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1870. (-57.] This scarcity was not caused, as has been sarcastically insinuated, by Joseph's inonopoly ; " for the land of Canaan was grievously afflicted with the famine ; and this great nisery touched the whole continent.” (JosePHUS, Antiq. b. ii. c. vi. § 2.) — As the true cause of this general famine, Diodorus Siculus mentions a drought which extended over almost the whole of the then known world, Egypt excepted.

Lib.i. 2.

1877. [-27.] Those buildings under the different names of serais, caravansaries, or choultries, were erected at stated distances throughout the Mogul einpire, especially on the royal roads. The serais were generally constructed in an oblong square, consisting of a high wall and towers, with a handsome entrance at each end; a few had a gate-way at the cardinal points. The gates were often of considerable strength, with guard-rooms on each side. Two ranges of apartments for the convenience of the merchants, containing sleeping-rooms and warehouses for their goods, formed a street from one gate to the other ; with a colonnade, or veranda, in front of the buildings, opening to a spacious area between them. The serais with four gates contained a double range of these apartments, forming an avenue to each entrance. Under the inner wall of the ramparts were similar accommodations. In the most complete and splendid serais a due regard was observed for public worship, ablutions, and other ceremonies.

Sce FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii.



1871. (Gen. xlii. 1, 2, &c.] Egypt, where the Church had been which perished at the flood, is prosclyted by the Patriarchs before Canaali, the land of the Gentiles ; as Judea had the gospel preached in it before Rome, or any moderu Gentile country.

1872. [-6.] Joseph was shallit (Hebr.), protector over the land. Hence 2 Sam. viii. 7, arms for protection, shiltim (Hebr.), shields. Also the modern Sultan.

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plants to be carried into Egypt, where it is said to grow in abundance at the present time.

See Dapper's Discr. of Egypt. This plant, however, is the natural product of Arabia, especially near Mecca and Medina, where it grows wild in sandy grounds, though that cultivated in gardens is reckoned the finest. It grew also near the lake Asphaltis. — There are some sorts of it brought from America, the most esteemed of which are those of Peru and Tolu.

Univer. Hist. vol, x. p. 163.

and chew it at all hours. The betel is also introduced at visits of ceremony, when the nut is cut into slices, mixed with cardainoms and shell lime, and folded up in a betel-leaf, fastened by a clove: these are presented on a salver to each guest at the conclusion of a visit, and is generally an indication to take leave.- The betel-leaf, properly so called, is a plant entirely distinct and separate from the areca, or betel. nut tree; and grows in neat regular plantations, like hopgrounds, creeping up the sınall poles, prepared for their protection. Cant. vii. 7.

Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 29.

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1884. [Gen. xliii. 11.] The natives of Kinzuan use the unripe nuls of palm in their cookery.

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. ij.



1880. [Gen. xliii. 11. A little honey.] Egypt, at present, does not produce vines enow to supply itself with grapes and Dibs (a syrup or

honey” inade from grapes), but imports annually, according to Dr. Suaw, 300 camel-loads of Dils from Hebron alone. The case was precisely the same in the days of Jacob. When this patriarch wished to send to the Grand Vizier of Eyypt, whom he did not yet know to be his son, a present of the best productions of Palestine, dibs, or honey, was among the number; certainly, however, not bee-honey, which Egypt, from its advantageous situation, had in the grealest perfection and abundance, but raisin


The cardamoin, indigenous to many parts of Malabar, is a space much esteemed by the Asiatics; they chew it separately, or with betel ; it is a principal ingredient in their cookery, and used medicinally as a stomachic.

Sce FORBES' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. i. p. 316.


Smith's Michaelis, vol. iji. p. 119.


Honey was the sngar of the Antients. Honey, as collected by bees, is a perspiration of the sap in plants, in particles that evaporale through the pores and conJense on the Aowers. (See Ps. viii. 4.) – From careful observation it has been inferred, that the bees make no manner of alteration in their honey, but collect and discharge it into their magazine just as nature has produced it on the flowers.

Nature Delinealed, vol. i.

pp. JOI, 108, 109 8 note.

1886. [-29. God be gracious unto thee) This is a simple salutation in Asia, and is there used instead of those offers and assurances of service which it is the custom to make use of in the West, in first addressing or taking leave of an acquaintance.



Dibs (Hebr.), at Aleppo, is still the name of the inspissated juice of the grape ; which has mach the appearance of coarse honey, but is of a fiver consistence. Being much used by the inhabitants of Aleppo, it is brought to town in great goat-skills, and retailed in small - quantities in the bazars.

Sec Russel's Aleppo,

vol. i. p. 82.

