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1763. [Gen. xxx. 3. She shall bear upon my knees] Ol (Hebr.), for, Gen. xxvi. 7. Lev. iv. 3. Lam. v. 17. Amos i. 3, 6.

See No. 454. Amongst the Tartars the first man that comes to visit a lying-in woman gives a name to the child if it be a boy ; and the first woinan, if it be a girl. Ever afterwards the children call these people Atai, or father; Abai, or mother. See No. 458.

History of Russia,

vol. i. p. 75.

It is a

1769.

I here took notice, says Le Bruyn, of a fruit they call Chamama, or Woman's Breast, because it is in that shape; it is very wholesome, and of a very pleasant scent. It is not very unlike the white melons, but it is firmer, and nearly of the color of the China-orange; some of them are also of the saine size, and the Armenians told me, they grow also at Ispahan, where they are in great request, and where they carry them in the hand by way of nosegay. Some of them are of the size of a small melon, and spotted with red, yellow, and green; the seed of these is small and white : there are others which are all red. grateful refreshment; which abounds in this country.

Vol. i.

P.

164. Now if these melons were plentiful in Mesopotamia, but rare in Judea, in the days of Reuben, who by chance found some, which he brought to his mother, we have discovered, I think, a fruit which bids fairer to be the true dudaim,

plant of a strong nauseous smell, and unfit for eating."

Editor of Calmet, Frag, vol. ii. p. 220. DEUSINGIUS also was of opinion, that the dudaim were a species of melons, which perfume the hands.

See No. 456, 560, 557, 562.

1764. [-3, 4.] A woman may not adopt a child, without her husband's order: if she have her husband's consent, she may cause the Brahmins to perform a jugs (a sacrifice) for her, and may adopt the child.

Gentoo Laws.

tban any

1765. [-14. Mandrakes] I found at Nazareth, says HasseLQUIST, a great quantity of mandrakes in a vale below the village. — From the season in which this Mandrake blossoms and ripens fruit, one might form a conjecture that

1774. (Gen. xxxi. 7.) If a man have hired a person to conduct a (rade for him, and no agreement be made with regard to wages, in that case the person hired shall receive one-tenth of the profit. Luke xvi. 12.

Ibid. chap. ix.

1770. [Gen. xxx. 32.] The color of the goat is various, being either black, brown, white, or spotted. The skin is peculiarly well adapted for the glove-manufactory, especially that of the kid : abroad it is dressed and made into stockings, bed-licks, bolsters, bed hangings in the houses, sheets and even shirts. As it takes a dve better than any other skin, it was formerly much used for hangings in the houses of people of fortune, being susceptible of the richest colors ; and when flowered and ornamented with gold and silver, became an elegant and superb forniture.

Dr. Rees's Cyclopedia,

Art. Capra.

1775. Ć 10. Rams Under this term, here and elsewhere, are comprehended the males of both sheep and goals.

Dr. Geddes.

1776. [-19.) Teraphim is synonymous with Cherubim, as appears in Pet. GELATINUS, p. 366. — Compare also 2 Chron. xv. 3 with Hos. iii. 4.

1771. - In the province of Kerman in Persia, sheep's wool is all worked without dye, in its natural colors which are of three sorts, the first brown, the second of speckled gray, and the third of a milk-white: this last is the most esteemed, being employed entirely in making garments for their men of law, and priests, who wear nothing else. (Pinkerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 372.) — These frugal and industrious people, however, manufacture from the other two sorts of wool, several kinds of light stuffs, which in point of beauty and lustre are not at all inferior to silk.

Ibid.

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1772. [39.] All animals may possess a tendency to be coloured somewhat like the colors they most frequently inspect. Thus the snake, the wild cat, and leopard, are so coloured as to resemble dark leaves and their lighter interstices ; birds resemble the color of the brown ground, or the green hedges, which they frequent; and moths and butterflies are coloured like flowers which they rol of their

1779. [-34. Rachel put them in the camel's furniture, and sat on them] The Persians hang over camels in the manner of panniers, a kind of covered chairs, which are each large enough for one person to sit in.

