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4012. (Isai. xlvi. 11.] When the Macæ make war, their only coveriugs are the skins of ostriches.

Herodot. Melpom. chap. clxxv.

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are struck with awe, on contemplating the stateliness of the trunk, lifting its cumbrous top towards the skies, and casting a wide shade on the ground, as a dark intervening cloud, which, for a time, excludes the rays of the sun. rally grows in the water, or in low flat lands, such as are appropriated for rice plantations. That part of the trunk which is subject to be under water, and four or five feet higher up, is greatly enlarged by prodigious buttresses, or pilasters, which, in full grown trees, project out on every side, to such a distance, that several men might easily hide themselves in the hollow between. From this part the tree shoots up into a grand straight column ten or twelve feet in diameter and eighty or ninety feet bigh; when it divides every way around into an extensive flat horizontal top, like an umbrella, where eagles have their secure nests, and eranes and storks their temporary resting places. And what adds to the magnificence of its appearance, streamers of the long moss generally hang from its lofty limbs, floating in the wind.

Bartram's Trav. p. 88.

4013. [Isai. xlix. 8.] Frequent mention is made by the Grecian orators of desolate heritages, as they are (here) called by Isaiah: now a family was considered as ezeremomenos (Grk.) or become desolate, when the last occupier of an estate left no sou by nature or by appointinent. — Hence, as Isæus observes, all they, who thought their end approaching, took a provident care that their families might not become extinct ; and if they had no heirs by birth, yet they left sons at least by adoption.

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. iv.

p. 229.

4008. (Isai. xliv. 14.] The cypress, being once cut, will never flourish nor grow any more: but the bay-tree, when seemingly dead, will revive from the root, and its dry leaves resume their wonted verdure. By these two antient emblems, as used at funerals, we have placed before our eyes, our mortality and immortality ; the one speaks the utter death of the natural body, the other the life of the soul re-animating its spiritual body.

See Observations on Popular Antiquities,

pp. 30, 37, 31.

4014. [

9, 10.] The decrement of caloric is one degree every ninety toises, when we raise ourselves perpendicularly into the atmosphere. It therefore follows, remarks HUMBOLDT, that under the tropics, where the lowering of the temperature is very regular on mountains of considerable height, 1000 yards of vertical elevation correspond to a change of latitude of nine degrees 45 minutes.

At Calcutta the heat is so intense, that writers in the service of the East India Company, whose correspoudence will admit of no delay, sit naked immersed up to the neck in large vessels, into which cold water is continually pumped by slaves from a well.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 402.

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4015. (-18.) The marriage ceremonies, which vary but little throughout Hindostan, may be thus briefly stated : The bridegrooın goes in procession to the house where the bride's father resides, and is there welcomed as a guest. The bride is given to him by her father, in the form usual at every soleau donation, and their hands are bound together with cusa grass; he clothes the bride with an upper and lower garınent, and the skirts of her mantle and bis are tied together. The bridegroom makes oblations to fire (the emblein of love), and the bride drops rice on it as an oblation. The bridegroom solemnly takes her hand in marriage. She treads on a stone and mullar. They walk round the fire : the bride steps seven times, conducted by the bridegroom, and he then disinisses the spectators, the marriage being now complete and irrevocable. luthe evening of the same day the bride sits down on a bull's hide, and the bridegrooin points out to her the polar star, as an emblem of stability. They then partake of a meal. The bridegroom remains three days at the house of the bride's father. On the fourth day he conducts her to his own house in solemn procession. She

4011. [-22.]

- 22.] “Contemplate the Divine nature, illume thy mind, govern thy heart, walk in the paths of justice, take care that the God of heaven be before thine eyes : there is none but he, he alone is self-existent ; all beings derive their existence from him; he upholds them all; never has he been seen by mortals ; yet he sees all things.

Hymn, attributed to the elder ORPAEUS.

is there welcomed by his kindred; and the solemnity ends with oblations to fire. Another writer on the Hindoo marriages, after reciting the previous ceremonies, says “ the tali, which is a ribbon with a golden head hanging to it, is held ready; and, being shewn to the company, some prayers and blessings are pronounced ; after which the bridegroom takes and bangs it about the bride's neck. This knot is what particularly secures his possession of her: for, before he had put the tali on, all the rest of the ceremonies might have been made to no purpose.

