on one of his sisters; or if he have none, on one of his daughters, or relations. To this dignity are attached the revenues

JONAH. arising from several villages and other rights. (Baron du TOTT, vol. ii. p. 64.) -Gusho had confiscated in the name 1063. [Jonah i. 17. --ii, 1,-6.] And Jonah was in the of the king, all the (Great) Queen's villages, which made belly of the fish three days and three nights. Then Jonah her believe that this offer of the king to bring her to Gondar, | prayed to the Lord his God out of the fish's belly, and was an insidious one. In order to make the breach the wider, said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again he had also prevailed on the king's mother to come to Gondar, toward thy holy temple. The depth closed me round about, and insist with her son to be crowned, and take the title and the weeds were wrapped about my head. state of Iteghe (Grand Queen). The king was prevailed on to

The Pistia stratiotes is a very singular gratify his mother, under pretence that the Iteghe bad refused aquatic plant. It associates in large communities, or floatto come on bis invitation ; but this, as it was a pretence only, ing islands, some of them a quarter of a mile in extent, so it was expressly a violation of the law of the land, which which are impelled to and fro, as the wind and current permits of but one Iteghe, and never allows the nomination may direct. In great storms, large masses of these floating of a new one, while the former is in life, however distant plains are broken loose, and driven from the shores, into the a relation she may be to the then reigning king. In conse- wide water, where they present a very entertaining prospect. queuce of this new coronation, two large villages, Tshemmera We see on them not only flowery plants, clumps of shrubs, old and Tocussa, which belonged to the Iteghe as appendages of weather-beaten trees, hoary and barbed, with the long moss her royalty, of course devolved on the king's owu mother, waving from their snags; but we also see them completely newly crowned, who sending her people to take possession, inhabited and alive, with crocodiles, serpents, frogs, otters, the inhabitants not only refused to admit her officers, but for- crows, herons, curlews, jackdaws, &c. cibly drove them away, declaring they would acknowledge no

See BARTRAM's Travels in America, p. 86. other mistress, but their old one, to whom they were bound by the laws of the land. BRUCE's Trav. vol. iv. p. 244. 1064. [Jonah i. 17.) Barrow, in one of his voyages, ration

ally observes that the sea-plant, generally denominated Gulfweed (from a supposition of its proceeding originally from the Gulf of Mexico), has neither roots nor fibrils of any kind to indicate that it ever was attached to rocks or shores; but its central stem, buried in the midst of its leafy branches, makes it sufficiently evident that it vegetates while floating on the

surface of the fathomless deep: some of these plants are many (1 Kings xvii. 6.] And the ravens brought him bread and

feet in diameter, others only a few inches ; all appear in a flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in the evening;

growing state, covered with fish, worms, insects, and testaceand he drank of the brook.

ous animals of various descriptions.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iv. p. 264. 1061. (1 Kings xvii. 4.] Some moderns make the word (raven) in the original a proper name; denoting either the Arabians, or the inhabitants of Horbo, or Orbo, at some small distance from Scythopolis.

1065. [Jonah ii. 5.) Governor Pownal has given us an

elegant map of this Gulf-stream, tracing it from the Gulf Gen. viii. 7.


of Florida north ward as far as cape Sable in Nova Scotia,

between the Canary islands and Senegal, increasing in breadth 1062. (1 Kings xvii. 6.] The ravens, the Hagarites or

as it runs, till it occupies five or six degrees of latitude. The

governor ascribes this current to the force of the trade-winds Blacks. (See, on the idea of ravens, Bib. Researches, vol. i. p. 19.)-As hagarim (Hebr.) signifies strangers, sojourners

protruding the waters westward, till they are opposed by

the contineut, and accumulated in the Gulf of Mexico. He or occasional visitants, it is probable those who brought Elijah food, moruing and evening, were persons previously

ingeniously observes, that a great eddy must be produced in

the Atlantic ocean (which communicates with the Mediterunknown to him, who coining there early and late to fetch

ranean) between this Gulf-stream and the westerly current water, and perceiving the prophet's distress, humanely brought him the necessaries of life.

produced by the tropical winds; and that in this eddy are

found the immense fields of floating vegetables, called SerayosaThus the American savages, till they are contaminated by

weeds, and Gulf-u eeds, and some light woods, which circuthe example and spiritous liquors of their more refined neighbours, continue to exhibit the most friendly and inoffensive

late in these vast eddies, or are occasionally driven out of conduct towards strangers.

them by the winds.

REES. CARVER's Trav. in N. America, p. 16.