Hanway's Trav. vol. . p. 190.

honey.

The eggs of birds are so coloured as to resemble the color of the adjacent objects and their interstices. The eggs of hedge-birds are greenish with dark spots ; those of crows and magpies are white with dark spots, and those of larks

are russet or brown, like their nests or Our domesticated animals lose their patural colors, and break into great variety, as horses, doys, pigeous.

Dr. Darwin's Zoonomia,

sect. xxxix. 5. I.

and partridges situations.

1780. [- 39.) When a person is employed, night and day, in attending cattle, if one of them, by his fault, should be hurt, he shall nake it good.

Halhet's Gentoo Laus, p. 150.

See No. 987,831.

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1781. (-40.] The men and women till the lands, and gather in the crops in all Nordland. But a single night has often cropped the whole; and when the colonist rises in the morning he finds the grass withered, the corn-ears blemished, his labor lost, and his hopes destroyed by the frost, in the middle of summer. These sudden and unforeseen frosts happen from the end of July to the beginning of August, the hottest part of the year. I am of opinion, says the intelligent EHRENMALM, that this destructive phenomenon may arise from the vapors of the acid waters which are in the soil. When this vapor, he observes, rises in foys, it dissi. pates, and occasions vo injury ; but when it cannot exhale

L

third.

with sufficient strength, it is attracted by the corn, stops there, and blights it iu a single night.

Pinkerton's Coll. part

ii. pp. 355, 356.

1787. (Gen. xxxii. 1.] The word angel comes from the Greek angelos, which literally signifies, a messenger, or as translated in some of our Bibles a tidings-bringer. The Hebrew word malak, from laac, to send, minister to, employ, is nearly of the same import; it is a name, not of nature but of office, and hence it is applied indifferently to a human agent or messenger, 2 Sam. ii. 5. xi. 19, 22, 23, 25. Prov. xiii. 17. — to a prophet, Hagg. i. 13. — to a priest, Mal. ii. 7. Compare Eccles. ii. 6.- to celestial spirits, Ps. ciii. 19, 20, 22. civ. 4. cxlviii. 2, 3, 4. Job iv. 18.

Dr. A. CLARKE.

1782. [Gen. xxxi. 40.] In Pennsylvania, there are nightly frosts every month in the year, except in July; and even in that month when the heat is greater than at any other time of the year, there intervene days in which a fire is found very agreeable.

A much greater degree of heat can be borne without inconvenience, where the air is dry, than where it is moist; consequently on mountains, rather than in vallies.

After the extreme hot days of America, as soon as the sun is down, heavy dews generally fall, and the night becomes

1788. [

-24, &c.] Dr. Geodes justly supposes this rencounter with the Angel of the Lord to have been in a dream.

very cold.

Dr. RETTENVOUSE, as quoted in Weld's Trav. in N. dmerica, vol. i. pp. 249, 250, 252.

1789. [-29.] After my Name, ho esti thaumaston (Grk.), which is Wonderful. Isai. ix. 6. Judges xiii. 18.

This addition is sanctioned by the Aldine edition of the Septuagint, and several MSS.

See No. 569, 577, 579, 578.

1783.

In Europe the days and nights resemble each other with respect to the qualities of heat and cold ; but it is quite otherwise in the East. In Lower Asia in particular, the day is always hot; and as soon as the sun is fifteen degrees above the horizon, no cold is felt in the depth of winter itself. On the contrary, in the height of summer the nights are as cold as at Paris in the month of March.

CHARDIN.

1790. (Gen. xxxiii. 13.] The great numbers of cattle belonging to the Arabs, eat up the places of their encampment so quickly, that they are obliged to remove them too oft : this is very destructive to their flocks, on account of their young ones, which have not strength enough to follow.

CHARDIN

1784.