But when once the tali is put on, the marriage is iudissoluble; and, whenever the husband dies, the tali is burnt, to show that the marriage bands are broken." - In antient and modern history we find the numbers seven and three generally considered to be sacred; the former number is most common in scripture ; among the Greeks and Romans the latter prevails.

Sce Forbes' Orient. Memoirs, vol. iii.

pp. 300, 302, 326.

cloth, linen, silk, yold or silver stuffs, or laces ; and indeed every thing, except those of solid metal, where its voracity seems to be wearied out by the resistance. It is nothing more than a kind of moth or maggot; and is so small, as to be scarcely visible to the naked eye; but so expeditious in its depredations, that in a very short time it entirely reduces to dust one or more bales of merchandise where it happens to fasten; and, without altering the form, perforates it through and through, with a subtility which is not perceived till it comes to be handled, and then, instead of thick cloth or linen, one finds only small shreds and dust. It will thus destroy all the goods in a warehouse, where it has got footing, iu one night's time.

Ulloa's Voyage, by Adams, vol. i.

pp. 67, 68.

4016. [Isai. xlix. 22.] On our way to mount Libanus, says DANDINI, we observed the people to carry their young chil. dren on their shoulders with great dexterity. These children hold by the head of him who carries thein, whether he be on horseback or on foot, and do not hinder him from walking or doing what he pleases.

Voy. au Liban, p. 72.

4019. (Isai. li. 3.) In Hindostan the royal gardens are often called the Garden of God; perhaps Paradise is the term intended.

FORBES.

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4017. (Isai. I. 6.] Mr. Hanway has recorded similar instances of outrage, in the Eastern mode of punishing culprits. A prisover, says he, was brought before us, who had two large logs of wood fitted to the small of his leg, and rivetted together; there was also a heavy triangular collar of wood about his neck. The general asked me, if that man had taken my goods. I told him, I did unt remember to have seen him before. He was questioned some time, and at length ordered to be beaten with sticks, which was performed by two soldiers with such severity as if they meant to kill him. The soldiers were then ordered to spit in his face, an indignity of great antiquity in the East. — Again: Sadoc Aga was sent prisoner to Astrabad. His beard was cut off"; his face was rubbed with dirt, and his eyes cut out. On his speaking in pathetic terms with that emotion vatural lo a daring spirit, the general ordered him to be struck across the mouth to silence him ; which was done with such violence that the blood issued forth.

Travels, vol. i. p. 297.

4022. [Isai. Jiii. 1.] At Thibet, the Lampo is the first person next the king, and called his right arm.

Pinkerton's Coll. part xxix. p. 598.

4018. [-9.) At Carthagena, in South America, the insect, called Comegen, dainages and destroys the furniture of houses, particularly all kinds of hangings, whether of

4023. (4.) Dr. KENNICOTT, after various pertinent quotations from Ignatius, Justin Martyr, and Irenæus, refers more particularly to Tertullian, with a view of proving tbat, in his time, this passage expressed the sense ascribed to it in Malt. viii. 17, where the Evangelist quotes it as foretelling, that " the Messiah should heal bodily diseases.” The Hebrew words, it is shewn, admit this sense : Tertullian so expresses them; and so did the old Greek version, which has been strangely altered in this place, out of opposition to the Gospel.

4026. (Isai. Ivii. 2.) In the palanquin of Hindostan, the prince not only reclines (like Jacob) or sits in state in paying visits of ceremony, but the traveller also reposes during a journey, as if he were in his own bed.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii.

p. 192.

4024. [Isai. lv. 2. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread ] At London in 1814, the quantity of Porter brewed by the twelve principal houses, was 1,220,506 barrels ; sold at five pence halfpenny per pot ! (Public Prints.) This amounts to the enorinous sum of £3,660,001. 15. 10!!

4027. [Isai. Iviii. 7. The naked] The ill-clothed. He who has seen a man ill-clothed, or covered with rags, says that he has seen such a one naked.

SENRCA.

4028. (Isai. lxii. 3.] The diadem, or vitta, was a ribbon worn about the head, and tied iu a floating knot behind ; antiently the simple, but superlative, badge of kingly power.

Rees.

4029. [6.] In the Tenple service a constant watch was kept day and niglit by the Levites. And in the East, even to this day, the watchmen in the camp of the caravans go their rounds, crying oue after another, God is one, he is merciful; and often add, Take heed to yourselves.

TAVERNIER's Voy. de Perse, l. i. c. 9.

