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3975. [Isai. xxiii. 3.] Tyre, now called Zur, can scarcely be called a miserable village, though it was formerly the queen of the sea.

Here are about ten inhabitants, Turks and Christians, who live by fishing.

HASSELQUIST, Trad. p. 163.

3971. [Isai. xxi. 9.] Herodotus and Diodorus say the walls of Babylon were three bundred and fifty feet high, and eighty-seven broad; so that six chariots could pass abreast on the ramparts ; a magnitude perhaps without a parallel; yet it was foretold, that for the wickedness of its inhabitants it should become desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness; a land where no man should dwell, neither any son of man pass thereby : that it should be a spot swept with the besom of destruction; where the Arabian would not pitch his tent, nor the shepherds make their folds. So literally is all this fulfilled, that travellers, a few centuries ago, assert that the ruins of antient Babylon were so full of venomous creatures, especially of a poisonous animal called eglo, that no one dared to approach nearer this heap of desolation than half a league; and those who have been lately there, declare they can no longer discern the site of this antient city.

FORBES' Oriental Customs, vol. iji.

3976. [ 15.] The Babylonish captivity (of Israel aud Judah) is here foretold under the type of Tyre.

Uriah had been forced to flee towards Egypt, for having dared to utter such prophecies expressly against Judah and Jerusalem.

Unider. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 102, 103.

p. 119.

3977. [Isai. xxiv. 1. Turneth it upside down] Terentius Rufus, whom Titus left to command the troops, plowed up the ground on which the temple had stood, that none might ever after be permitted to rebuild it. Micah iji. 12.

Josephus' Jewish Wars, Jer. xxvi. 18.

b. vii. c. 2.

3972. [ 14.] If courtesy and urbanity, a love of poetry and eloquence, and the practice of exalted virtues be

some celestial association. He also appears there, sometimes, when he is in deep meditation. See No. 1349. SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence,

n. 295.

3978. [Isai. xxiv. 13 — 16.] The great distresses brought upon Israel and Judah (by the Romans in particular) drove the people away, and dispersed them all over the neighbouring countries : they fled to Egypt, to Asia Minor, to the islands and coasts of Greece. They were to be found in great numbers in most of the principal cities of these countries. Alexandria was in a great measure peopled by them. They had synagogues for their worship in many places; and were greatly instrumental in propagating the knowledge of the true God among these heathen nations, and preparing them for the reception of christianity. This is what the Prophet seemns to mean by the celebration of the name of JEHOVAH in the waters, in the distant coasts, and in the uttermost parts of the laud.

Lowth, in loco.

3982. [Isai. xxviii. 21.] Other Translators read, Opus alienum suum. (Boyle's Seraphic Love, p. 86.) — His work by foreigners; namely the Babylonians.

3983. (Isai. xxix 6.] When the fight happened at Actium, between Octavius Cesar and Anthony, in the seventh year of Herod's reign (from the conquest of Antigonus, and the taking of Jerusalem a few months before ; Whiston) there was

an earthquake in Judea, such a one as had not happened at any other time. This earthquake brought a great destruction on the cattle in that country. About ten thousand inen also perished by the fall of houses ; but the ar my, which lodged in the field, received no damage by this sad accident.

JOSEPHUS, Antiq. b. xv. C. V. § 2.

3979. [Isai. xxv. 10.) In Egypt they use oxen, as the Antients did, to beat out their corn by trampling on the sheaves, and dragging after thein a clumsy machine. This machine is not, as in Arabia, a stone cylinder; nor a plank with sharp stones, as in Syria; but a sort of sledge consisting of three rollers, fiited with irons which turn on axles. A farmer chooses out a level spot in his fields, and has his corn carried thither in sheaves, on asses or dromedaries. — Here two parcels or layers of corn forming a circle six or eight feet wide, are thrashed out in a day, and they move each of them as many as eight times with a wooden fork of five prongs. Afterwards they tlırow the straw into the iniddle of the ring, where it forms a heap which grows bigger and bigger. When the first layer is thrashed, they replace the straw in the ring, and thrash it as before. Thus the straw becomes every time smaller, till at last it resembles chopt straw.