Among the causes restraining subterra. neous heat, are to be reckoned saltpetre and other salts. Hence in Siberia and other parts of the continent of Asia, there is a far more severe degree of cold between the degrees of latitude 55 and 60, than at Tornea in Bothnia under the latitude of 66 degrees.

WINKLER's Elements, vol.ii. p. 47,

1785.

Col. CANPBELL, travelling through the very country where Jacob had thus suffered, says, “Sometimes we lay at night out in the open air, rather than enter a town ; on which occasions, I found the weather as piercing cold, as it was distressfully hot in the day time.

Travels, part ii. p. 100.

1791. [ 17. Made booths] Such as are still erected by the Bedouin Arabs, who live in tents called houses of hair, from the material they are made of. These, says Dr. Shaw, are what the Antients called Mapalia, which were then, as they are to this day, secured from the heat and inclemency of the weather, only by a covering of such haircloth as constitute our coal-sacks. Some hundreds of those tents, of an oblong figure not unlike the bottom of a ship turned upside down, are often plaeed in a circle and constitute a Dou-war. Gen. xxv. 27.

Trav. p. 286, folio.

1786.

Such is the extraordinary severity of the winter-cold in the mountainous country of Thibet in Asia, that below the 30th degree of latitude, it equals that of the Swiss Alps in lat. 46. See No. 566, 564,567,

Dr. Aikin's Geograph. 571, 576, 573, 575.

Delin. vol. ii. p. 71.

1792.

The Abyssinian mode of forming an encampment is simple and very couvenient, where ients might prove too serious an incumbrance. On their arrival at a station, where they intend to stay any time, the men begin to cut down, with the large knives which they carry about them, a number of green boughs, and these they arrange into bowers with so inuch art, that, when a cloth is thrown over them, they afford not only shelter from the sun in the day-time, but complete protection from the cold during the night.

SALT's Voyage to Abyssinia.

1799. (Gen. xxxv. 2.] Elohey hanecar (Hebr.), the gods of the foreigners. — Jacob's servants were all Syrians ; and the Shechemites, aliens whose spoils were now in Jacob's family.

1793. (Gen. xxxiii. 18.] And Jacob came in safety to the city Shechein ; called Acis vii. 16, Sychem, and in John iv. 5, Sychar — in the Arabic it is called Nablous, and to the present day Neapolis.

See Dr. A. CLARKE in loco.

1800. [4.] The Pagoda-tree, incorrectly described by Pliny (Nat. Hist. lib. xii. cap. 5 ) as the Indian figtree, rises to the height of the common chesnut, but throws out from its branches a number of fibres, which become so long that they at last hang down to the ground, where they take root and produce other trees of the same kind perfectly similar to the parent-tree. In this manner they continue till from one tree there at length arises a whole forest. The Indians are accustomed to plant such trees in the neighbourhood of their temples or pagodas, to defend the people when assembled from the rain and the sun. - This tree is described by NIERENBERG in his Natural History, lib. xiv. cap. 38. See BARTOLOMEO by Johnston, p. 42).

Verse 7.] Not El-beth-el, but simply Bethel. See One of De Rossi's MSS. the Septuagint, Vulgate, Syriac, and some copies of the Arabic.

1794.

The sect of the Samaritans is now reduced to a very sinall number, the chief of which reside at Sichem, afterwards called Flavia Neapolis, and now Naplousa, the town to which inount Gerizim belongs. Bib. Research. Introduc.

p.

66.

1801. [-8.] Rebekah’s death is not noticed, because she had undoubtedly died while Jacob was with Laban : and either Esau kept no rec

ecords, or they were not copied by Moses.

1795.

Before the city] In Arabia the walls of the ordinary houses are of mud mixed with dung; and the roof is thatched with a sort of grass which is there very common. Around by the walls within is a range of beds made of straw, on which, notwithstanding their simplicity, a person may either sit or lie commodiously enough. Such house is not sufficiently large to be divided into separate apartments; it has seldom windows, and its door is only a straw mat. When an Arab has a family and cattle, he builds for their accommodation several such huts, and incloses the whole with a strong wooden fence. The cities of Arabia therefore, cannot in population be proportionate to their extent. See 570, 568, 580, 589.