1887. [ - 32.] No Egyptian, man or woman, will kiss the mouth of a Greek or foreigner, nor use either bis knife, spit or pot, nor eat even the meat that is cut with such a one's knife.

HERODOTUS, lib.ii. p. 46. Steph. Edit. Talk to an Egyptiau till your heart ache, and your breath fail you, yet he will be so far from renouncing his religion, that be will persist in it, if it be possible, with greater obstinacy than before, and rather die than be guilty of so horrid a profanation, as he accounts it, as to eat and pollute the sacred flesh of animals.

ORIGEN, against Celsus, b. i. c. 42. N. B. Apply this to Pharaoh's case.


The betel-out, says FORBES, is in appearance like a large nulmey, enclosed in a thick membraneous covering ; and is highly esteemed by the Indiaus of all descriptions as a fine stomachic, and a preservative of the teeth and gums: they cut it into small pieces, and eat it with a hot pungent leaf, called betel, spread over with delicate shell lime; this the natives carry in boxes, like tobacco,


The peasants of modern Egypt live principally on dourra, or Iudian millet, of which they make a bread without leaven, which is tasteless when cold. This

bread is, with water and raw onions, their regular food throughout the year; and they esteem themselves happy if they can sometimes procure a little honey, cheese, sour milk, and dates.

Volney's Trav. in Egypt and

Syria, vol. i. p. 188.

1889. [Gen. xliii. 34.] XENOPHON remarks, that Lycurgus did not assign a double portion to the kinys, because they were to eat twice as much as other persons, but that they might give it to whom they pleased.

Benjamin though not of age to act as priest, could officiate as a deacon in distributing the wine, or at least to the four sons of the handmaids or deaconesses.

says the Captain, we had the satisfaction of learning from him, that this singular honor had hitherto been conferred on a wooden bowl in which he washed his bands. Another extraordinary use to which the king meant to apply the plate, in room of his wooden bowl, was, it seems, to discover a thief. He said, that when any thing was stolen, and the thief could not be found out, the people were all assembled together before him, when he washed his hands in water in this vessel, after which it was cleaned, and then the whole multitude advanced, one after another, and touched it in the same manner that they louch his foot, when they pay him obeisance. If the guilty person touched it, he pied immediately upon the spot; not by violence, but by the hand of Providence; and if any one refused to touch it, his refusal was a clear proof that he was the man.



The manner of eating amongst the Antients was not for all the company to eat out of one and the same dish, but for every one to have one or more dishes to himself. The whole of these dishes were set before the master of the feast, and he distributed to every one his portion. The distinction in this case, even to Egyptian kings themselves, in all public feasts and banquets, was, according to HERODOTUS (lib. vi. chap. 27), no more than a double mess. See No. 587.

See Stackhouse's llist. of the

Bible, vol. i. p. 331.

1893. (Gen. xliv. 12.] The cup of Joseph was the 'cup of blessing' (1 Cor. x. 16); that in which he, as Magus, consecrated the drink-offering for bis Egyptian brethren. - All that follows respecting this cup, is to slew how the priesthood belonging to Joseph by primogeniture, had been inproperly conferred on his younger brother Benjamiu in consequence of Joseph's being sold into Egypt.

1894. [Gen. xlv. 10.) Goshen lay between the Red Sea and the Nile, ou the borders of Canaan, vot far from ou or Hierapolis. Gen, xlvii. 27.

Univer. llist. vol. ii. p. 430.

1891. (Gen. xliv. 1.] There are two sorts of sacks taken notice of in the history of Joseph, which ought not to be confounded; one for corn, the other for the baggage. There are scarcely any waggons throughout Asia ; as far as to the Iudies, every thing almost is carried on beasts of burden, in sacks of wool, covered in the middle with leather, the better to resist the ingress of water. In these they inclose their packages done up in large parcels. It is of these woollen sacks we are to understand wliat is said here and all through this listory, and not of their sacks in which they carry their corn.



Instead of Goshen, the Septuagint read Gesem, rain. - Were it certain, as I think it highly probable, says Dr. GEDDES, that this part of Egypt were favoured with heavenly showers; I should have little hesitation in affirming that gesem (lebr.) is the true reading. The land of Gesem would then be very properly denominated : namely a land of rain ; in contradistinction to the rest of Egypt, wbich was watered by the Nile : and this land of rain was a proper habitation for the Israelites, who were shepherds, and not agriculturists. It is remarkable that Heliodorus calls at least a part of this tract Boukoleia (Grk.), or places fit for pasturage.

See his Crit. Remarks, p. 137.

