3876. [Sol. Song iv. 5.) I bave seen, says Sir W. Jones, the Zabi of the Hebrews; it is a kind of antelope, exquisitely beautiful, with eyes uncommonly black and large. It is the same sort of roe, to which Solomon here alludes in this delicale simile.

Works, col. iv. p. 546.

of the chocolate uut (Theobroma Cacao), prepared in the form of chocolate, is highly nutricious,

Sir John Sinclair's Code of Ilealth,

vol. i. pp. 387, 338.

3877. (9. With one of thy eyes] The African woinen were so disguised by their dress, that as they walked on the tops of the houses, they looked more like apparitions and ghosts, than objects of love and pleasure, nothing being to be seen but one eye: their bodies were covered by a white woollen mantle, and their faces with a liven cloth.

BRAITHWAITE's Journey to Morocco,

3893. [Sol. Song vi. 11.] The coffee-tree, which is a species of fern, was formerly unknown to all countries, but that of Yemen in Arabia. It's trunk there, will rise sometimes full forty feet in height, though its thickness seldom exeeeds five inches. It is always loaded with flowers and fruit. Its leaves bear a near similitude to those of the common lavrel. Its flowers resemble the Jessainine; and its berries are like hard cherries. The feshy substance of its fruit coats two interior shells, in each of which is contained a seed; but of thiese, in general, one only is duly nourished. Drank after meals, as in France, it corroborates the stomach.

Nat. Delin. vol. ii. p. 283. The plain of Gaukarna in the north of Canara, is well cultivated in rice-fields interinixed with cocoa-nul gardens.

BUCHANAN, in Pinkerton's Coll.

vol. viii. p. 756.

p. 55.

3878. [ 14.] Among the Persians, if a person slain his clothes with saffron before he go to battle, it indicates that he is resolved to conquer or die.



The seed of yellow water-fag (iris pendacorus), dried, shelled, and corried, is said to be the nearest approach to coffee that has yet been found in Europe.

Month. Níug. for Nov. 1814, p. 359.

3879. [Sob. Song v. 4.] The doors of the Antients were hollow, with bolts in the inside. Sce chap, viii. 9.

3880. [- 16.] He is altogether lovely altogether desires — or, by a Hebraism, mosi ilesirable.



Nuls] There are three species of the cotton-tree: One creeps along the ground, like a vine; the second is a shrub with a thick bushy head; and the third is as tall as an oak : Each, after it has produced its beautiful flowers, is loaded with a fruit ás large as a walnut, the coat or surface of which is perfectly black. This fruit, when ripe, blows, and discovers an extremely white down or cotton.

That gathered in Asia, is manufactured there in a more beautiful manner than in any part of Europe.

Nature Delin. vol. i.




3581. [Sol. Song vi. 11.} At Mount Kennedy, in Ireland, there is (in 1776) an iminense arbutus tree, the greatest na. tural curiosity in the kingdom, says A. Young Esq.: branch, which parts from the body near the ground, and afterwards into many large branches, is six feet two juches in circumference.

Pinkerton's Coll. part. xiii.p. 820. The real Indian palm is the cocoa-nut tree; which the Indians name tenga, aud make much use of for plauting neat gardens.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston.

3886. [Sol. Song vii. 7.) Whilst we anchored at the mouth of the river Manzanares, says HUMBOLDT, our eyes were fixed on the groups of cocoa-trees that border the river: the trunks of which, more than sixty-feet high, lowered over the beauteous landscape ; and the pimated leaves of the palms were conspicuous on the azure of a sky, the clearness of which was uusullied by any trace of vapors.

See his Trav. in S. America. The areca, or betel-nut tree, here alluded to, says FORBES, is one of the most beautiful of the palmyra tribe ; it growe


Pistachia nuts, on the whole, are the most wholesome of the alınond tribe. — The farinaceous part

that the old Romans had their necks and arms bare, and as much exposed to the weather as our hands and faces are at present.

ADDISON, on Medals, p. 95.

perfectly straight, with an elegant tuft of plumy branches on its summit, overshadowing the blossoms and fruit which are interspersed among them, forty or fifty feet from the ground.

Near Ahmedabad he beheld a very uncommon species of this palmyra : after growing up in a straight stem, to a considerable height, like others of that genus, it shot forth upwards of forty branches, with a tuft of spreading leaves at the extremity of each branch. Gen. xliii. 11.

See his Oriental Memoirs, vol. i.

vol. iii, p. 131.

p. 29.

3891. [Sol. Song viii. 7.] In concluding a peace the last and principal ceremony observed by Indians, is that of burying the hatchet ; which, as if eternally to drown therewith all hatred and contention, is sometimes thrown into the deepest waters.

