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3337. [2 Kings ix. 13.] Those stairs, shading degrees marked on the wall, might form the sun-dial of Ahaz; 2 Kings xx. 11.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 45.

3338. [ 26.] As Naboth was outlawed by stoning, so were his sons by the same act ; but neither father, nor sons suffered actual death. They were however disinherited falsely for an alleged crime against the king, 1 Kings xxi. 1 - 14. Compare 2 Kings xiv. 5, 6. Thus were the sons punished for the apparent sins of their Father, Exod. xx. 5. But the sin which, in this way, actually extends from father to children, is only the sin of blasphemy against God and the king. See Josh. vii. 24, 25.

3342. [2 Kings xi. 2.] Assan Firally Bachaw, being summoned by his friends, came out of a little house near the towers, where he had been long hidden in his harem.The harems are sanctuaries as sacred and inviolable for persons pursued by justice, for any crime or debt, as the Roman Catholic Churches in Italy, Spain, or Portugal. Though the Grand Seignior's power over his creatures is such, that he may send some of his eunuchs even there, to apprehend those who resist his will. — The harems of the Greeks are almost as sacred as those of the Turks ; so that the officers of justice dare not enter without being sure that a man is there contrary to the law; and if they should go in, and not find what they look for, the woman may punish, and even kill them, without being molested for any infringement of the law.

De la MOTRAYE, vol. i. pp. 242, 340.

3339. [30.] All the windows of an Eastern house open into their respective inner courts, if we except a latticed window or balcony which sometimes looks into the street. It is only on public occasions, like this triumphant entry of Jehu, that crowds of both sexes, dressed out in their best apparel, are seen at their latticed windows. Judg. v. 28.

Dr. Shaw, p. 273. folio edit.

Bib. Research. vol. ii. p. 207.

3343.

In the East, beds are not raised from the ground with posts, a canopy, and curtains; people lie on the ground. In the evening they spread out a mattress or two of cotton, very light, of which they have several in great houses, against they should have occasion, and a ROOM on purpose for them.

CHARDIN.

3344. (- U.) There used to be formerly among the

Turks, great dissentions between the legal and military pro3340. [- -36, 37.] In Gondar, says BRUCE, the

fessious. The Sultan, to produce unanimity, declared, that bodies of those killed by the sword were hewn to pieces and

the left hand should benceforth be the most honourable for scattered about the streets, being denied burial. I was miserable, he adds, and almost driven to despair, at' seeing

soldiers, and the right hand for lawyers. Thus, when these

two bodies go together, each thinks itself in the place of my hunting dogs, twice let loose by the carelessness of my

honor. servants, bringing into the court-yard the heads and arms

Month. Mag.for Sept. 1815, p. 138. of slaughtered men, and which I could no way prevent but by the destruction of the dogs themselves.

Trav. vol. iv. p. 81.

3345. 12. They clapped their hands] Here, and in Ps. xlvii. I, we should read hand. - The propriety of this will be seen from the following extract. Among the Mahometans a leader of their sacred caravans, into whatever towa he comes, is received with a great deal of joy. On

such an occasion, the women get on the tops of the houses 3341. [2 Kings x. 30.] Among the Mamelukes, the to view the parade, where they keep striking their four freed-man is called the child of the house.

fingers on their lips softly as far as they can, making a

Volney. | joyful noise all the while. Though God here promises that the crown of Israel shall

Pirts, on the Religion and Manners of the continue in Jehu's family during four generations, as

Mahometans, p. 85. ward for his zeal against Baal; yet He does not promise him The clapping of the hands obtained antieutly, it seems, as a quiet reign, because he abolished not Jeroboam's idolatry. an expression of malignant joy. - Beware of putting away evil by halves : the toleration of

See Job xxviij. 23. Lam. ii. 15. sin in any degree, prevents the Divine blessing. See No 451.

3346. - The form of this regal crown is no where ascertained; but the name of the portion of gold, belonging

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to the poutifical mitre, may possibly throw sonié light on this obscure subject. It is called a flower of gold in one place ; and in another the flower of the holy crown ; and in both passages signifies the crown itself. The appellation of the flower is supposed to have been given to it, because it was made in a flower-like, or radiated form; and we may reasonably enough conclude, that the regal and pontifical crowns bore some resemblance to each other, when we are assured, that they were symbolical in both instances, of the same thing. It appears from several parts of Scripture, that the kings, in antient times, did not appear without their crowus, unless on such occasions as (when) they chose to disguise themselves; and tbat they even wore them in the field of battle.

STRUTT's Introduc. to Dresses and

Habits of England, p. 20.

3351. [2 Kings xiii. 3.] It might hence be supposed, that Ben-hadad kept Israel in subjection as long as he lived. But from verse 25th, it is evident that Israel was delivered after the death of Hazael. - The fact is, Ben-hadad having been taken into the government by his father as colleague, so long as they reigned together, and no longer, they kept Israel in subjection.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 288.

