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Josephus says, he was sold for twenty pounds; the Septuagint, for twenty pieces of gold ; the Hebrew and Samaritan, for twenty of silver; and the Vulgate, for thirty. - The last, probably, is right, as being the regular price of a slave, and the identical sum for which Jesus Christ Himself, in the fulness of time, was actually
25.] Opium is at this time very much used in the East ; a custom, says Sir John SINCLAIR, which we ought to regard as a consequence of the attachment which these people have always had for original practices : therefore, he adds, I am very much inclined to believe that it is of this sort of medicine that Homer would speak under the name of Nepenthe (Odyss. I. 4. 22, et seq.), and that in his time the Egyptians were perhaps the only people who knew its preparation.
Code of Health,
vol. ii.p. 26.
1825. [-34. Jacob rent his clothes] In performing this ceremony, the Jews take a knife, and holding the blade downwards, give the upper garment a cut on the right side, and then rend it a hand's breadth. This is done for the five following relatioos, brother, sister, son, daughter, or wife ; but for father or mother, the rent is ou the left side, and in all the garments, as coat, waistcoat, &c.
Levi’s Rites and Ceremonies of
the Jews, p. 174.
Aquila translates necoth by storax. BoCHART also proves that seri signifies resin or turpentine. And J. H. URSIN bas proved that the Hebrew word loth signifies laudanum.
See Essay for a New Translation,
part ii. p. 170.
1826. (36.) An officer ; Saris (Hebr.) properly signifies a eunuch. (See Oniver. Hist. vol. ii. p. 415.) Hence there is some apology for the conduct of Potiphar's wife; or, rather, an additional proof, that the wives (women) of priests were only representatives of their churches. - All the officers in the employment of the antient kings of Egypt were, according to DIODORUS Siculus, taken from the most illustrious of their priesthood. Matt. xix. 12.
Dr. A. CLARKE.
1819. 1 - 26.] As Reuben and Judah were here, probably Jacob had sent two sons belonging to each of his three adopted women, Leah, Billah, and Zilpah.
From this time to Israel's going down into Egypt was only 23 years. See No. 614.
1820. [-28.] These twenty shekels are one pound two shillings and nine-pence half-penny farthing.
1828. (Gen. xxxviii. 2.] He took her as a pledge that the city of Adullam should become his future inheritance ; See Josh. xv. 1, 35.
Verse 5.] He was at Achzib, when she bore for him; that is, children of her own body by her own husband, for Judah as heirs of Adullain, till he or his posterity could heir it after his father's death, &c. Respecting Achzib, see Josh. XV. 44. Lest the children of this Canaanitess should presume to hold the inheritance as Judah’s natural children, Providence ordained what we should call an alibi to disprove their pretentions, by causing Judah to dwell at Achzib while she bore her three sons. have been the antient method of holding possessions or estates by reversion.
1833. (Gen. xxxviii. 25.} The signet; chotemeth (Hebr.), that kind of seal whose impression was used to ascertain property, &c.
Dr. A. CLARKE. Petilim (Hebr.), from patal to twist, a torques. See Rev. i. 13.
See No. 604, 606, 610, 522, 613, 609.
This appears to
1829. [- - 11. Till Shelah my son be grown] That is, till he be fully thirty years of age. As Jesus Christ, who was a priest after the order of Melchizedek, entered not on his ministry till he began to be about thirty years of age; and as none could officiate in the Levitical priesthood, till he was thirty or upwards (Num. iv), so we may fairly conclude that at this time, throughout the country of Canaan where Melchizedek's order of priesthood was followed, perhaps by Moses, assuredly by Jesus Christ, no person could take to himself the ministration of a church before he had attained his thirtieth year, without danger of incurring the displeasure of the Almighty, or of being cut off for disobedience.
See No. 592,593, &c.
1836. [21.] Pererius thinks this keeper of the prison was the same Potiphar who had imprisoned Joseph for life. Indeed the Butler says it was so, Ch. xli. 10.'
1830. [-12.) Her days being multiplied &c.
Verse 15.] A publican : Zonah (Hebr.), porne (Grk.) from pernao, to sell, one who accommodates travellers with refreshments, for money.
Verse 17.] A pledge : arabon (Hebr.), arrabon (Grk. 2 Cor. i. 22. Ephes. i. 14.), a security given in hand for the fulfilment of promises.
Verse 21.) Kedeshah (Hebr.), a priestess who accommodates travellers with refreshments without money.
1837. [Gen. xl. 1, 2, &c.] There were in all the Churches instituted two chief priests : one, who was chief baker, presided over the sacramental bread-offerings; the other, as chief butler, presided over the drink-offerings, or libatious of wine froin the sacred cup.
