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drinking and more salubrious than male (or hard); as female (or bland) air is fittest for the lungs of children, while male (or sharp) air can be better borne by men of robust make. This, says Pietro Delle Valle, I have deemed a matler curious enough to be made public. Pinkerton's Coll. vol. ix.
certain man of Cesarea, of a seditious temper, got au earthen vessel, and set it with the bottom upward at the enlrance of that synagogue, and sacrificed birds. This thing provoked the Jews to an incurable degree, because their laws were affronted, and the place was polluted. (Joseph. War b. ii. ch. xiv. § 5. vol. v.) — Their sacrifices were of the fruit of the Vine, Lev. xix. 24. Hos. x. 1.
2195. [Lev. j. 9.) Numa's sacrifices, as instituted among the Romans, were, says PLUTARCH, without any effusion of blood ; consisting chiefly of four, libations of wine, and other very simple and unexpensive things.
See his Lives, by Langhorne,
vol. i. p. 173.
A sweet savour] As the valuable spicetrees, and balsamick plants, that grow in Arabia the Happy, give a real perfume to the air.
Works of Sir W. JONES,
vol. iv. p. 528.
2200. [Lev. i. 14 – 17.] Raisins are of two sorts. Those which are called sun-raisins are made thus : When the grapes are almost ripe, the stalk is cut half through, so that the
sap may not penetrate further, but yet the bunch of grapes may remain suspended by the stalk. The sun, by dartiug on them, candies t and dries them. The second sort is made after the following manner: When the Vines are pruned, the tendrils are preserved till the time of vintage ; a great fire is made, wherein those tendrils are burnt, and in the lye, made of their ashes (SWINBURNE, in his Travels through Spain, p. 208, says, of urine and ashes), the newly gathered grapes are dipped, after which they are exposed to the sun to dry, which renders them fit for use. (Travels through Portugal and Spain in 1772 and 1773 by RICHARD Twiss Esquire, F. R. S. p. 334.) – At Sidonijah, distant four hours' journey from Damascus, the grapes are of a remarkable size, the berries of some being as large as pigeon's egg, and of a very exquisite taste : sent to Europe in a dried state, they are known by the name of Damaskraisins.
See Travels from Ephesus containing Observa
tions on the present state of Asia Minor, by the illustrious Ægidius VAN EGMONT, Envoy from the States to the King of Naples, and JOHN HEYMAN, Professor of the Oriental Languages in the University of Leyden, vol. ii. p. 260, &c.
2197. [-10.) Figs, when dried in the oven (Ezek. xlvi. 20), furnish, with a little barley-bread, the principal sustenance of the numerous and finely-formed inhabitants of the islands of the Archipelago. — The wild fig tree, the caprificus, the ornos (the ass) of the isles of the Archipelago, resembles, in all its parts, the domestic fig-tree (ficus sativa), of which it appears to be, in some measure, only a variety. But it bears fruits that serve for caprification : This operation consists in suspending in different parts of a domesticated fig-tree, several wild figs strung on a thread. The flies or goats which issue from these, introduce themselves into the umbilicus of the domestic figs, and by their punctures cause in them a fermentation which accelerates their ripening, in the same manner as worm-eaten fruits always ripen before those that are sound. - This caprification, which is only used for the late-ripe species of fiy-trees, is particularly forbidden in ch. vi. 23, following.
It is to be remarked that the heat of the sun, which is sufficient to dry the figs that have not been caprificated, is not so for those that have undergone this operation. They must be dried in the oven ; which gives them a disagreeable taste, but is necessary to destroy the eggs of the insects which they coutain.
See BuisgeLin's Malta, vol, i.
pp. 138 — 148.
The vine and its fruit, when burut, have to man, a most grateful fragrance; grapes and their juice however, when fermented, lose this pleasing property.
See No. 874, 901, 906, 917,898, 908, 97,910, 958, 896, 911, 919, 901.
2202. [Leo. ii. 1.] Was any meat offering among the Jews, "the consecrated offering of rice”, mentioned in the Laws of Menu, in Sir W. JONES' Works, vol. iii. p. 244 ?
2198. - 13.) Ignatius Rueinfelden and BOCHART affirm, that Syria and Palestine produce boney-canes, from which they procure sugar.
In Switzerland great use is made of the oil of green walnuts, which is preferred to olive oil for salads
2199. ( 14.] On the seventh day of the week, when the Jews were crowding apace to their synagogue, a
+ In burnt-offerings, they were candied by the fire of the Altar.
Olive oil, combined with sugar, readily mixes with water and flour; and is the fat of sacrifices. As sugar is not changed by the action of the air, it is usually employed to preserve other vegetable matters from potrefaction. (Nicholson.) — Thus it appears, that sugar was the vegetable salt put into those cakes, which Virgil calls salsas fruges, sugared fritters.