3362. [-7. Like the dust by threshing] Among the Moors and Arabs, threshing is performed in the open air on any round level plot of ground, daubed over with cows' dung, to prevent as much as possible the earth, sand, or gravel from rising ; a great quantity of them all, notwithstanding this precaution, inust quavoidably be taken up with the grain ; and at the same time the straw, which is their only fodder, is hereby shattered to pieces.

Suaw's Trav. p. 221. folio.

3347. (2 Kings xi. 14. The king placed on the tribunal] This was a sort of rostrum, erected by Solomon ; five cubits square and three cubits high ; where he, and probably his successors, were seated during the divine office. See 2 Chron. vi. 13.

Dr. GeDDES.

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3357. [2 Kings xv. 30. In the twentieth year of Jotham 3363. [2 King's xvii. 25. Lions] JOSEPAUS says, the As Jotham reigned but sixteen years (verse 33), we are to affliction was by pestilence. count twenty years from the commencement of his reign,

Antiq. l. ix. c. 14. which will terminate in the fourth year of Ahaz his sou and successor. See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 74.

3364. [

-33, 41.] Thus began a new religion in Samaria, not unlike that of the Israelites; consisting in the worship of the true God, and of a number of false deities. In consequence, the Jews ever after abominated the Samaritans; and the latter disclaimed all kindred with the former in time of adversity, though they were forward enough to claim it in

time of prosperity ; Ezra i. 6. 3358. [2 Kings xvi. 3.] The Narrative of an Embassy

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 79. from Justin to the Khakan, or Emperor, who then resided in a fine vale near the source of the Irtish, mentions the TARTARIAN ceremony of purifying the Roman Ambassadors BY CONDUCTING THEM BETWEEN TWO FIRES.

3365. [- 30. Succoth-benoth] This by the Rabbins Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 63. is invariably rendered tents of the young women : and Mr.

PARKHURST translates it more literally, the tabernacles of the daughters.

Nergal] In the composition of this word Ner signifies 3359. - 18.] Musac (Hebr.): this covering of light, and gal a spherical inclosure. When Alexander the sabbath, was the throne on which the kings used to seat waged war in Asia against the Persians, be ordered a pole, themselves during the service of the Temple.

which might be seen from all parts, to be set on the top of Calmet, Hist. V. T. I. v. c. 44. the general's tent, on which hung visible to all alike a signal, Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 73. as fire by night, and as smoke by day. And it has been a

custom delivered down to the Persians from their ancestors, to begin their march after sunrising. When it grew clear

day, the signal was given by a trumpet from the king's tent. 3360.

Musach Sabbati, the Covert of the On the top of this tent the image the Sun, inclosed in crysSabbath, called by Josephus Pastophoria, " where”, says tal, made so bright a show, as to be seen by the whole he, one of the priests stood of course (dry, under a co

camp: dering), and gave a signal beforehand, with a trumpet, at

QUINTUS CURTIUS, lib. 5. cap. 2. the beginning of every seventh day, in the evening twilight,

lib. 3, cap. 3. as also at the evening when the day was finished, as giving notice to the people when they were to leave off work, and when they were to go to work again.” Jewish Wars, b. iv. ch. ix. $ 12.

3366. [ - 31.] Nibchaz, the barking watch-dog of the Avites. About three hours from Berytus, towards Tripoli, the country these Avites occupied, is a high mountain, upon which was erected, on a column, a vast dog, which noiformly barked at the season when the Dog-star, by its heliacal appearance, gave certain notice that the sun had arrived at

the greatest elevation, and that the Nile was beginning to 3361. [2 Kings xvii. 1. In the twelfth year of Ahaz]

overflow. — Though this monument be now overthrown, its That is, Hosea did not properly begin to reign till then,

remains are still visible in the neighbouring sea; whilst a by reason of the stirs and tamults which arose after the mur

river, that empties itself into it, still keeps the naine of the der of his predecessor.

river of the Dog. This river the Greeks and Latins styled Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 74.

Lycus, from the resemblance, as is conjectured, to those that sailed by, which the dog on the column might have borne to a wolf (Eichhorn's Simonis, p. 965); but rather, as is pro

bable, from both having a congruity in their hieroglyphical 3362. [ 8.) When a nation no longer keeps up its application; the wolf being sacred to the sun, as an animal antient customs, the character of the people frequently under- of the dawn. Hence the wolf in the temple of Apollo at goes alteration ; and when foreigners obtain sovereign power Delphi, and the epithet Lycian, ascribed to the same god; over the natives, it is a proof that the latter are satisfied with uot to omit that the term Lukabas (Grk.) for a year, the governineut under which the former live.

properly expresses au anniversary procession of light. BOISGELIN's Malta, vol. i. p. 86. Tartak] The precise form of this (idol) is hitherto unas

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certained; but commentators explain it to have denoted, the stated revolution of the Sun.

