There seem to be 'two situations which of the onter crust, the interior part of the drop had a structure may be conceived to be exempted from rain falling upon them : similar to that of fluid glass, or at least, that the ultimate one where the constant trade-winds meet beneath the line, particles were in both cases at the same distance, having been for liere two regions of warm air are mixed together, and prevented, in the case of the drop, from approaching each thence do not seem to have any cause to precipitate their other by the action of the external coat. He therefore provapor;

and the other is, where the winds are brought from cured, he tells us, several of these drops made of bottle glass, colder climates and become warmer by their contact with the and on exposing them to a polarised pencil of light, he found caril of a warmer one. Thus Lower Egypt is a flat country that they not only depolarised it completely, but produced warmed by the sun more than the higher lands on one side of the alternation of the prismatic colors. it, and than the Mediterranean on the other; and hence the

Sce Phil. Trans. for 1814, part ii. p. 437. winds which blow over it acquire greater warmth, which-ever way they come, than they possessed before, and in consequence have a tendency to acquire and not to part with their vapor like the north-east winds of this country.


Is the aurora borealis meant by the “bow Darwin's Botanic Garden, part ii. Canto iii. p. 127. in the cloud,” and not the rainbow ?-DALTON has shewn in

his Essays, pp. 175, &c., that the aurora is a magnetic

phenomenon; that its beams arise from the earth's mague356. (Gen. ix. 13–17.] The rainbows in our latitudes are tism ; that it is electric light solely ; and that its appearance ouly seen in the mornings or evenings, when the sun is not is a proguastication of fair weather. much more than forty-two degrees high. In the more nor

Essay 8, Sect. 6. part ii. thern latitudes where the meridian is not inore than fortytwo degrees high, they are also visible at noon. Darwin's Temple of Nature, Canto i. l. 363.

361. - SWEDENBORG, evidently describing the mag

netic sphere shooting its aurora of electric light, says, 357.

At Dehli in the East Indies, there is There is as it were a rainbow heaven, where the whole at. scarcely a month in the rainy season but lunar rainbows are

mosphere appears to consist of very small continued rainbows. seen, when the moon is high above the horizon. I have seen

The whole atmosphere or aura therein, consists of such beams of them, says Bernier, three or four nights one after ano- or breakings forth of light, irradiated thus in each of its points ther, and sonetimes double ones. They were not circles

wherein it originates. All around is the form of a very large about the moon, but opposite to her, and in the like position rainbow, encompassing the whole heaven, most beautiful in its with solar rainbows: as often as I have seen them, the moon

appearance, being composed of similar smaller rainbows, which was westward, and the rainbow eastward. The moon was

are images of the larger, &c. also near the full; which, in my opinion, is necessary; be

Arcana, n. 1623. cause at other times, she would not have light enough to form any. Lastly, these rainbows were not so white as the (lunar) crowns use to be, but much more coloured, insomuch that

362. there might be discerned in them some distinction of colors.

Sometimes the appearance of aurora bo(See Pinkerton's Voy. and Trav. part xxxii. p. 229.)

realis is that of a large, still, luminous arch, or zone, resting The Antients, according to ARISTOTLE, had observed no

on the northern horizon, with a fog at the bottom ; at other

times, flashes, or corruscations, are seen over a great part of such thing before his time: that is, the Writers read by him bad not lived where such appearances are usual.

the hemisphere.

Arches of the aurora, nearly in the form of rainbows, when complete, go quite across the heavens, from one point

of the horizon to the opposite point. 358. At Ketima in Finland, we saw, says M.

Dalton's Essays, pp. 54, 168. OUTHIER, a singular appearance in the sky at seven o'clock (p. m.), on the 27th of July, 1736 ; as the sun shone from the N. W. there appeared in the rain which was falling in the S. E. three rajnbows, the colors of the internal and external 363. (Gen. ix. 14.] That light, electricity, and the of which were vivid ; of the middlemost, which was parallel to aurora borealis, are identical, seems now fully proved by the the interna! one, and which bisected the external, the colors effects of a machine figured and described by Dr. G. L. were not so lively.

ROBERTS, in the Month. Mag. for Feb. 1815, p. 4.-Set, Pinkerton's Voy. and Trav. vol. i. p. 284. says he, the machine in motion, and, as soon as the jar is

about three parts charged, the aurora borealis will appear;

keep the machine in motion, and balls of fire, of a dense pnrple 359.