3984. [- 8.] Whilst I was at Bubaker, says Park, the scarcity of water was so great, that, ill supplied by day, I frequently passed the night in the situation of Tantalus. No sooner had I shut my eyes, than fancy would convey me to the stre ns aud rivers of my native land; there, as I wandered along the verdant bank, I surveyed the clear stream with transport, and hastened to swallow the delightful draught; but, alas! disappointment awakened me, and I found myself a lonely captive, perishing of thirst amidst the wilds of Africa.

See his Travels, p. 145.

3980. [Isai. xxvii. 2.] The berries of the Red Frontinac are of a moderate size, round, and of a fine red color, and high flavor. The juice of the Claret Grape is of a bloodred color. - The White Parsley-leaved Grape produces red berries.

SPEECHLY, on the Vine, pp. 9, 17, 24.

3985. [21.] The Ottoman Court seeins to have been called the Port, from the distribution of justice, and the dispatch of public business, that is carried on in the gates of it.

Shaw's Trav. p. 316, fol. nole.

3981. (Isai. xxviii. 15.] Every man, with respect to his spirit, is in some association in the world of spirits: the wicked man in some infernal association; the good man in

3956. (Isai. xxx. 2.] In the Phenician tongue the Oracle is called the Mouth of God; and to say, we consult the mouth of God, is the same as to say, we consult the oracle..

Le CLERC. See Cooke's Ilcsiod, the

Theogony, l. 625.

3987. (Isai. xxx. 6.] The antient Egyptians most certainly esteemed their Horned l'iper a hieroglyphic of some importance ; for when we examine their monuments of the greatest antiquity, such as their obelisks, temples, statues, palaces, and even their mummies, we are alınosi sure to find many representations of it on them. Those two immensely large stones, lately brought from Alexandria, in Egypt, now in the court-yard of the British Museum, which appear to be part of the grand cornice of some magnificent palace, have many figures of the Cerastes curiously engraved on them. Dr. HASSELQUIST, a pupil of the celebrated Linneus, who was in Egypt in 1750, has given a particular description (and Mr. Bruce an admirable figure) of this curious animal; but neither Hasselquist nor the former writers on Egypt, that mention the cerastes, say any thing about the venom of its bite. This we are informed of only by Dr. TURNBULL, who lived many years in Egypt, both at Alexandria and Cairo, and who has presented Mr. Ellis with two specimens of it. — It is a native of the sandy deserts of Arabia and many parts of Africa. — It is furnished with poisonous fangs, like the common viper.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. xii. p. 355.

climate like that of India ; for the foliage of the palm-tree is occasionally found among them. An iminense track of this description extends from the neighbourhood of Amsterdam to to that of Maestricht, and has afforded to the curious investigator sea-urchins, and jaw-bones of crocodiles, incrusted in the stone. How are we to account for such phenomena ? Are we to suppose that a sudden revolution of the globe buried them in the bosom of the earth, or is it not more likely to proceed from the spiral movement of the ocean along the surface of a portion of the globe ? See No. 263. St. Pierre's llarmonies of Nature,

vol, i. p. 142.

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3988. [-8. In a table] Epi puxivu, on

8. ] a boxtabie.


3993. [Isai. xxxii. 2.) From the wind — probably, the Samiel.

3989. - 22.) The silver and gold, where with your graven and molten images were coated, you shall account unclean, and turn from them with aversion, as from a menslruous woman, saying, Be gone.


3994. (Isai. xxxiji. 1, 6.) In the Triumph exlibited at Rome in honor of Titus and Vespasian, were exposed, among the rich and glorious spoils, incredible quantities of gold taken ont of the temple ; after which was carried the body of the Jewish law, the last, and not the least remarkable of all the spoils.

ECHARD, Ecc, llist. sub A. D. 71.

3990. [-26.] From experiment M. Bouguer was led to conclude, that the light of the moon is only equal to the 300 thousandth part of that of the sun; and that in a clear sky, the splendor of the sun, when on the horizon, is about 2000 times less than when eievated 66 degrees.