Shekeh (Ilebr.), a cup-bearer. Opheh, a cook, confectioner, &c.
1831. [-15, 16.] Sheltering places, called choultries, are erected throughout the East by charitable persons, or munificent princes, in forests, plains, and desarts, for the accommodation of travellers. Near them is generally a well, and a cistern for the cattle ; a brahmin, or fakeer, often resides there to furnish the pilgrim with food, and the few necessaries he may stand in need of.
FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.
Among Hindoos, the practice of cook on public occasions is a sure mark of transcendent rank ; for every person can eat the food prepared by a person of a higher birth than himself.
BUCHANAN. Pinkerton's Coll.
vol. viii. p. 735.
1832. [-24.] Let her be branded. (See Num. v. 18.) — in China there are certain enorunities, for which the offenders are burnt on the forehead, or on the two cheeks, with a Chinese character, sigmfying the crime.
1840. (4.) A season - yamim (Hebr.), the days of a year or a year of days in custody ; that is, from birth-day to birth-day.
Modern Univer. Hist. vol. viii.
bility such grapes, when pressed by the hand, were held, for the sake of delicacy, in appropriate bladders, or small skinbottles. — This juice, pressed out of a lamb-skin, calf-skin, or other bottle, was alone what was ever used in any of the sacrifices appointed by the law of Moses. It is there generally denominated blood; sometimes, the blood of the grape. See on Mark xiv. 25.
184). (Gen. xl. 8.] The Egyptian priests, the first interpreters of dreams, took their rules for this species of divinaiion from the symbolic learning in which they were so deeply read; a ground of interpretation which would give the strongest credit to the art, and equally satisfy the diviner and consulter : for by this time it was generally believed, that symbolic hieroglyphics, and allegorical dreams, were but different modes of expressing the same divine revelations. - As therefore hieroglyphics were become sacred, by being made the cloudy vehicle of the Egyptian theology, and as none but the priests preserved these sacred mysteries, the butler and baker might well be uneasy for want of an interterpreter, as vone could be expected in the dreary abode where they were confined.
See Bp. WARBURTOx's Div.
Legat, vol. viii.
1846. [Gen. xl. 11.] As the Antients did not ferment their wine, they strained what they drank, immediately before they lay down to table, or whilst they were at it. Two instruments for this purpose, of white metal and elegant workmanship, are in the cabinet of Herculaneum. They are made in the fashion of round and deep plates, half a pala in diameter, with flat handles; one plate fitting into the other, and the handles matching, so exactly, that when put together they seem to make but one vessel. Into the upper vessel bored in a particular inanner they poured the wine which was to be received by the under vessel, from whence they drew it to fill their drinking cups.
WINCKELMAN's Herculaneum, p. 59. The instrument used as above the Greeks called Ethmos, Colum Vinarium. (Ibid.) — Whence comes percolate.
Acts x. 13.
Dreaming is the having of ideas, whilst the outward senses are stopped, not suggested by any external objects, nor under the rule or conduct of the understanding. (Locke.) – In a state of wakefulness the three faculties, Imagination, Judgment, and Memory, being all active and acting in union, constitute the rational man. In dream it is otherwise, and therefore that state which is called insanity appears to be no other than a disunion of those faculties and a cessation of the judgment, during wakefulness, that we so often experience during sleep, and idiocity, into which some persons have fallen, is that cessation of all tbe faculties of which we can be sensible when we happen to wake before our memory.
In dream, the re-action of reason on the imagination is suspended.
See SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 1975.
1847. [ -20.] Lifted up the head of the chief cupbearer ; that is, elevated his persou on trial, as they set Naboth on high among the people, and set two men, sons of Belial, to bear witness against him, &c.
1 Kings xxi. 9, &c.
1843. [ - 10.] The imagination, in a dream, has no idea of time, as time. It counts only by circumstances ; and if a succession of circumstances pass in a dream that would require a great length of time to accomplish them, it will appear to the dreamer that a length of time equal thereto has passed also.
Ibid. n. 3356.
The word, here rendered lifted up the head, signifies to muster, to call to account, to tuke the sum of any thing. It should seem therefore, that these household-superintendants had been suspected, or accused, of cheating the king ; and that when their accounts had been examined and cast up in three days, the one was found guilty and hanged, the other cleared and re-instated in his office. See No. 315.
Univer. Hist. vol. ij. p. 420.
-11.] From this verse we find that wine antiently was the mere expressed juice of the grape, without fermentation, the yayin of the Hebrews, the oinos of the Greeks, and the mustum of the autient Latins. See No. 543.
Dr. A. CLARKE.
1849. [Gen. xli. 1.] The name for river is, in Phænician, nuhhul and nhhil; and, in Hebrew, nahhal.