NIEBUHR's Trav. vol. i.

p. 255. Eng. Edit.

1802.

In many parts of Hindostan are mosques and mausoleums, built by the Mahomedan princes, near the sepulchres of their nurses. They are excited by a grateful affection to erect these structures, in memory of those, who with maternal anxiety watched over their helpless infancy: thus it has been from time immemorial.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. ii. p. 141.

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tory of Nadir Shah, p. 55. London, 1742.) – The title of Sullâu, adopted in the room of Emr, is now common to the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic languages; denotin; a king, prince, lord, or emperor: and is at this day assumed by many of the Moslem princes, as well as the Grand Seignior both in Asia and Africa.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. ii.

p. 22, note (B).

· Verse 10.] -' But a little way', yet about a mile. Kibrath (Hebr.), a mile, occurs only here, in ch. xlviii. 7, and in 2 Kings v. 19.

Verse 18.) Be-tseath naphshah (llebr.), in the going away of her soul. Naphshah (Hebr.) is soul ; neshem, breath; and ruach, spirit or breath indifferently.

Dr. A. CLARKE. Verse 21.) The tower of the flock. Mic. iv. 8.

Verse 22.] And confederated with Bilhah, his father's foreign woman: and Israel heard, [and it appeared evil in his sight. Septuagint.)

Verse 26.] Padan-aram, Mesopotamia of Syria (Septuagint); situated between the Euphrates and Tigris, having Assyria on the east, Arabia Deserta, with Babylonia, on the south, Syria on the west, and Armenia on the north.

See No. 429.

1810. (Gen. xxxvi. 24. Mules] Or, according to the Samaritan reading, the Emim; whom he might fall upon unerpectedly.

See Cleric. Comm. in loco.

Or, Univer. Hist. vol. ji.

p. 139.

1811.

This was that Aual who encountered with the Emims in the wilderness.

Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. pp. 48 — 52.

1805. (Gen. xxxvi. 2.] Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah son of Zibeon, v. 24.

See HOUBIGANT & KENNICOTT.

1806. [2, 3, &c.] Thus, when Moses here speaks of the posterity which Esau had by his three women, he gives them new names, and new genealogies. (Compare Gen. xxvi. 34. xxviii. 9. See 1 Kings xv. 1.) — Such are the effects of adoption, that Ephraim and Manasseh, for instance, were Joseph's children or Jacob's. See Gen. xlyiii. 5.

1812.

GERBILLON, the Jesuit, in his second journey into Tartary, saw a young wild mule, of the kind which propagates. It was a female, bad large ears, a long head, slender body, and long legs; its hair was ash-color, and its hoofs uncloven, like those of real mules.

See Coll. Voy. and Trav.

quart. vol. iv. p. 686.

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1813

The niule produced from a horse and the ass resembles the horse externally with his ears, main, and tail ; but has the nature or manners of an ass : while the Hinuus, or creature produced from a male-ass, and a mare, resembles the father externally in slature, ash-color, and the black cross, having the nature or manners of a borse. The breed from Spanish rams and Swedish ewes resembled the Spanish sheep in wool, stature, and external form ; but was as hardy as the Swedish sheep; and the contrary of those which were produced from Swedish rams and Spanish ewes. The offpring from the male-goat of Angora, and the Swedish female-goat had long soft camel's hair; but that from the male Swedish goat, and the female one of Angora, had no improvement of their wool. An English ram without horus, and a Swedish horned ewe, produced sheep without horns.

Amen. Acad. vol. vi. p. 13.

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1814. [-28 - 30.] Even these Troglodytes, who lived in the same country before the Edomites, in subterraneous habitations, and who sprang not from Abraham,

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