned voice; so as to deceive those that applied places, as here, the deceiving art is denominated Ob or

to them, by making them believe that it was the voice of the Aub; which, says Bryant, in his Analysis of Antient My ghost. From this art of the necromancers (ventriloquisen), thology, vol. i. p. 47, denotes “in the Egyptian language a

the popular notion seems to have arisen, that the ghost's voice serpent,or creeper : -as is the vine, the blood of whose

was a weak, inarticulate sound, very different from the grapes was formally inspected by the proficient in augury, or

speech of the living. (Bp. Lowth, on Isai. xxix. 4.)-In this by a mistress of Aub. The inspector on such occasions, was

way of deception by ventriloquism, we may understand the called by the Hebrews and Greeks Python ; by the Phæni

Roman historian Livy, when he tells us (lib, 35) that, to cians, Nachash. See Gen. ii. 1.

the great terror of the consul Domitius, an ox uttered these - 13. I saw aleim (Hebr.), a judge. We have here no di

words, Roma, cave tibi ;that is, Guard thyself, 0 rect proof that Saul saw Samuel; we rather have evidence that

Rome, from impending danger. he did not. For, had he himself seen Samuel, why need he ask the woinan what she saw ? Why should he ask her what form or appearance the judge bore? when by looking himself, he

1049. (1 Sam. xxviii. 14.] Aristotle, in his Meteors, might have actually known, not inferentially perceived

tells us of a person who always saw, or at least thought he merely, from the woman's description, that it was Samuel.

saw, another man's shape before his eyes. This philosopher Biblical Researches, col. i. p. 37.

offers also a reason, how such an appearance inight happen - 21. Some have thought this woman was a ventriloquist, naturally.--HYPPOCRATES, in bis Treatise Periparthenion who could cause her voice to come, apparently, as from another (Grk.), shews how several, both men and women, through at a distance. Why then needed she to absent herself, whilst natural causes, have fancied they saw daimonas (Grk.), Samuel apparently conversed with Saul? Yet the sacred devils or spirits. But they that are versed in Optics kuow, historiau affirms that the woman, as though absent during the

says he, that there is a way, through the help of glasses conversation, afterwards came to Saul, and saw that he was concealed from the view, to make moving shadows that shall sore troubled.—May not this, and other accounts of Hea- appear like ghosts, to the great terror of the ignorant bethen oracles, imputed to dentriloquism, be more rationally

holder: And it is said, he adds, that pretended astrologers explained by the following fact still in existence. _At a and fortune-tellers cheat many by those sights. little distance from Dunstaffnage Castle in Scotland, is a small

CASAUBON. roofless chapel of elegant workmanship : On the south side of it is a rock, one point of which stretches towards the chapel. If a person be placed on one side of the point, and speak aloud, the sound of his voice is heard on the other side, so distinctly reverberated from the chapel, as to make one ima- 1050. [1 Kings iv. 30, 31.] And Solomon's wisdom exgine it comes from a person within the ruin. —It is reported, celled the wisdom of all the children of the east country, that a few years since, a man contracted an illness, which and all the wisdom of Egypt. For he was wiser than all terminated in death, on hearing a sermon on mortality read to him by an alarming voice, in the dusk of the evening, by a

Solomon was wiser than all mnen; beperson who had concealed himself on the opposite side of the cause he read the Book of Nature, under the influence of

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* Nature's God.” – It was impossible for him to meet there with any erroneous doctrines, any contradictory opinions, any controversial debates, or in short, any rancor, or prepossession. - This library lies for ever open ; and if we will but make use of our eyes, we may depend on finding, without any manner of fatigue, more wholesomne admonitions than can be met with in any books, besides the Sacred Scriptures ; on which indeed, the Book of Nature, wben properly read, is undoubtedly the best, the only unerring Comment.

See Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 122.