Weld's Trav. in N. America, dol. ii. p. 215. Experience however evinces, that animosity cannot any more than love be so easily extinguished from amongst meu.

3887. [Sol. Song viii. 2.] The word rendered by our translators juice, is properly new wine, or must; and the new wine of pomegranates is either new wine acidulated with the juice of pomegranates, which the Turks about Aleppo still mix with their dishes for this purpose ; or rather wine made of the juice of pomegranates, of which Sir J. CHARDIN says, they still make considerable quantities in the East.

Harmer, vol. i. p. 377. Spiced wine] That is, wine inspissated by boiling it down to two thirds, or one half of the quantity, with honey, myrrh, mandragora, and other strong spices.

See Lowra's Isai. i. 22.

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The pomegranate in most parts of Persia, has a thin soft skin, and contains a large quantity of jāice, than which nothing, in bot weather, or after fatigue, can be more grateful. There is a species there, whose granules are without seed: this is of a superior kind, and generally

3893. [- 9.] The doors of the Antients, which were exceedingly thick, were hollow; consisting of boards attached on each side the interior frame-work.

WINCKELMAN's Herculaneum, p. 67.

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3894. (10.] In these words Solomon alludes to mounds, common in Greece, Egypt, and Syria. They were generally formed by art; being composed of earth, raised very high, which was sloped gradually with great exactuess. The top of all was crowned with a tower. They were held in great reverence, and therefore considered as places of safety, and were the repositories of much treasure. — There were often two of these mounds of equal height in the same. enclosure.

See HOLWELL’s Mythol. Dict. p. 262.

Month. Mag. for Feb. 1812, p. 21.

3890. [-6.] One may see in any antique statues,



THIS prophet is afirmed by the Jews, and believed by

HIS prophet is affirmed by the Jews, and believed by mauy Christians, to have been the grandson of Joash king of Judah. His first vision was about the latter end of Uzziah's reign: but bis prophecies relate to bis successors; the first six Chapters to Jotham, the six next to his son Abaz, and the rest to Hezekiah.

Univer. Hist, vol. iv. p. 70. All the prophecies contained in the Old Testament relate immediately and literally to the Jewish nation and their affairs, in or near the times, when those prophecies were delivered.

Monsier l'ENFANT, apud Histoire Crit.

de la Republique des Lettres, tom. 6.

3898. [Isai. i. 8.) The desolation of Judea, so feeliugly deplored in this verse, is clearly illustrated, says Forbes, by a practice common among the peasants of Hindostan : At the commencement of the rainy season they plant abundance of melons, cucumbers, and gourds, which are then the principal food of the inhabitants. They are not sown in garden-beds, as in Europe, but in open fields, and extensive plains, liable to depredation by men and beasts. In the centre of the field is an artificial mount, with a hut on the top, sufficiently large to shelter a single person from the inclemency of the weather. There, amidst heavy rain and tempestuous winds, a poor solitary being is stationed day and night, to protect the crop from thieves of various descriptions, but especially from the monkeys, which assemble in large bodies to commit depredations. From thence the centinel gives an alarm to the nearest village, and the peasants come out and drive them off. F situations can be more unpleasant than a hovel of this kind, exposed for three or four months to thonder, lightning, and rain.

Oriental Customs, vol. ii. p. 450.

p. 43.

3896. [Isai. i. 3.] The frigat which flies from East to West between the Tropics over vast Oceans interrupted by no Land, and which regains at night at the distance of many hundred leagues the rock hardly emerging out of the water which he left in the morning, possesses means of ascertaining his Longitude hitherto unknown to our most ingenious Astronomers.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. i. p. 294.

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In Lithuania and Muscovy, as soon as the sun is risen, the herdsman daily winds his horn: on the well-known signal, the stalls being instantly opened, the horses, mules, asses, goats, heifers and bulls, obey the summons without reluctance. As soon as they are assembled in a body, he marches at the head of them, whilst they obsequiously follow their leader into such meadows as he sees most convenient for them. By a second signal they are led to water, and by a third reconducted home again ; where each repairs to his own proper stall, without the least disorder or confusion.

Natura Delineated, vol.iii. p. 25.


In the hot countries of Greece and the Levant, the natives have an antient custom of mixing water with wine, in order to cool it. This they have reduced to a regular system with all the most refined rules of curious science.

BARRY, on the Wines of the Antients. The water of the young palm fruit (nectar) is neither so copious, nor so transparent and refreshing, in Bengal, as in the isle of Hinzuan, where the natives take extreme care of the trees.

IVorks of Sir W. Jones, vol. ji. p. 118

3901. [Isai. i. 22.) The natives of India always suffered their gold and silver to remain pure; never added the least alloy; and to this day they observe the same practice.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 88.