In the formation of glass tears, color, will pass from ball to ball; still continue to turn the Rupert's drops, -as they are sometimes called, by dropping machine, and they will soon be succeeded by stars, (issuing) melted glass into cold water, it appeared probable, says Dr. with a loud report, and as bright as the sun. BREWSTER, that in consequence of the sudden consolidation

See Rev. xix. 13.


364. [Gen. ii. 6.] The cause of the ascent, suspension, | patriarchs. For instance, “if ever the use of iron had been and descent of vapors, is not yet fully determined ; many known to the savages of America, or to their progenitors; think that electricity is the principal agent in producing these if ever they had employed a plough, a loom, or a forge, the phenomena ; whilst others are of opinion, that water is raised utility of these inventions would have preserved them, and it and suspended in the air, much after the same inanner in is impossible that they should have been abandoned or forwhich salts are raised and suspended in water; and it must gotten.” be owned that this opinion (which future experience may shew

Dr. ROBERTSON. not to be wholly inconsisteut with the other) has a great appearance of probability.

WATSON's Chem, vol. iii.

p. 76.

369. [Gen. x. 2.) It is uncertain if all the names, mer

tioned in the tenth Chapter of Genesis, be the names of 365. (Gen. ix. 14, 15.] It is demonstrable, that an atmos- individuals. In the Hebrew idiom, the terms father, son; phere of steam does actually surround the earth, existing in-begot, was born, imply not always immediate parentage or dependently of the other atmospheres with which however it filiation, is necessarily most intimately mixed. In the higher regions

Dr. GEDDES. of this our mixed atmosphere a condensation of vapor takes place, at the same moment that evaporation is going on below.—This is actually the case almost every day, as all know from their own observation; a cloudy stratum of air 370. (Gen. v. 4.) “Several of the chiefs of your bands," frequently exists above, whilst the region below is compara- says CARVER, in his address to the American savages, “have tively dry. (Dalton's Chemical Philosophy, part i. p. often told me, in times past, when I dwelt with you in your 132.)—As this condensation of vapor, which is the cause of tents, that they much wished to be counted among the chilthat rain indicated by the bow in the cloud, keeps pace to a dren and allies of the great king my master.--As there are certain degree with the evaporation arising from the earth's now several of your chiefs here, who came from the great surface, it necessarily follows that, according to the stated laws plains towards the setting of the sun, whom I have never of our atmosphere, while water thus regularly rises and falls spoke with in council before, I ask you to let me know if there cannot be a universal deluge.

you are willing to acknowledge yourselves the children of my great inaster, the king of the English and other nations."

Good brother,” replied the principal chief, “ we are well 366. (Gen. i. 7.) Were all the water precipitated in satisfied in the truth of what you have told us about the rains) which is dissolved in the air, it might probably be suf- great king our greatest father; for whom we spread this ficient to cover the surface of the whole earth, to the depth beaver blanket, that his fatherly protection may ever rest of above thirty feet.

easy and safe among us his children.-We desire that when WATSON's Chem. vol. iii. p. 87. you return, you will acquaint the great king how much the

Naudowessies wish to be counted among his good children.

See his Travels in N. America, pp. 55, 56. 367. [Gen, ix. 13, 14.] The Bow in the Cloud is made a sign, au einblem of the Presence and power of the PuriFIER.—Whenever the Purifier appeared, as above the Cherubim, with the bow, the irradiation of bis Person ; he was 371.

The king of Talahasochte and his chiefs attended with a cloud.—Hence their augurs consulted such having been previously acquainted, says BARTRAM, with my clouds; and their God in the cloud was supposed to give business and pursuits amongst them, received me very kindly; them answers. (HUTCHINSON’s Covenant in the Cherubim, the king in particular complimented me, saying that I was pp. 458, 459, 460.)- This is the first account of God's ap- as one of his own children or people, and should be propearing in a cloud, with a rainbow encircling his head.-In the tected accordingly. First Church, and in the Jewish, he was encompassed with

Sce his Trav. p. 235. fire : in the Second, and Fourth, in a white cloud, crowned with a rainbow. See Rev. x. 1.

368. (Gen. x. 1.) Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth : and unto them were sons born after the flood.