Le Clerc. Sce Cooke's Ilesiod,
the Theogony, l. 5:22.
In antient times, when only a small portion (of must) was wanted for immediate use, the juice was pressed by the hand out of a bunch of grapes, and immediately drunk After this manner Pharaoh's butier accustomed to squeeze out new wine into the royal cup. (Dr. A. Clarke, on the Eucharist, p. 62.) – In all proba
At the end of two years of days. Verse 2. the river] The Nile.
-Kine] Properly, River-horses. The hippopotamus, or River-horse, is the well known inhabitant of the Nile, and frequently by night, comes out of the river to feed in the fields, or in the sedge by the river-side.
Dr. A. CLARKE. Verse 6.] Blasted with the simoom. See No. 615, 616.
1851. [Gen. xli. 18.] The scare, we are informed, will come frequently ashore, and browze on the grass that grows on the adjacent coast; and there also it will chew the cud at its leisure.
Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 153.
the cotton-shrub, which grows to the height of three or four feet, and in verdure resembles the currant-bush, requires a longer time to bring its delicate produce to perfection. These shrubs, planted between the rows of rice, neither impede its growth, vor prevent its being reaped. Soov after the rice harvest is over, they put forth a beautiful yellow flower, with a crimson eye in each petal; this is succeeded by a green pod filled with a white stringy pulp; the pod turns brown and hard as it ripens, and then separates into two or three divisions, containing the cotton.
A luxuriant field, exhibiting at the same time the expanding blossom, the bursting capsule, and the snowy flakes of ripe cotton, is one of the inost beautiful objects in the agriculture of Hindostan. HERODOTUS says, the Indians, in his time, possessed a kind of plant which, instead of fruit, produced wool of a finer aud better quality than that of sheep, of which the natives made their clothes : this plant was uo doubt the same as the modern cotton of India.
Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,
vol. ii. p. 405.
-35.] The art of feeding mankind on so small a grain as wheat, which seems to have been discovered in Egypt by the immortal name of Ceres, shewed greater ingenuity than feeding them with the large roots of potatoes, which seems to have been a discovery of ill-fated Mexico.
See No. 618, 621, Dr. Darwin's Zoonomia, vol. ii. 619, 620, 617, 622.
p. 670. 4to Edit.
1853. [42.] Vestures of vivid whiteness. Buts (Hebr.), cotton ; bad, linen : By comparing Exod. xxv. 4.
xxvi. 1. with 2 Chron. ii 14, and Exod. xxvi. 31, with 2 Chron. iii. 14; and Exod. xxviii. 42 with Exod. xxxix. 28, - you will find shesh (Hebr.), applied equally to cotton or linen to express their bright whiteness,
See No. 857.
1856. (Gen. xli. 42.] The Chinese manufacture a silk found on trees and bushes in great plenty, which is spun by a kind of worin, not unlike our caterpillars : the thread is strong, and very compact.
Modern Univer. Hist,
vol. viji. p. 72.
Fine linen) Probably muslin. — Yet flax is worked into cloth which far surpasses muslin in fineness. It may be worked into cloths damasked, satiened, transparent, capable of receiving every manner of color. Nevertheless women rich and poor give the prefereuče to cottons.
Cotions are wonderfully well adapted to the winters of countries whose inhabitants go almost naked the rest of the year ; but they are too warm for our summers, and too cold for our winters. Their use is very dangerous in Winter, they catch fire so easily. Stanislaus, the good old king of Poland, was burnt alive, from having fallen asleep by bis fire-side in clothing of this sort.
See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. iv. p. 427. Muslin was the byssus of Egypt, made of the finest cotton; and such as is still worn by the great.
According to TAVERNIER, Assem is one of the best countries in Asia, producing all the necessaries of life; and, instead of wanting a supply from other countries, is able to furnish them with several metals; having mines of gold, silver, steel, iron, and lead; besides, great store of silk, but coarse. There is one kind spun by animals, like our silk-worms, but rounder, which live all the year under trees. The silks made of it have a five gloss, but fret presently. They are washed in a lye, made of the ashes of the leaves of Adam's fig-tree, which makes thein white as snow.
Ibid. vol. vii. p. 8.
Silk comes originally from China. The anuals of that nation inform us, that the wife of the emperor Hoang Ti was the first who spun threads from the natural silk cocoons, found on the trees. From this country, silk was carried into Hindostan, and thence to Persia, Greece, and Rome, &c.
See BerthoLLET's Art of Dye
ing, by Hamilton, vol. i. p. vi.
Cotton grows in the forests of the torrid regions of Africa and America, on tall thorny trees; in India on a lofty shrubbery; and in Malta and the islands of the Archipelago, on a herbaceous plant.