1892. [- 5.] The king of Tongatahoo (one of the Friendly Islands), on receiving from Captain Cook the present of a pewter plate which lie bad been observed particularly to notice, said, that whenever he should have occasion to visit any of the other islands, he would leave this plate behind him at Tangataloo, as a sort of representative in his absence, that the people might pay it the same obeisance they do to himself in person.

He was asked what had been usually employed for this purpose before he got this plate; and,”

1896. [- 22.] Horace says, one Roman had in his possession five thousand robes or dresses, to give away.

Lib. i. Epis. vi. v. 43.

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1898. [- 21. The sons of Benjamin) Benjamin is supposed to be still unmarried. (Unider. Hist.) - And yet

1903. [Gen. xlvi. 34.] On, Heliopolis, and Bubastus were he has ten sons! - by adoption surely.

provinces in Egypt that had been esteemed Arabian, since the Arabian shepherds had settled in those parts. This district was no other than the land of Goshen, called by the Septua

gint Gessemtes Arabias, the Arabian Gessem ; it lay at the 1899. [+ 26.] It is absurdly supposed, that from extreme and highest part of Lower Egypt, called Cushan (cr these few persons — many of them children, could be produced, Gushan) from Cush the founder of the Arabian race. Here, in about 215 years, not fewer than 600,000 adults above establishing their court at Memphis, these invaders from Babytwenty years of age, besides women and children. - On our Jonia, the original seat of the genuine Arabians who were all plan of adoption by religious conversion, this indeed might shepherds, managed to support a kingly dominion by force durbe, as is recorded in Exod. xii. 37. Num. i. 3.

ing 511 years. At last the people of Upper Egypt rose, deSee No. 623.

feated and banished them. Here then was the land to which the children of Israel succeeded after it had been abandoned by

those Arabian tyrants that caused every shepherd to be an 1900. (-34.] Every shepherd is an abomination

abomination to the Egyptians ; but at what interval, it is 10 the Egyptians : - On account of the Palli, or shepherds

uncertain. It seems pretty plain however, from the circumof India, who, in the opinion of Mr. BRYANT, were expelled

stances attending their settlement in Goshen, that they came Egypt before the sons of Jacob entered it.

there into a vacant, unoccupied district; and as it was the These Palli, or Philistines, during the residence of Israel

best of the land, there is no accounting for its being unoccuin Egypt, over-ran Canaan, conquering all before them; and

pied, but hy the secession of those shepherds, whose property in process of time returned and conquered Egypt also. Of

it had so lately been, that Joseph was extremely urgent with this people was that "king who knew not Joseph,” under

his family in hastening (Ch. xlv. 9) them to take possession whom the Israelites suffered the utmost severities of the most

before the natives had preoccupied it. abject slavery. They carried the idolatry of India into

BRYANT. Bib. Research. Philistia ; opposed the Israelites in the recovery of their

vol. ii. p. 128. rightful patrimony in Canaan ; and, on account of their horrid crimes (see Lev. xviii) were declared by Moses to be an abomination to the RD, the God of Israel.

Of these invaders were the "Hyesos or shepherd-kings, who are said by Manetho to have held all Lower Egypt in subjection, for the space of 259 years, at the expiration of which they were obliged, by Amosis, king of Upper Egypt, 1904. (Gen. xlvii. 8. And Pharaoh said unto Jacob: How to abandon their illegal possessions." (Mavor.) — Tartary old art thou ??] This question would induce ove to believe, is the real country for shepherds : They have always existed that as the overflowing of the Nile renders Egypt a very there, and may probably continue for ever.

unwholesome country, Pharaoh had not been accustomed to De Pauw, vol. i. p. 17. see persons so advanced in years as Jacob appeared to be. See No. 255, 257. See Sir JOHN SINCLATR's Code

of Health, vol. ii. p. 24. 1901.

There came out of the eastern parts, says MANETHI, men of ignoble birth, who had brliness enough to make an expedition into Egypt, and with ease 1905.

At the little village of Lead-bills, in the subdued it by force. This whole nation was styled Ilyesos, parish of Crawford, oue Johu Taylor, miner, worked at his that is, shepherd-kings; and some say they were Arabians. business till he was a hundred and twelve. He did not

Sce Joseph. Contra Apion, marry, till he was sixty ; and had nine children. He saw to b. i. § 14.

the last without spectacles; had excellent teeth till within six years before bis deatlı, having then left off tobacco, to which

he attributed their preservation ; at length, in 1770, yielded 1902. - The Scenite Arabs, in all probability

to fate, after having completed bis hundred and thirty-second bere alluded to as hinted by the Egyptians, were plunderers

year. or robbers, and feeders of cattle who almost totally neglected

Pinkerton's Coll. part s. p. 228. the arts of agriculture, devoting their attention to the feeding Sarah Anderson, a free black woman, a native of Guinea,

of the Congo country, died on the 20th Sept. 1813, at Providence Grove, St. John's, Jamaica, at the extraordinary age of 140 years. She retained a good appetite, could hear, see, and converse with cheerfulness, to the last moment of her existence.