The arts and sciences, known to Noah and his sons, would have been diffused equally throughout the earth, had all nations been naturally descended from those

372. (Gen. x. 5.) In the Northern Archipelago, the inhabitants of the Fox Islands live together in families, and societies consisting of several families united, which constitute, wliat they call, a race; and, in case of an attack or defence, they mutually assist and support each other. The inhabitants of the same island always pretend to be of the same race; and every person looks upon his island as a possession, which is cominon to every member of the saine community.



Thus whole nations of American savages, (Gen. x. 5.] By the sons of JAPHETH were the isles of such as Hurons, Miamies, Chipeways, Ottowaws, Pontowat- the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his timies, Mississauges, and some other tribes, at this day con- tongue, after their families, in their nations. federate themselves under the direction of a Pontiac, a celebrated Indian chiestain.

377. [Gen. X. 1, &c.] The countries between the Euxine See Carver's Trav. in N. America, p. 12.

and Caspian seas, are the true vagina gentium, elsewhere sought in vain, where a whole multitude of peoples, differing

in language, and sometimes mingling those languages, lived 374.

The most antient people on this earth were within a narrow circle.—Abulfeda, in his Geography, mentions distinguished into nations, families, and houses. They were

a place in the south-east of Trebisond, called the Mount of all content with their own goods. To grow rich from the

Tongues, which is said to have had its name from the cirgoods of others, and likewise to have dominion, was at that

cumstance of so many people of different languages having time altogether unknown. Every one then did what was

ren-countered or dwelt upon

it. good from a principle of goodness; and what was just from

Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 479. a principle of justice. Self-love and the love of the world were then far away. Every one from his heart was glad at his own, and no less at another's good. But, in succeeding times, when the last of dominion and of possessing

378. (Gen. x. 2.) Magog, Scythia, or Great Tartary. the goods of others seized the mind; then inankind, for

-To form an idea of this most antient country, conceive a the sake of self-defence, gathered together into kingdoms

line drawn from the mouth of the Oby to that of the Dnieper, and empires. And, as the laws of charity and conscience,

and, bringing it back eastward across the Euxine, so as to which had been inscribed on human hearts, ceased to operate;

include the peninsula of Krim, extend it along the foot of to restrain violences, it became necessary to enact laws; to

Caucasus, by the rivers Cur and Aras, to the Caspian propose honors and gains as rewards, and the privations | lake, from the opposite shore of which follow the course of thereof as punishments. When the state of the world was the Jaihun' and the chain of Caucuscan hills as far as those thus changed, heaven removed itself from man, and this

of Imaus : whence continue the line beyond the Chinese wall more and more, even to the present ages, when it is no longer

to the White Mountain and the country of Yetso ; skirting knowil, whether there be a heaven, consequently whether

the borders of Persia, India, China, Corca, but including there be a hell; nay, when their existence is denied !

part of Russia, with all the districts which lie between the (SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 8118.)-No Book contains mo

Glacial sea, and that of Japan. numents more authentic of the History of Nations, and of

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 52. Nature, than the Book of Genesis.

Studies of Nature, vol. i. p. 336.


Magog was the Syrian name for Bambyce, 375. (Gen. s. 32.) The nations, which possess Europe Hierapolis or the Holy City, in the province of Cyrrhestica ; änd a part of Asia and of Africa, appear to have descended

where stood the temple of the great Syrian goddess, their from one family; and to have had their origin near the banks

deified queen Arathis.-Within the inclosures of this temple of the Mediterranean, as probably in Syria, the site of Para

were kept beeves, horses, lions, bears, eagles; all sacred dise, according to the Mosaic history. This seems highly

and tame. Here were Galli, or eunuch priests.-Who took probable from the similarity of the structure of the languages

on them the attire of women; forbidden by Moses.—Twice a of these nations, and from their early possession of similar

year they went to the sea-side, and thence brought water into religions, customs, and arts, as well as from the most antient

the temple (to re-fill, probably, their baptismal laver, after its histories extant.-Other families of mankind, nevertheless,

impure waters had been let off into a natural hole or cleft in appear to have arisen in other parts of the habitable earth, as

the ground). the language of the Chinese is said not to resemble those of

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. pp. 234, 257, 259, 260, 261, 262. this part of the world in any respect. And the inhabitants of the islands of the South-sea had neither the use of iron tools, nor of the bow, nor of whecls, nor of spinning, nor had learnt to coagulate milk, or to boil water, though the domestication 380.