The bread used by Brahmins, in its simple state, is prepared from the flour of wheat, juarree, or bahjeree : besides which they are very fond of a thin cake, or wafer, called popper, made from the flour of oord, or mash (phaseolus max) highly seasoued with asafoetida ; a salt called popper-khor; and a very hot massaula, composed of turmeric, black pepper, ginger, garlic, several kinds of warm seeds, and a quantity of the hottest Chili-pepper. These ingredients are all kneaded with the ourd four and water iuto a tenacious paste, to forin the popper, which is rolled iuto cakes not thicker than a wafer; these are first dried a little in the sun, and then baked by fire until crisp.
Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,
vol. ii. p. 50.
Sugar, which is properly, the salt residing in the pith of a sugar-cane, is procured in the Indies by boiling the juice of the cane five times successively in different coppers, or large cauldrons, till the essential salt is completely separated from the syrup. (Nat. Delin. vol. i. p. 279.)
This was to be used in the Lord's sacrifices instead of honey, the sugar of the Antients.
2207. [-5. A fire-plate] This was a round plate of iron, convex on the upper side, ou which were baked thin cakes. It is still used in Arabia ; and even iu many parts of this island, where it is called 'a griddle.
2208. 11.) At the city Callatebus, says HERODOTUS, a bouey is made of the tamarisk and wheat.
Herudot. Polymnia, ch. xxxi. Amongst the Zigantes a great abundance of honey is found, the produce of their bees; but of this they say a great deal more is made by the natives.
Ibid. Melpom. ch. cxciv.
The maple-tree yields a sap, which has a much more pleasant taste than the best lemonade or cherry water; and makes the most wholesome drink in the world. This liquor is drawn by cutting the tree two inches deep in the wood, the cut being run sloping to the length of ten or twelve inches; at the lower end of this gash, a knife is thrust iąto tiie tree slopingly, so that the water runs out by the knife into vessels placed to receive it. Some trees will yield five or six bottles of this water a day; and some inhabitants of Canada might draw 20 hogsheads of it in one day, if they would thus cut and notch all the maples of their respective plantations. The gash does no harm to the tree. Of this sap they make sugar and a syrup which is so excellent that there cannot be a better reinedy for fortifying the stomach.
PINKERTON's Coll. part liii. p. 359.
2220. (Lev. ii. 13, 15.] There was oil added to sanctify all the sacrifices, except the sin-offering and the jealousyoffering ; and incense was added, which seems to have been in practice in Noah's time, to give a sweet and acceptable smell; and salt (or sugar) to give taste.
Hutchinson's Use of Reason restored, p.
2221. [-14. A meat offering of thy first-fruits] Like a dish of fruit and corn offered to Ceres.
Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. iv. p. 552.
2215. [Lev. ii. 13.] At Cavada in North America, there are two kinds of the sugar-maple; the swamp maple, found on low lands; and the mountain or curled maple, growing on high grounds, and having the grain of its wood beautifully variegated with little stripes and curls. The latter yields a pound of sugar from two or three gallons of its sap; the former, from six or seven gallons. A maple-tree of either species, whose diameter is twenty inches, will commonly yield sufficient sap for the making of five pounds of sugar each year, and instances have occurred of trees yielding nearly this quantity annually during a series of thirty years. Exod. xv. 25.
WELP's Trav. in N. America,
vol. i. p. 381.
In a temporary building, about a mile from the church of Axuin, the Ras, while attending divine service, was secured from the view of all without by a curtain, within which was placed (before him) a erown of gold, some frankincense, dried grapes, and wheat: the incense was burnt; the corn and the raisins were made use of instead of the (eucharistical) bread and wine. (See Lord VALENTIA's Trav. in Abyssinia, p. 245.) — This taking place, it seems, on the 20th of September, and in a fertile valley, was probably the royal mode of celebrating annually, the harvest festival.
See No. 902, 921, 924, 928, 918, 905, 337, 948.
Sugar and water, we are told, is, at present, a very common drink at Paris, and reckoned extremely wholesome, as it almost instantly alleviates any slight indigestion, or uneasiness of the stomach.
See PINKERTON's Recollections of
Mallory, who was a great lover and eater of sugar, after cutting a fresh set of teeth when past fourscore, lived to about one hundred years of age.
See Cleland's Institutes of Health,
App. p. 38.
2223. (Lev. iii. 1.] Males and females were offered as a peace-offering, when God and man entered into covenant; Gen. xv. 9.
Sugar, from its high price, being rarely used by the lower class of Persians, they have adapted to its purposes a syrup made of the inspissated juice of grapes.