The Rev. S. HENLEY. — Archæologia,

vol. xiv. p. 207. See No. 1667.

a wind of poison) is a hot and pestilential wind, which blows over the desert of Arabia, in the months of July aud August, from the north-west quarter, and sometimes continues with unabated violence to the very gates of Bagdad; but never affects any person within the walls. The Arabs and Persians have warning of its approach, by a thick haze, which appears like a cloud of dust rising out of the horizon; and upon this appearance, they prostrate themselves, with their faces close to the ground, and continue in that position till the wind has passed ; but if they are not careful nor active enough to take this precaution, they receive the full force of the wind, and are immediately deprived of life. — Mr. Thevenot relates, that in his journey from Suez to Cairo, he was annoyed with one of those hot winds, which lasted for a whole day; and that the caravan travelling to Mecca, was so infested by one, the year before, that they lost two thousand men in a single night.

SMITH.

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3369. [37.] Sal ammoniac being made, in Egypt, from the soot arising from the burnt dung of four-footed animals that feed only on vegetables, the poor people there are very careful to collect the dung of their oxen, cows, buffaloes, camels, sheep, goats, horses and asses, quite fresh; and for that

purpose follow them all day long, in order to collect it as it falls. If it is too moist, they mix it with chaff, stubble, short straw, or dust, and make it up in the form of cakes, about the same size and shape as it lies on the ground. Then they fix it to a wall to dry, till it is fit to be burnt. The salt-workers pretend that the human excrements, and those of goats and sheep, are preferable to any other.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. xi. p. 433. See No. 460.

3371. [2 Kings xix. 7.] The Samiel, seen by day-light, appears like smoke. It is accompanied by a gentle ruffling wind, that continues for some hours. By enfeebling the body, it affects the mind, producing despondency and cowardice. Fatal when breathed, it is peculiarly destructive to persons sleeping. When it does not kill, it greatly enfeebles, and is felt as a suffocating fire. The width of its sweep is generally about half a mile; so that, in passing over Sennacherib's camp, it might slay many thousands of sleepers ; while those on each side of its course, would escape to discover in the morning the slaughter of their fellow soldiers..

See Bruce's Trav. vol. iv. pp. 555, 656, 581, 583,

584. See also D'OBSONVILLE's Essays, 8c. on

the East; Eng. Translation. The feebleness, despondency and cowardice produced in survivors by this pestilential vapor, sufficiently account for Sennacherib's return home, even though we admit that his army might still be very numerous. See verse 36.

3372. [-9.] Upper Egypt formerly composed a distinct kingdom, known to the Hebrews by the name of Kous, and to which the appellation of Ethiopia was specially given. This kingdom preserved its independence to the time of Psammeticus, at which period, being united to the Lower Egypt, it lost its name of Ethiopia, which thenceforth was bestowed upon the nations of Nubia, and upon the different hordes of Blacks, including Thebes, their metropolis.

VOLNEY:

3370. [2 Kings xix. 7. I will send a blast upon him] “Sennacherib, on his return from the Egyptian war, found his army which he had left under Rabshekah, almost entirely destroyed by a judicial pestilence, which swept away in officers and common soldiers, the first night they sat down (on the south side) before Jerusalem, 185,000 men.”

JOSEPHUS. “The Samiel (called by the Arabians El-Samiel, that is,

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3374. [2 Kings xix. 23. The forest] This large and noted quinsey, or imposthume in the throat, broken by the lump of wood-land, called Dromos by the Septuagint, is mentioned

dried figs. also in Isai. x. 18, and by Strabo, b. xvi. p. 758.

Unider. Hist. vol. iv. p. 80. See Joseph. Wars, b. i. ch. xiii. § 2.

pol. v.

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3378. [2 Kings xx. 6.] Subtract these 15 from the 29 years of his reign, and it will appear that Hezekiah fell sick when the king of Assyria 'began the invasion previously described.

Compare this with ch. xvili. 2, 13.

3384. [2 Kings xxii. 8.] This Book of the Law, it is generally agreed, was that Archetype of the whole Pentateuch, which was written by Moses, and by him ordered to be deposited, with the Ark, in the most Holy Place: See Deut. xxxi. 24 — 26. — Hezekiah indeed, had caused copies of the Scriptures to be dispersed in abundance throughout his kingdom; Prov. xxv. I. But his son Manasseh, during the former part of his reign, had made such destruction of them, that if there were any left besides that found by Hilkiah, they were necessarily in a few hands, who would cautiously preserve them with the utmost privacy.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 95, 97.

3379. [-7.] Soon after we got ashore at Algiers, says Pitts, I was seized with the plague ; and the boil which usually accompanies it, rose on my leg. After it was much swollen, I was desirous to have it lanced; but my Patroon told me it was not soft enough. There was a neighbour, a Spaniard slave, who advised me to roast an onion, and apply a piece of it dipped in oil to the swelling, to mollify it; which accordingly I did. The next day it became soft; and then my Patroon bad it lanced, and through the blessing of God I recovered.

Trav. p. 162.

3385. [-2 Kings xxiii. 10.] Topheth is a Hebrew word signifying a kind of drum, composed it should seem, in its first simple state, merely of a skin stretched over a calibash, or hollow block. It has been supposed, that drums were used in the valley of the children of Hinnom, to drown the cries of the human victims there sacrificed to Moloch. But Captain Cook, who attended a human sacrifice at Otaheite, as

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