The learned men of Segistan, are sure of fire seems to have been the first great discovery that dis- named Segistani; a practice very common in Persia. tinguished mankind from the bestial inhabitants of the forest.

See PINKERTON's Coll. vol. ix.. p. 171. Darwin's Temple of Nature, Canto i. 2.


Sir W. Jones thinks the colonies, formed by YA'FET, were the Tartars; those by Shem, the Arabs ; and those by Ham, the Indians.

Works, vol. i. p. 135.

381. (Gen. x. 4.] It is the opinion of many commentators, of Shuckford in particular, that by the Chittim or descendants of Chith, are meant the inhabitants of Macedonia.

Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 540.

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Aldrete, a person of most profound erudi. tion, and after him Father Delrio, agree in opinion that the Naphtuhim of Moses was either the great ancestor, or nation, of the Numidians.

See Univer. Hist. vol. xvii. p. 352, Note (C).

384. (Gen. X. 6, 7.] The Hindoos have a great number of regular dramas, at least two thousand years old, and among them are several very fine ones on the story of Rama.-I incline to think, says Sir W. Jones, that this was Rama, the son of Cush, who inight have established the first regular government in this part of Asia. It is very remarkable, he adds, that the Peruvians, whose Incas boasted of the same descent, styled their great festival Ramasitoa ; whence we may suppose that South America was peopled by the same race, who imported into the farthest parts of Asia the rites and fabulous history of Rama.—The first and second Ramas were said to have been contemporary; but whether all or any of them mean Rama the son of Cush, I leave, continues this learned gentleman, others to determine :-The hypothesis, that government was first established, laws enacted, and agriculture encouraged in Ludia by Rama, about three thousand years ago, agrees with the received account of Noah's death, and the previous settlement of his immediate descendants.

Asiat. Researches, vol. i. pp. 258, 426.

391. (Gen. x. 9.] Nimrod was a mighty hunter before the Lord.

This plırase, a mighty hunter before the Lord, can be proved from Jer. v. 26. to signify, that he grew hardened in wickedness, and became a prevailing seducer to idolatry.

HUTCHINSON's Natural History of the Bible.

392. [Gen. x. 8.] Nimrod set up or usurped a kingdom; and as several such afterwards did, returned to the first crime (Gen. iii. 6.), set up a False Object of worship, founded (or re-established) the Heathen religion, built a Temple, &c. : which occasioned the dispersion.

HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason recovered, p. 99.

385. (Gen. x. 10.] The children of Ham founded in Iran itself, or Persia, the monarchy of the first Chaldeans.

Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. i. p. 140.

386. (Gen. x. 8.) Syria proper lay eastward of the Tigris, extending nearly north-east and south-west from the springs of that river and the lake Van, to the province of Khuzestân in Persia.—Here was the first great monarchy, which in process of time grew venerable, even to those who had originally suffered by its power; till at length all the country between the Mediterranean on the west, and the river Indus on the east, assumed the appellation of Assyria.- This monarchy was founded by Ashur, and not by Nimrod as some have contended.

See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 123, 127.

393. (Gen. xi. 20.] Suidas informs us from Estiæus of Miletum, that Serug was a carver of images, and a teacher of idolatry. If so, then this might be the man, says Dr. Gregory, that made Nimrod a god. (See Eusebius Scaligerianus, p. 13. Or Gregory's Assyr. Monarchy, p. 217.) -Accordingly, remarks ABARBINEL, the Latin Scribes have written that this Nimrod, who reigned first in Babel, made himself a god-an idol after bis own image (some say, ten cubits high), and called it Bel (or Baal, Lord).

Ibid. p. 222.


From Nimrod to Ninus, the seat of the Assyrian Monarchy was at Babel ; from Ninus to Asarhaddon, it was at Nineveh ; and in the interval froin Merodac to

394. (Gen. xi. 4.] Among those swarms of nations, which, from the seventh to the twelfth century of the christian era, successively inhabited the country of Mexico ; we find, that the pyramidal houses of their gods were raised each in the midst of a square and walled enclosure, which, somewhat like the peribolos of the Greeks, contained gardens, four


tains, the dwellings of the priests, and sometimes arsenals ; since each house of a Mexican divinity, like the antient temple of Baal Berith, burnt by Abimelech, was a strong place. A great staircase led to the top of the truncated pyramid, and on the summit of the platform were one two chapels, built like towers, which contained the colossal idols of the divinity, to whom the stupendous structure was dedicated. This part of the edifice must be considered as the most consecrated place, where the priests kept up the sacred fire. The inside of the edifice was the burial place of the (enshrined) kings and principal personages of Mexico. It is impossible to read the descriptions, which Herodotus, and Diodorus Siculus bave left us, of the temple of Jupiter Belus, without being struck with the resemblance of that Babylonian monument to these Mexican structures.