FORSTER. Pinkerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 310. This is called in Persic, SHEERAH, See Gen. xliii. 11.
2224. [-2. He shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering] The laying on of hands seems to be the formal act by which the offerer tranferred bis property to the use of the altar, which ceremony was not admitted in respect of the First-born (Gen. xxii. 12), Tithes, and the Passover, they being the Lord's already. Lev, xxvii. 26. Num. iii. 13. Deut. xxvi. 13.
Essay on the Sacrifices, pp. 31, 38.
To preserve fruits for winter consumption, the general method is to put the fruit, with a sufficieut quantity of sugar, into a vessel, which is placed on the fire, till the sugar, mixing with the juices which exude from the fruit, forms a strong syrup. The same effect will be produced by haking the fruit in a jar containing the sugar : after the beat has caused the syrop sufficiently to penetrate the fruit, it is suffered to cool, and then put close into pots, jars (or skins), which are filled up with the syrup, and covered close with paper, and a cover of a skin of bladder or leather is tied over the mouth.
Il shall be a perpetual statute that ye eat neither fat nor blood] Which are peculiarly my bread; Ezek. xliv. 7, 15. Hence Catholics give not the cup to the lajty. - The priests ate the blood. See Lco.
See No. 317, 895.
2235. [Lev. vi. 13.] The emperor of Monomopata in Africa, wherever he goes, causes a tent to be set up, in which is preserved, as is here directed, a hallowed and perpetual fire.
See Long Livers, p. 41.
2230. r 28.] The bunches of the Black Grape from Tripoli are always composed of large berries of an equal size, and with one stone in each.
The le cour, or Morocco grapes never contain more than one stone a-piece, and the lesser-sized berries are always without stones.
The berries of the White Cornish grape, when perfectly ripe, are transparent, so that the seeds appear very distinctly. (SPEECHLY, on the Vine, pp. 5, 6, 25.) - These grapes, according to their size and value, and the skins they were put in, were called beeves, calves, sheep, rams, lambs, goats, kids, or birds, from different species of money in Asia ; as gazette had its naine from gazella, a small coin of Venice, the original price there of a commercial newspaper. See Gen. xxxiii. 19.
See No. 868.
2236. [4 26, 29. All the males among the priests shall eat] The blood Ch. X. 18: - To shew that a priest, having the Holy Spirit within, may drink into the exterual man, as Jesus Christ did, the infernal influence which he is to remove from himself and others.
2231. [Lev. v. 1.] In the trial of offenders, none other than sworn witnesses were allowed : what these spoke was declared on oath read over to them; and if they then concealed what they knew, they were guilty of perjury.
Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iv. p. 324,
In this sense of eating or sipping the wine with the holy bread, the Catholic priests, but not the laity, are allowed the Communion in both kinds ;-as, after a good influence has been received, a bad one may be admitted aud rejected or shed, for the remission of sins," See Matt. xxvi. 28, 42. Mark xvi. 18. But when the blood or wine of the sin-offering, in cases of actual uffence, denoted that an evil influence had been admitted and had come into act, which the confessor was desirous might never enter again; in this instance, the blood of the sin-offering was to be poured on the earth as water, and the flesh to be burnt in the fire.
Such was the sin-offering of Jesus Christ's body : His blood, or the tempting influence He had hitherto borne in his outer man, was shed or rejected for ever; and his flesh became a burnt offering, when it deflagrated at ascensiou.
See No. 866.
2232. [-2.] As the Holy Spirit, so the contrary spirit, coines forth by the touch. — Gases always intermingle and gradually diffuse themselves amongst each other, if exposed to contact ever so carefully without agitation; but it
-26. Wafer] RICE-Cake, made by boiling rice in water.
PERCIVAL's Med. Ess. vol. ii. p. 42.
2249. [-9. Thou shalt not drink wine nor strong drink] In an Essay on the gods of India, the Brahmins are positively forbidden to taste fermented liquors. (Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. j. p. 256.) – In like manner, the Gentoo magistrates must drink no wine.
See H Alhel's Preface to Gentoo Laus, p. 112. This is exactly the same prohibition that was given in the case of John Baptist, Luke i. 15. (Dr. A. CLARKE.) — Why then do not the Methodists observe and keep it?
2243. [30.] Our coffee being done, says Bruce, I rose to take my leave, and was presently wet to the skin, by deluges of orange-flower water. (Trav. vol. iii. p. 14.) At Rosetto, remarks NIEBUHR, the first time we were received with all the Eastern ceremonies, one of our company was exceedingly surprised, when a domestic placed hiinself before hiin, and threw water over him, as well on his face as over his clothes.
Descrip. Arabie, p.52.