1066. [Matt. xii. 40.). There is no whale in the Mediterranean, where Jonah was sailing.

See Dr. A. CLARKE.



1072. [John i. 9.] There is an innate light, a right reason, given to all, constant and eternal, calling unto duty by

commanding, and deterring from deceit by forbidding. It THE CHRISTIAN COVENANT.

cannot be abrogated, neither can any be freed from it, either

by senate or people. It is one, eternal and the same to all [Gal. iii. 20.] God is ONE.

nations ; so that there is not one at Rome, and another at

Athens. Whoso obeys it not, must flee from himself, and in 1067. [James ji. 19.] The conception of the most 'REAL this is greatly tormented, although he should escape all other BEING is formed in the following manver: We cannot place punishments. Him in time and space, the restrictive conditions of bounded

CICERO. existence. He is therefore to be considered as Omnipresent and Eternal, as Simple and Individual ; and this is the Transcendental conception of God.

1073. [Rom. i. 20.] What the sun and light are to this ΚΑΝΤ. . visible world, that, are the supreme Good, and Truth, to

the intellectual and invisible universe; and, as our corporeal

eyes have a distinct perception of objects enlightened by the 1068. (Gal. iii. 20.] “ If men were led into the appre- thus our souls acquire certain knowledge, by meditating hension of invisible intelligent power by a contemplation of on the ligbt of truth, which emanates from the Being of the works of nature, they could never possibly entertain any beings : that is the light by which alone our minds can be conception but of one single Being, who bestowed existence directed in the path to beatitude. and order on this vast machine, and adjusted all its parts,

Sir W. Jones' Works, vol. vi. p. 417. according to one regular plan and connected system. For though, to persons of a certain turn of mind, it may not appear altogether absurd, that several independent beings, endowed with superior wisdom, might conspire in the con

1074. (John i. 9.] Truth is the light of the soul, as trivance and execution of one regular plan ; yet is this à

physical light is the truth of bodies.

The two united convey merely arbitrary supposition, which, even if allowed possi

the knowledge of that which is: the one illuminates objects, ble, must be confessed neither to be supported by probability

the other points out to us their adaptations; and as in the

principle, all light traces its origin up to the sun, all truth has nor necessity. All things in the universe are evidently of a

its source in GOD, of whom that luminary is the most sensible piece. Every thing is adjusted to every thing. One design

image. prevails throughout the whole. And this uniformity leads the

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, mind to acknowledge one Author; because the conception of

vol. iv. p. 503. different authors, without any distinction of attribules or operations, serves only to give perplexity to the imagination, without bestowing any satisfaction on the understanding."


1075. [Ps. Ixxxiv. 11.] From the Sun of heaven, or from the LORD, there is not only light, but also heat, spiritual. This light, in the eyes of angels, appears like light, but has

in it the intelligence and a wisdom thence derived, and this 1069. [John i. 18.] The proper Essence and nature of God, precisely taken, is not divisible into parts and measures,

heat, to their senses, is perceived as heat, but in it there is

love, as what is thence derived. Wherefore also love is called as being a most pure, simple Being, void of all composition or division, and therefore can neither be resisted, hurt, wounded,

spiritual heat; and intelligence is called spiritual light, concrucified, or slain, by all the efforts and strength of men.

stiluting the light of man's life.

See SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 3636. BARCLAY's Apology for the Quakers, sect. xiii. p. 137.


Let us adore the supremacy of that divine Sun, the Godhead — who illuminates all, who recreates

all, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, whom 1070. [John i. 1.] In the beginning was the WORD, and we invoke to direct our understandings aright in our progress the WORD was with God and the WORD was God.

towards his holy seat. What is continuous from God, is God.

Sir. W. Jones' Works, vol. vi. p. 417, Wisdom vii. 24–27. SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, n. 55.


1077. [John viii. 29.] Light is coeval with the sun, though 1071.

The WORD.] _.“ The Logos, in Plato, as truly derived from it as a child from his father who begat signifies the Wisdom, the Reason of the Supreme Being.” him : they are truly and really distinct from each other, and (VOLTAIRE.) --Accordingly, says the Apostle, "we preach yet so much one and the same as tu be still inscparable. Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.” 1 Cor.i. 24.

Bp. BROWNE's Divine Analogy, p. 21. 1078. [John xiv. 28.] Dr. HERSCHEL has shewn by experiment that the focus of heat falls at the distance of half an inch from that of light. This will explain how, in appearance, the Father is superior to, and distinct from, the Son, in Deity; and yet united like Heat and Light.