1056. [1 Kings xi. 18—20.] In the island of Formosa, and among some tribes of the Peruvians, daughters are more regarded than sons, because, as soon as i woman is married, contrary to the custom of other countries, she brings her husband home with her to her father's house, and be becomes one of the family; so that parents derive support and family-strength from the marriage of a daughter; whereas sons, on their marriage, leave the family for ever.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women,

vol. i. p. 186.


1051. [1 Kings iv. 29. God gave Solomon wisdom

1057.(1 Kings xi. 26.] Among the Hurons, the dignity of a the sand - on the sea-shore] That is, as the sand on the chief is not only hereditary, but descends in the female line; sea-shore incloses a great body of water, so Solomon's mind so that it is not the son of the chief, but his sisters son who coutained an ocean of knowledge.

succeeds him: and if this whole line be extinct, then the Lord Bacon. whole power of chusing another chief is vested in the noblest

matron. 1052. [ 1 Kings xi. 3.] And Solomon had seven hundred

Ibid. vol. i.p. 180. wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines : and his wives turned away his heart. It is not to be understood, that Solomon

KING'S MOTHER. took these women as real wives by whom he might have children. See this distinction between adopted and real wives,

1058. (1 Kings xv. 2.] She who is here called Maacbah expressly marked in Ezra x. 44.

the daughter of Abishalom, is in 2 Chron. xiji. 2, called See WALPOLB's Memoirs relating to Turkey, Month. Mag. col. xliv. p. 639. ED.

Mechaiah, the daughter of Uriel, of Gibeah. See Gen.

xxxvi. 2, &c. 1053.

Nashim (Hebr.), women of the first rank. Pelagshim (Hebr. occurs 36 tiines), women of rank also,

1059. but from dependant states. Botb respectively were represen

It had been conjectured by Mr. BARUH, tatives, and acted, probably, as jury women.

that the phrase — his mother's name, &c. when expressed on See No. 530.

a king's accession to the throne, at the beginuing of his history, does not necessarily refer to his natural mother.

This conjecture has been verified by the following extract: 1054.

In Persia, those Ladies of the haram, -On this occasion, says BRUCE, the king crowned his mother who are supposed to have there preserved their chastity, are Malacota wit, conferring on her the dignity and title of Iteghe, in due order given to the Great Lords for wives ; a thing or king's mother, as regent and governess of the king when which they all covet, in order to be delivered from the confinement they are under in the Palace. — These Ladies never go 2 Chron. xi. 21, 22. Ps. xlv. 9. Trav. vol. ii. p. 531. abroad but at night; when they are usually carried on camels

See BURDER, vol. ii.p. 148. to see the public spectacles without being seen themselves, in a sort of long hampers, or cradles, called kajaveh ; each of which is about two feet wide, and three deep, with an arched 1060.

Maachah was Asa's grandmother, and canopy over it, covered with cloth.

not his mother as described in 2 Chron. xv. 16: if however, See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v. pp. 455, 484. we look on the expression of king's mother to be only a title

of dignity, all the difficulty will cease; for this Maachah was

really Abija's mother, but when Abija came to be king, the 1055.

Abul Fazel describes the haram of em- dignity of king's mother, or the first in the rank of the royal peror Akber as an inclosure of such immense extent, as to family, was given to Micaiah, the daughter of Uriel, of contain a separate room for every one of the women, whose Gibeah ; and afterwards, on the death of Micaiah, that diynumber exceeded five thousand; who were divided into com- nity devolved to Maachah, and she enjoyed it, at the accession panies, and a proper employment assigned to each individual. of Asa her grandson, who afterwards degraded her for her Over each of these companies a woman was appointed idolatry. (RAPHAEL BARUH.) - This title of king's mother, darogha ; and one was selected for the control of the whole,

or queen, will receive culisiderable illustration froin the folin order that the affairs of the haram might be conducted with lowing extracts : the same regalarity and good government as the other depart- The Oloo Rani is not governess of the Crimea. This title, ments of the state.

the literal translation of which is Great Queen, simply deSee Forbes' Orient. Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 137. notes a dignity in the Haram, which the Khan usually coufers

under age.

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