HUTTON's Recreations, vol. ij. pp. 328, 329. But if, according to Dr. Burnet, the sun once formed different zones about our earth, from those it now makes, the elephant, and other beasts peculiar at present to the torrid zone, may easily be supposed to have lived formerly, and may live again, under a burning sun in Russia, in Siberia, in Switzerlaud, in Franconia, and other cold regions, where their bones and tusks are still found in a state of wonderful preservation. See No. 12. See Kalu's Trav. in Pinkerton's Coll.

part liii. p. 420.

3995. [Isai. xxxiv. 15.] The incubation of the feathered race is thus described by such as have altentively marked its progress. The Hen, for instance, has scarcely sat on the egg twelve hours, when some lineaments of the head and body of the chicken appear. The heart may be seen to beat at the end of the second day : it has at that time somewhat the form of a horse-shoe, but no blood yet appears.

At the end of two days, two vesicles of blood are to be distinguished, the pulsation of which is very visible : one of these is the left ventricle, and the other the root of the great artery. At the fiftieth hour, one auricle of the heart appears, resembling a noose folded down upon itself. The beating of the heart is first observed in the auricle, and afterwards in the ven


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places fit to receive us) a way was cut out and made even, broad enough for our convenient passage; and in every place where we pitched our tents, a great compass of ground was cleared for them by grubbing away the trees and bushes."

Embassy, p. 468.

tricle. At the end of seventy hours, the wings are distintinguishable ; and on the head two bubbles are seen for the brain, one for the bill, and two others for the fore and hind part of the bead.

Towards the end of the fourth day, the two auricles, already visible, draw nearer to the heart than before. The liver appears towards the fifth day. At the end of a hundred and twenty-one hours, the first voluntary motion is observed. At the end of seven hours more, the lungs and stomach become visible; and four hours after this, the intestines, the loins, and the upper jaw. At the hundred and forty-fourth hour, two ventricles are visible, and two drops of blood instead of the single one which was seen before. The seventh day, the brain begins to have some consistence. At the hundred and ninetieth hour of incuba. tion, the bill opens, and the flesh appears in the breast; in four hours more, the breast-bone is seen ; and in six hours after this, the ribs appear forming from the back, and the bill is very visible, as well as the gall-bladder. The bill becomes green at the end of two hundred and thirty-six hours; and if the chicken is taken out of its coverings, it evidently moves itself. The feathers begin to shoot out towards the two hundred and fortielh hour, and the skull becomes gristly. At the two hundred and sixty-fourth hour, the eyes appear. At the two hundred and eighty-eighth, the ribs are perfect. At the three hundred and thirty-first, the spleen draws near the stomach, and the lungs to the chest. At the end of three hundred and fifty-five hours, the bill frequently opens and shuts; and at the end of the eighteenth day, the first cry of the chicken is heard. It afterwards gels more strength, and grows continually till at length it is enabled to set itself free from its confineinent.

And the moment the chicken is hatched, it is heavier than the egg was before.

BINGLEY. This increase of weight, immediately on hatching, may be accounted for by the sudden admission of the atmospheric air, which, through the medium of air-cells in birds, has a ready passage to aloost every part of the interior of their bodies.

3998. (Isai. xl. 4. Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low] By a continual fitting of the ocean, from part to part, around the globe we inhabit.

The face of places, and their forms decay,
And that is solid earth wbich once was sea;
Seas in their turn, retreating from the shore,
Make solid land what ocean was before :
So Zancle to the Italian earth was ty’d,
Aud men once walk'd where ships at anchor ride;
And cities that adorn’d th' Achaian ground,
Now whelm'd beneath the sea, are sunk and drown'd:
And boatman there, through crystal surface show
To wondering passengers the walls below.

Dryden's OviD. At the commencement of the harvest, says Forbes, the roads, not only ju the Bhaderpoor purgunua, but many other places, were so destroyed by the preceding heavy rains and foods, that it was impossible to travel without sending precursors to see that the hills of sand and mud were levelled, and the chasms and ravines filled up, before a wheeled car. riage could pass. This, by the custom of the country, is performed gratuitously for governors and persons in office ; and at this season travellers of every description, whether in a palanquin or on horseback, must have the highways meuded before they undertake a journey. During the rainy season they are generally impassable, and frequently invisi. ble from inundation. On the halcarra, or harbinger arriving at a village with an intimatiou that a man of consequence is on his way thither, a proclamation is issued to repair the road as far as the next village, and so in contivuance. light soil it is a work of no great expense, and soon accomplished.