1080. [1 John ii. 23.] He who adores an impersonal God, has none, and is without guide or rudder, on an immense abyss, that first absorbs his powers, and next himself. What nature will he honour who honours not the Human ? (LavaTER's Aphorisms, p. 189.) — The Man UnCreate is God.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, n. 18.

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1081. [Gen. i. 26.] Though the distinction of Soul, and [1 John v. 7.] There are three that bear record in hea- Body, and Spirit in man, be no direct proof of a Trinity ; yet ven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost : and it is, at least, a distant illustration of an incomprehensible these three are one.

Distinction in that Divine Nature, after whose likeness and in

whose own image we are so expressly said to be formed. 1079. [1 John v. 7, 8.] We observe in our mind three

Bp. Browne's Divine Analogy, p. 305. faculties, powers, or principles of action; will, reason, and effective power, -in themselves distinct, yet so united as to subsist in one and the same individual. In like manner, it is 1082. [Matt. i. 20.] Throughout the New Testament, reasonable to conceive three principles of action in the divine Jesus Christ and his Apostles, in speaking to God, or of or eternal Mind, analogous to those we experience in our- him, or quoting his Name from the Old Testament, never selves; the volitive, the imaginative, and the erecutive, - once use the term JEHOVAH. It is translated, however, in the distinctly, but inseparably united in the most perfect or real Apocalypse i. 8, into Greek, which denotes is, was, and to

come; intimating that the Appearance of God (like the being a perfect, independent, elective and self-determining | inage of the natural sun) is to-day, was yesterday, and principle endowed with perfect intelligence, cannot but be will be to-morrow, nearly vertical in the spiritual spheres of always the first principle of action in the divine Being; as a our earth, as it regularly turns round every twenty-four hours. perfect imaginative principle (which, superadded to intelli- This APPEARANE, or IMAGE OF God, is that Jesus gence or understanding, may be termed Wisdom and Reason) CHRIST, whom we shall meet in the air:1 Thess. iy. 17, cannot but be the second, and a perfect executive principle the third. --If the divine principle of Willing be what is meant by the Father, then it may very well be conceived, how all the divine actions should be thus primarily ascribed to Him, as being the first moving principle. It may then be very well conceived, how the Father should

[John i. 14.] And the Word was made fiesh, and dwelt be said to have created the worlds by his Word and Spirit;

among us (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the to have sent the Son ; and also to have sent and poured out

only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth. the Spirit.

And thus the seeming subordination of the Three Co-equals and Co-essentials in the Divine Economy, will, on

1083. [John i. 1.] That Wisdom, which created all this supposition, be sufficiently accounted fer : which cannot

things, is the same that came to reform the disorders of the but reflect great light on this venerable doctrine.

world. See COLLIBER's Christian Religion founded

Nature Displayed, vol. v. p. 62. on Reason, pp. 102 to 109.


The Father is the essential divine Spirit, “in whom we 1084. [Luke x. 22.] The Infinite cannot behold in finites live, move, and have our being"; the Son is the infinite hu- any thing but what is Infinite from Himself. Yet what is man Spirit, produced before all worlds, " the First-born of Infinite can appcar at finites as in thein. Thus there is given every creature," co-extensive with the Father, out of whom a ratio between what is finite and Infinite, not from what is all angels and souls of men have originally come, and by finite, but from the Infinite in finite. Thus also a finite whom they must, to be happy, be all vitally filled; and being is capable of what is Infinite, yet not a finite being that the Holy Spirit which came upon the Virgin at the incarna- is really finite in himself, but one apparently so from what tion, is what may be properly called the emanated Spirit of is; Infinite in himself by a continuous influx from the Infinite. Heaven in and around angels, and ever fillled with the Father

See SWEDENBORG, on Div. Prov. n. 54. and the Son in a threefold unity ; whilst the Holy Spirit which was not on earth till Jesus was glorified (John vii. 39), is what may be properly called the redeemed Spirit of our 1085. [Luke ii. 52. And Jesus increased in wisdom and Earth in and around Christians, which was assumed and stature] This increase of knowledge implies that Christ, purified first by the descent and labors of the Son, and then though the logos (Grk.) were his soul, had subordinately glorified by a further coming of the Father into a perfect from the mother a human spirit, as well as a human vody; and union with both, till there is now the same threefold Kingdom that this spirit, notwithstanding its union with his soul, of God on earth as in heaven.

was as capable of inprovement in wisdom, as the body was

of increase in strength and stature: which is undoubtedly the antient doctrine of the Christian church.

See Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 286.

1090. [Matt. xviji. 11.] It was human nature that was fallen, that had lost its heavenly life, and got a beastial, diabolical life in the stead of it. Now if this human nature was to be restored, there was but one possible way, it must go back to the state from whence it came, it must put off all that it had put on, it must regain all that it had lost. See No. 219.

Ibid. p. 186.

1086. [Luke xxii. 42.] Christ had his whole human nature, body and soul (or spirit), from his mother. (See KNATCHBULL, on Heb. ix. 1.) —"Now is my soul exceeding sorrowful, even to death.” —What was (by Christ) not assumed, was by him neyer healed (as to the union established) between the Infinite and Finite human spirit.


1087. [James i. 13. God cannot be tempted] It was the human spirit then, not the Divine, which was tempted in Christ by the evil influences he bore in the temple of his hody. -How differently lo those men argue, who attempt to persuade us, that the satisfying of Divine Justice, in atoning for the breach of a Divine Law, required, what is impossible, the sufferings and even the death of a Divine Victim

1091. [John iii. 16.] Nothing can be more repugnant, both to reason and Scripture, than to imagine that the end of our Saviour's coming into the world, and particularly of his death, was to satisfy God, or lo render Him favourable and propitious to men : He is always friendly, benevolent, and propitious to men ; that is, he always desires their happiness. But, in order to their attaining to all that happiness which he designs for them, sin must be removed, their moral dispositions inust be corrected; these are such a bar to their happiness, that wicked men would be miserable in heaven itself, in the company of saints and angels, and amidst the splendors that encompass the throne of God.

JAMESON, Preface to his Pentateuch, pp. iv, v.

1092. 1088. [Heb. ii. 18.] The Redeemer had in himself the

The doctrine of sacrifice, or vicarious echole Humanity, both as it was before and after the Fall, punishment, is the most universal, and yet, the most absurd viz, in his inward man the perfection of the first Adam, and of all religious tenets that ever entered into the mind of man ; in his outward the weakness and mortality of the fallen

so absurd is it, that how it came to be so universal is not easy nature.

to be accounted for. That there should be any manner of conLaw's Appeal, p. 188. uection between the miseries of one being and the guilt of

another; or that the punishing the innocent, and excusing the guilty, should be a mark of God's detestation of sin; or, that two acts of the highest injustice should make one of justice,

is so fundamentally wrong, so diametrically opposite to common THE END FOR WHICH OUR SAVIOUR APPEARED ON EARTH. sense, and all our ideas of justice, that it is equally astonish

ing that so many should believe it themselves or impose it [2 Cor. v. 19.] God was in Christ reconciling the World unto himself.

JENYNS' Works, vol. iii. p. 111.

upon others.

1089. [John X. 10.] Those who think they pay a just deference to the Wisdom and Omnipotence of God, when they

CHRIST'S SERMON ON THE MOUNT. suppose there was no absolute necessity for the Incarnation of the Son of God; but that God, if he had so pleased, could as 1093. (Matt. v. 17.] Think not that I am come to destroy well have saved inan some other way, shew as great igno- the law or the prophets : I am not come to destroy, but to rance both of God and nature, as if they should have said, || fulfil. that when God makes a blind man to see by opening or

Christianity and Judaism are not two regiving him eyes, there was no necessity in the thing itself, | ligions; but one religion in two different degrees of perfection. that sight should be given in that particular way, but that The one was the gay blossom, the other is the rich fruit; the God, if he had so pleased, could have made him become a one was the design, the other the execution. seeing man in this world without the eyes or light of this

ROBINSON. Bib. Research. vol. i.p.310. world.

For if the Son of God is the Light of Heaven, and man only wants to be redeemed, because he has lost the light of 1094.

All tlie change made by Christ and his heaven; is it not absolutely impossible for hiin to be redeemed Apostles from the antient establishments, was not pretended any other way, or by any other thing, than by a birth of this to be from Judaism to another religion, but only froin a cirSon of God in him. Is not this particularity the one only cumcision in the flesh, to a circumcision in the spirit; from thing that can raise fallen man, as seeing eyes are the only being of the seed of Abraham's flesh, to being the seed of his thing that can take away blindness from the man ?

faith, which he had being yet uncircumcised, &c. Ibid. p. 176.

DODWEL's One Atar, 8c. p. 17.