HUMBOLDT's Researches in South America.--See

Month. Mag. (Suppl.) for Jan. 30th, 1815.

398. (Gen. xi. 1.] And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.

Lip, when put for a human action, signifies perpetually throughout the Old Testament, religious confession. Hence the idea here is, that the idolaters having resolved to build a tower or temple To the Heavens, the Most High made them disagree about the model of their liturgy.

Sce Hutchinson's Essay toward a Natural

History of the Bible.


Paul Lucas, in his second voyage to the Levant, tom. i. p. 126, says he saw a surprising number of pyramids within two days' journey of Cæsarea, in Asia Minor; with doors, stairs, rooms, and windows; a!id in the upper part of each an (enshrined) corpse. These pyramids, he adds, from their uniformity with those in Tartary, have doubtless been built by Tartars, in some expedition on that side their country:

See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv.p.307.


All the symbols of sound at first, probably, were only rude outlines of the different organs of speech, and had a common origin: the symbols of ideas, now used in China and Japan, and formerly, perhaps, in Egypt and Mexico, are quite of a distinct nature; but it is very remarkable, that the order of sounds in the Chinese grammars corresponds nearly with that observed in Twibet, and hardly differs from that, which the HINDOOS consider as the invention of their Guds.

It is probable, that all the languages properly Tartarian (of which the T'urkish of Constuntinople is one) arose from one common source.

Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. i. pp. 27, 60.


By a late accurate admeasurement, it appears that the largest Pyramid in Egypt stands upon

Il acres of ground, and is 400 feet high.

WHEELER's Manches. Chron. Jan. 12th, 1805.

400. (Gen. ii. 20.) Several of the Antients were of opinion, that men, in the beginning of the world, expressed their thoughts by dumb signs, or gesticulations only. (See Diodor. Sic.l. ip. 8. LACTANT. de vero cult. I. 10.)- In naming the different animals, Adam probably did but mimic their natural crics.

401. (Gen. xi. 7.) It is thought to be an evil, that nations do not understand each other : But if all spoke the same language, the impostures, the errors, the prejudices, the cruel opinions peculiar to each nation, would be diffused all over the Earth. The general confusion which is now in the words, would in that case be in the thoughts.

St. PIERRE's Arcadia, p. 190.


No one of the antient writers, neither Herodotus nor Strabo, Diodorus nor Pausanias, Arrian nor Quintus Curtius, asserts, that the temple of Belus was erected according to the four cardinal points, like the Egyptian and Mexican pyramids. Pliny observes only, that Belus was considered as the inventor of astronomy: Inventor hic fuit sideralis scientiæ. Diodorns relates, that the Babylonian temple served as an observatory to the Chaldeans. It must be admitted,” says he, “that this building was of an extraordinary height, and that liere the Chaldeans made their observations on the stars, the rising and setting of which might be exactly perceived, on account of the elevation of the edifice.” The Mexican priests made observations also the stars from the summit of their teinples; and announced to the people, by the sound of the horn, the hours of the night. These structures were built in the interval between the epocha of Mahomet and the reigu of Ferdinand and Isabella ; and we cannot observe withont astonishment, that American edifices, the form of which is almost the same as that of one of the most antient monuments on the banks of the Euphrates, belong to times so near our own.

HUMBOLDT.-Suppl. to Month. Mag:

for Jan. 1815, p. 612.



The monarch of Great Britain has in ac. tual possession nineteen antient kingdoms and principalities : England antiently contained seven, Scotland three, Ireland five, Wales three, and the Isle of Man one. The inhabi. tants speak nine several languages, English, Scolch, Welsh, Cornish, Irish, Manks, Galish in the Orcade Isles, French in Jersey and Guernsey, and Dutch in several places where Netherlanders dwell, having churches, and the service in their own tongue. Month. Mag.for 1815, p. 527.-- From the MSS that

belonged to the late Williain, Marquis of Lansdowne, now deposited in the British Museum.

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