Orient. Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 450.

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3996. [Isai. xxxvii. 12.] This Eden was in or about Thelassar in Chaldea. See another Eden, Amos i. 5.

3999. - 12.] Since the mean density of the whole earth is about double that of the general matter near the surface, and within our reach, it follows, that there must be somewhere within the earth, towards the more central parts, great quantities of metals, or such like dense matter, to counterbalance the lighter materials, and produce such a considerable mean density. If we suppose, for instanee, the density of metal to be 10, which is about a mean among the various kinds of it, the densily of water being I, it would require 16 parts out of 27, or a little more than onehalf of the matter in the whole earth, to be metal of this density, in order to compose a mass of such mean density as we have found the earth to possess by experiment: or

3997. (Isai. xl. 3.] While Sir Thomas Roe and his chaplain were travelling with the Mogul betwixt Mandoa and Amadavar, we were,” says the chaplain, “ nineteen days makiug but short journeys in a wilderness, where (by a very great company sent before us, to make those passages and

than we can say, with exact fitness and propriety, that a man has likeness of his image or pictare ; that is, a likeness of his own likeness or of his own image.

Bp. Browne's Divine Analogy, p. 457.

i's, or between } and of the whole magnitude will be metal; and consequently Ai, or nearly of the diameter of the earth, is the central or metalline part. (Phil. Trans. vol. xiy. p. 421.) — This balance in the strata of earths and ceutral metals may be reversed by the power of subterraneous fires. Their activity is doubtless so strong as to melt any metals deposited near the places where they begin; and to communicate to them a heat sufficient for keeping them a long time in a state of fusion; and hence a portion of silver (for instance) thus melted necessarily spreads, and introduces itself through the larger pores of the earth, and continues to expand itself, till being beyond the reach of leat, it fixes, and re-assumes its former consistency. Hence the formation of those masses of gold and silver, often found in a barren and moveable sand, remote from any ore or mine. Hence the continual reproduction of metals in the very miues (of volcanic countries), which, after being long forsaken, have again been worked with great advantage. And hence the skeletons of Indians have been found in old mines, covered with fibres of silver, and the inward parts also full of the same metal.

See Ulloa's Voy. 4th Edit. by Adams,

dol. ii. p. 154.

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4000. (Isai. xl. 12.) Under the reign of the Emprese Aon (of Russia), iu a little desert island of the White Sea, some rocks were found incrusted almost eutirely with silver ore, of the richest quality that ever was seen, as was acknowledged at Petersburg; to which place large bars of it were sent. Considerable riches were expected from this discovery; but on piercing the rock, they perceived that the interior did not contain the least trace of the ore; and that it was simply an incrustation.

PINKERTON's Coll. vol. i. p. 526.

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4001. [-22.] Hobbes was the first (of the Moderns) who expressly considered the vaulted appearance of the sky as a real portion of a circle.

See PRIESTLEY, on Vision, p. 709. The summiniana here alluded to, is an awning, or pavilion, open on all sides, supported by poles, and stretched out by cords, in any level spot in the country; often in a court or garden near the house : it differs from a tent in having a flat covering lined with chintz, and no side walls ; it is neither troublesome nor expertisive, but extremely useful in a hot climale.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii.

4006. [Isai. xliv. 13.] The Figure in plate 124 of Denon's Travels in Egypt, will help to illustrate the prophet's concise description of image-making. -"I found this,” says Denon, “on one of the columuis of the portico of Tentyra : it was covered with stucco and painted. The stueco being partly scaled off, gave me the opportunity of discovering lines traced as if with red chalk. Curiosity prompted me to take away the whole of the stucco, and I found the form of the figure sketched, with correetions of the outline ; a division into twenty-two parts : the separation of the thighs being in the middle of the whole height of the figure, and the head comprising rather less than a seventh part."

p. 458.

4002. (25.] Though the creature may be said to be like God, as we say a picture or image is like the person it represents ; yet it cannot be said with the same strict propriety of speecb, that God is like the creature : any more

4007. [ 14. He taketh the cypress] The majestic stature of this tree is surprising. Approaching it, we

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