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3902. (29.] Groves and trees were antiently very venerable and sacred things, not only as places of Worship, but also as themselves objects of adoration amongst idolatrous nations.

Archæologia, vol. viii. p. 16.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women,

vol. ii. p. 228. The ornaments which the Indian bride puts on are very numerous, and consist of the following articles : 1. A bracelet, which is fastened on above the elbow. 2. A golden bracelet worn below the elbow. 3. A small golden froutlet.Both these may be seen on the antient Egyptian inonuments. (See Solomon's Song.) 4. A golden pin round which, the hair is twisted up in such a manner that it lies quite flat. 5. A golden rose fastened into the apertures of her ears, which are generally very long and wide. 6. Golden earringe, which are often set with jewels. 7. A golden chain which is put around the neck, and hangs down to the middle. 8. A yold-ring, which the bride wears on her finger. 9. A silver hoop, or ring, which the lodian women fasten round their naked ancles, because they use neither shoes nor stockings. 10. A second golden bracelet, which surrounds the wrist. 11. A necklace of artificial flowers. 12. A garland of sweet basil, for which the lodians have a particular fondness.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 277.

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3908. [21.] It is the tustom in almost all the East for the women to wear rings in their noses, in the left nostril, which is bored low down in the middle. These rings are of gold, and have coinmonly two pearls and one ruby between, placed in the ring. I never saw, says Chardin, a girl or young woman in Arabia, or in all Persia, who did not wear a ring after this manner in her nostril.

See Bp. Lowth in loco.


The shoes of the American Indians are made of the skins of deer, elks, or buffaloes ; dressed according to the European manner, or with the hair remaining on them. The edges of those shoes, round the ancle, are decorated with pieces of brass or tin affi xed to leathern strings about an inch long, which, hanging very thick, make a cheerful tinkling noise when they either walk or dance.

CARVER's Trav. in N. America,

3909. [-18 - 23.] We have here an account of the finery of the daughters of Babylon, which no modern extravagance has hitherto equalled.

Dr. W. Alexander's Hist. of Women,

vol. ii. p. 96.

p. 146

3910. [-24.] To the costliness of the materials of their garments, the Babylonish women frequently added the expense of the most precious perfumes, with which they perfumed not only their apparel, but also their bodies.

Ibid. p. 100.


In the East Indies, the Gentile women wear gold or silver rings, according to their ability, one in their nose, and several small ones in holes bored round the rim of the ear, with one large and heavy in each lappet. They wear also rings on their toes, and metallic shingles on their legs made hollow and iutermixed with loose glass beads, that cause, when they move the leg, a noise like that of a rattle-suake.

Captain HAMILTON, in Pinkerton's Coll.

part xxxji. p. 322.

3911. [-26.] On several coins of Vespasian and Titus we find Judea sitting on the ground, in a posture that denotes sorrow and captivity. Seneca also, in allusion pro

bably to Jewish customs, has thus drawn to the life a picture of the Trojan matrons bewailing their captivity :

paret exertos
Turba lacerlos. Veste remissa
Substringe sinus, uteroque tenus
Pateant artus

cadat ex humeris
Vestis apertis : imumque tegat
Suffulta lalus, jam nuda vocant
Pectora dextras. Nunc nunc vires
Exprome, Dolor, tuas.
Hecuba ad Trojanurum chorum. Sen. Troas. Act. 1.

Your arms, your vestures slackly ty'd
Beneath your naked bosoms, slide
Down to your waists

From your divested shoulders slide
Your garments, down on either side.
Now bared bosoms call for blows,
Now, Sorrow, all thy pow'rs disclose.

Sir ED. SHERBURN. See Addison on

Medals, p. 157.

men were not to die, what would become of their posterity ? Long before now there would not have been room for them on the'face of the earth, Death, therefore, is a benefit. Men complain of the necessity of labouring : but unless they laboured, how could they pass their time? The reputedly happy of the age, those who have nothing to do, are at a loss how to employ it. Labour, therefore, is a benefit. Men envy the beasts the instinct which guides them : but if, from their birth, they knew, like thein, all they are ever to know, what should they do ju the world ? They would saunter through it without interest, without curiosity. Ignorance, therefore, is a benefit.


p. 30.

3916. [Isai. v. 27.] The shoes of the Israelites, like those of the neighbouring nations, were only pieces of skiu fastened with thongs to the soles of their feet. So slightly defended, they never could travel on foot, nor hardly stir abroad, without having their feet much defiled; it was therefore always necessary to wash them when they got home; a ceremony often mentioned in scripture, which the servant generally performed to his master, and the master often to his visitors and guests.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women,

vol. ii. p. 91.

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