In Guzerat, the rice and cotton-fields are both planted at the commencement of the rainy season, in June. The former is sown in furrows, and reaped in about three months :
Silk was fabricated immeinorially by the Indians, who were in early ages a commercial people, as we learn from the first of their sacred law-tracts, which
they suppose to bave been revealed by MENU many millions of years ago.
Works of Sir W. Jones,
vol. i. p. 31.
1860. (Gen. xli. 42.] The chain of gold worn about the neck of Joseph, might denote him, as prime minister, to be the illustrious connecter of the king as head with the body politic: — “ In antient times, in all nations, every thing was inade an emblem or representation of some spiritual or moral subject.”
Dr. A. CLARKE.
1865. (Gen. xli. 45. Priest of On] That the sun, in antient Egypt, was denominated On, is evident froin JAB LONSKI (Panth. Egypt. i. 137), GEORGI (Alphabet. Tibetan. p. 87), avd expressly from Cyril (in Hoseam, p. 145) who, on reciting the Egyptian fable which makes Apis the son of the Moou and offspring of the Sun, adds, "that the Sun was called On by the Egyptians.” — On was also the name of an antient city in Egypt, styled in the Greek, by the version of the LXX, Helioupolis. This city was built on a considerable hill in honor of the sun (STRABO, lib. xvii. p. 1158) who had there also a celebrated temple, called by Jeremiah Beth-shemesh (chap. xliii. 13). Remains of these are still extant on their original site, now named Matarea, two hours N.N.E. of Cairo, cousisting, as Shaw, Niebuhr, and later travellers relate, of a sphinx, obelisk, and fragınents of marble, granite, &c. This temple is mentioned, not only by Strabo, but HERODOTUS, who also records, that an annual assembly was holdeu iu it in honor of the presiding divinity. (lib. ii. sec. 59).
The Rev. S. HENLEY. See
The sacrificial thread of a Brahmin must be made of cotton, so as to be put on over his head, in three strings,
Laws of Menu. Works of
Sir W. Jones, vol. iii. p. 89.
Pharaoh, we may be certain, had now examined in to the cause of Joseplı’s imprisonment; and gave him the daughter, probably, as a recompence for the injury done him by the mother's misrepresentation.
In the year 1692, an antient golden torques (or monile) was dug up in a garden near the castle of Harlech, Merionethshire. It is a wreathed bar of gold, or rather perbaps three or four rods jointly twisted, about four feet long (passing, perhaps, when worn, twice round the peck); flexile, but bending naturally only one way, in form of a hatband; hooked at both ends, exactly like a pair of polhooks; but these hooks are not twisted as the rest of the rods, nor are their ends sharp but plain, and, as it were, cut even. It is of a round form, about an inch in circumference, and weighs eight ounces.
CAMDEN. - Archæologia,
vol. xiv. p. 95.
47.) Throughout the province of Mazanderan in Persia, the people live almost entirely on rice cooked with a little water and salt, and called chilao, taking with it every now and then a spoonful of some sort of acid, such as verjuice, the juice of pomegrauates, vinegar, or the like. To this food they are exceedingly partial, and maintain that there is none more conducive to health.
Pietro DELLE VALLE. Pin
kerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 47.
1863. [-43.] Abrech (Ileb.), pangonu (Grk.) See Isai. xlv. 23. Rom. xiv. 11. Bend the knee, or sink on the hams as the Arabs do, in token of reverence.
Verse 45.] Asenath could not be the natural, but the religious, daughter of POTIPHAR, the EUNUCH.
See Chap. Xxxvii. 36. Kohen (IIebr.), intendant of Heliopolis.
Dr. A. CLARKE. Verse 47.] By handfuls. - Rice
in tufts. Verse 56.] Over all the face of that land; i. e. Egypt.
No oats grow in Persia. There is however barley there, which they give with bran and chopped straw to their horses.
Ibid. p. 99. Also in the territory of Passagarda in Persia, the inhabitants of the towns towards the sea use none but barley-bread. In other parts contiguous, dates with barley-bread, serve as food for the inhabitauts.
113. Throughout the district of Tarom and its vicinity in Persia, wheaten hour is not to be met with, except in large towns where it is eaten by the rich alone ; the chief food of the inhabitants heing dates, in which article they carry on a considerable trade.
Ibid. p. 114.
1864. [-45. Priest of On] Cahen (Hebr.), here translated priest, signifies also, a prince and ruler; and sometimes, a great officer, See 2 Sam. xx. 26. i Kings iv. 5. From this word, Cahen, is probably derived, says BRYANT, the Persian Khan, the German Koning, the Chinese Cham, and the English King.