Thus the gospel differs from the moral true and real excellency and perfection of all moral religion law of the Jews, as a man at his full stature differs is within us, and seated in the heart; and accordingly the from himself when he was a child: The gospel continues whole substance of it is made to consist not only in the outall the lineaments and proportions, and only gives the ward deportinent and external discharge of all duties; but law a greater increase of all its parts; so that if you cut off chiefly in the inward rectitude and sanctification of the mind any one instance of genuine morality, you so far render cbris- and conscience. tianity maimed and deformed.

Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Under. Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Under

standing, p. 338. standing, p. 342.

1099. Matt. v. 2.] Blessed are the poor in spirit : for 1096. (Matt. xxiii. 26.] There are two things very dif

theirs is the kingdom of heaven. ferent from each other to be considered in all moral virtue in

By the poor in spirit, are meant those man. First, the inward frame, or temper, or disposition of

who, by their natural dispositions, are meek, quiet, teachable, the soul of man to virtue and holiness, in every particular

and submissive; or those who, by reflection and cultivation, instance. This is styled virtue or moral goodness in the true

have rendered their dispositions such ; and have eradicated propriety of the word; and in Scripture it is called the heart,

from their hearts pride, envy, and ambition, those high spithe hidden man of the heart, and the inward man ; out of

rited passions, so destructive of the happiness of society, as

well as of their own. which proceeds all moral goodness, as well as moral evil:

JENYNS' Works, vol. iv. p. 125. and one of the bright revelations of the gospel is, that all degrees of virtue aud goodness are to be computed in proportion only to the inward disposition of our souls. This is the


Every one, who is in the least acquainted fouutain of all morality; and as it is more or less clear or muddy, all the external actions and performances which flow

with himself, may judge of the reasonableness of the hope from it have a greater or less degree of unmingled purity, and

that is in him, and of his situation in a future state by that of of genuine virtue and holiness. —Secondly, the external

his present. If he feels in himself a temper proud, turbuexertions and operations proceeding from that virtuous dispo

lent, vindictive, and malevolent, and a violent attachment to sition of the soul; which are not absolutely necessary to the

the pleasures or business of the world ; he


be assured, very nature and essence of goodness, but so accidental to it,

that he must be excluded from the kingdom of heaven : not that if no proper occasions or opportunities should offer of only because his conduct can merit no such reward, bul beexerting the inward virtuous dispositions externally, our good

cause, if admitted, he would find there no objects satisfactory ness and virtue may thereby receive neither increase nor di

to his passions, inclinations, and pursuits, and therefore could minution in the account of God, the searcher of hearts. The

only disturb the happiness of others without enjoying any habitual external exercise indeed of our virtuous dispositious

share of it himself.

See No. 1014. of mind, when proper occasions and objects offer, are then the

Ibid. p. 51. indispensable result of those dispositions, and serve to strengthen and confirm them; and we may, by that means, become more virtuous and holy every day : Butstill the virtue re

1101. [Matt. v. 5.] Blessed are the meek : for they shall mains where it was at first; and all the external exertions and

inherit the earth. performances proceeding from it, are so many proper instances

By the meek inheriting the earth, nothing and necessary indications of the inward virtuous dispositions

more is meant, than that persons of meek, quiet, and peaceof the soul : from whence they derive all their morality and

able dispositions, enjoy more happiness on earth, and suffer worth, and even borrow the name of virtue and goodness,

less disquietude in the present life, than those of opposite Bp. Browne's Divine Analogy, p. 261.

characters : aud this is verified by the experience of every day ; they acquire more friends, and fewer enemies; they

meet with fewer injuries and disappointments, and bear those 1097. [Matt. xi. 30.] Let those whom a wrong bias las

which they cannot avoid with less uneasiness : in short they warped into a prejudice against christian duties, but view them

pass through the world, as through a crowd ;-less obstructed, with an impartial eye, and they will be readily convinced,

less bruised and jostled, thau those who force their way by that there is not one positive injunction in the Bible, but what

violence and impetuosity. is as necessary for the support of the soul's spiritual life, as

bid. p. 170. food is for the body; nor a negative precept, that is not as expedient as abstinence from gross food is to a man in a high fever, or from drink to one in a dropsy.

[Matt. v. 6.] Blessed are they who do hunger and thirst See Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 322.

after righteousness: for they shall be filled.

1098. [Matt. v. 2.] We learn from the main scope and tendency of Jesus Christ's sermou on the mount, that the

1102. [John vi. 53.] Here " the same ideas or conceptions, and the terms whereby we express them, stand for things both Divine and human : for these directly, and in a strict and

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