Public Prints.

1907. [Gen. xlvii. 9.] The years of my wandering - In the early ages of the world men travelled over the face of the Earth, attended by their flocks and herds, laying the whole vegetable kingdom under contribution. The Son going before them in the Spring invited them to advance to the furthest extremities of the North, and to return with Autunn bringing up his train. While the Orb of day is advancing from the Tropic of Capricorn to that of Cancer, a traveller departing on foot from the Torrid Zone may arrive on the shores of the Frozen Ocean, and return thence into the Temperate Zone when the Sou traces backward his progress, at the rate of only four, or at most five leagues a day, without being incommoded, the whole journey through, with either the sultry heat of Summer, or the frost of Winter. It is by regulating themselves according to the annual course of the Sun, that certain Tartar-hordes still travel.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 475.

1908. [

-17.] Egypt appears to have been the country where horses were first naturalized and domesticated.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. p. 454.

1906. [Gen. xlvii. 9.] CENSORINUS, in his Treatise (de Die Natali, cap. 19), assures us that, “antiently, the Egyptiap year consisted of two months.” It does actually comprise two summers. “ The first, which is in March, April, and May, is rather sickly and up wholesome, ou account of the parching winds, and excessive heats, which reign at that time : but in June, July, and August, which constitute the second Egyptian summer, as also in autumn and winter, the air is more serene, the weather more settled, and the country altogether paradisaical.” (MAVOR.) – This arises from the proximity of Egypt to the tropic of Cancer. Situated between the 48 and 53 deg. of longitude, and the 24 and 33 deg. of worth latitude, it is twice passed over by the sun during the summer months.

Will this suggest a reason, why the Patriarchs appear to have lived so much longer than we of modern times, and colder climates? Did they reckon two years for one, in our method of computing time? And was Jacob, for instance, at the time he spake to Pharaoh, only 65 of our years old ?

With propriety, then, might he say, “ Few and evil have the days,” or seasons, of the years of my life been.” As summer is the day, and winter the night of the year ; so comfort is the day, and Afiction the night of life. In this sense inany persons have had but few days in the years of their lives.

(The Latin scholar knows, that when a copyist had, through ignorance or mistake, substituted n for $ in Censorinus's word for narvest, it would then signify month, according to the above quotation thereof in Calmet, who says,

" the old Egyptians had two crops of yearly from the same ground; at present they get but one.”)

It has been said, that the civil year of the Hebrews began at the autumnal equinox, and the sacred year at the veroal;, that is, the former in the Month Tizri, which comprises part of September and part of October; and the latter in Nisan, which falls in March and April, according lo the course of the moon. But what if these be two distinct years, first incorporated by Moses at the time of the exodus, or departure from Egypt? when the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “ This Month (Nisan) shall be unto you the beginning of months : it shall be the first month of the year to you." Exod. xii. 2.

The only divisions of the year, which are made by the natives of Sierra Leone, are the rainy and dry seasons; or, as they are called by soine of their tribes, the bad and good time.

See WINTERBOTTOM's Account of the

Native Africans in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone.


Having witnessed, says Forster, the robust activity of the people in northern Persia, I ain induced to think, that the human body may sustain the most laborious services, without the aid of animal food. - It is a wellkuown fact, that the Arabs of the shore of the Red Sea, who live with little exception on dates and lemons, carry burdeos of such an extraordinary weight, that ils specific inention, to an European ear, would seem romance.

Sce Pinkerlon's Coll. col. ix. p. 294.


1910. [- 19.] From the Gentoo laws it appears that such a purchase as this offered to Joseph was no unusual thing. In these institutes particular provision was made for the release of those that were thus brought into bondage. “Whosoever, having received his victuals from a persou during the time of

has become his slave, on giving to his provider whatever he received from hiin during the time of the fainine, and also two head of cattle, may become free from his servitude.”

Bib. Research. vol. ii. p. 157.

1911. [

-24.] In Japan, the landlords claim six parts in teng of all the produce of their land, whether rice, corn, wheat, pease, pulse, or other; and the teuant for his trouble and maintenance, keeps the remaining four parts : while such as hold lands of the crown, give but four parts in ten to the Emperor's stewards reserving six parts for theinselves.

Kemifer. Pinkerton's Coll.

vol. vii. p. 697.

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