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4025. [Isai. lvi. 2. Blessed is the man, that keepeth his hand from doing any evil] The most important of all prohibitions is, Neder to do evil, or injury, to any one. “Even the positive precept of doing good, if not made subordinate to this, is dangerous, false, and contradictory. Who is there that doth not do good ? All the world, even the vicious man, does good to one party or the other : he will often make one person happy at the expense of making a hundred miserable. Hence arise all our calamities. The most sublime virtues are negative; they are also the most difficult to be put in practice, because they are atiended with no ostentation, and are even above that pleasure so titlering to the heart of man, that of sending away others satisfied with our benevolence. Oh ! how much good must that mani necessarily do his fellow-creatures, if such a inan there be, who never did any of them harm! What intrepidity of soul, what cou. stancy of mind, are necessary here! It is not, however, by reasoning on this maxim, but by endeavouring to put it in practice, that all its difficulty is to be discovered. The injunction of doing no harm to any one, infers that of doing the least possible harm to the community in general; for in a state of society, the good of one man necessarily becomes the evil of apother. The relation is essential to the thing itself, and cannot be changed. We may enquire on this principle, Which is best ; man in a state of society, or in a state of solitude ? A certain noble author hath said, None but a wicked man might exist alone : for my part, I say, None but a good man might exist alone. If the latter proposition be less sententious, it is more true, and more reasonable than the former. If a vicious man were alone, what harın could he put in practice? It is in society only that he finds the implements of mischief.

Rousseau.

4030. (10.) in Persia, the country to which the prophet alludes, " we rode," says George HERBERT (p. 170),

most part of the night on a paved causeway, broad enough for ten liorses to go a-breast, built by extraordinary labor and expense, over the boggy part of a great desert.” - Bul the most important and useful monument of antiquity in that country, is the causeway built by Shah Abbas the Great, which is in extent nearly three hundred English miles. Raised in the middle with ditches on each side, it is in some parts more than twenty yards broad, lying on arches under which water is conveyed to the rice fields.

HANWAY's Trad. in Persia, vol. i. p. 198.

4031. [Isai. Ixiii.] In this Chapter, the God of the Jews is represented as a husband, who had resumed his marriage gar. ments, which, on the day of espousals, had been stained with grape-blood; in order to redeem or reclaim bis wife, and to take vengeance on her seducers, the Babyloniaos. See Exod. xxiv. 8.

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4036. [Isai. Ixvi. 4.] An ox of old, says VARRO (de Re Rustica, lib. 2. c. 5), was deemed a man's fellow : consequently, he adds, it was required by the law of that time, that he who should take away the life of an ox, was to redeem it with his own.

See also Gen. ix. 5, 6. The farther we go back into antient times, the more proofs do we find that mankind repaid the labors of the ox in agriculture, with a strong degree of affection and gratitude. He was regarded as man's assistant; and from the representations given of the golden age of the world, we see, that to think of shedding the blood, or tasting the flesh of the animal, to whose toil man owed his daily bread, would then have been deemed a heinous crime. - And we find that the Hebrews had a very similar mythology. The prophet Isaiah here, in the picture he draws of the return of the golden age, gives this law as one trait, He that kills an ox, is as one who has slain a man, that is, will be regarded as a murderer. See No. 201. Smith's MICHAELIS, dol. ii. p.

389.

Times

Mercury

1,162,577 Venus

455,122 The Earth

280,000 Mars

148,878 Jupiter

28,616 Saturn

9,516; so as to have all arrived at once at the points from which they began their respective courses. M. de Lelande has since found these revolutious to be perfectly accurate. He could scarcely believe that they all begin anew at the end of 280,000 years; but he has convinced himself that the author

is right.

Month. Mag. dol. xxii, No. 148, p. 276.

4037. [ 19. Javan] This name of the fourth son of Japheth, is used here for Greece. See Dan. 1. 20.

4034. (Isai. Ixv. 2.) The American, strictly speaking, is neither virtuous uor vicious. In his understanding there is no gradation, he continues an infant to the last hour of his life.

WEBB's Selections from Pauw, p. 15.

4038. (20.) Respecting these offerings and vessels, See Nehemiah x. 39. xiii. 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 30, 3). Respecting the return from captivity, as here predicted, See Neh. vji. 6, &c.

4035. [Isai. lxvi. 1.) God is infused and circumfused, both within and without the world.

JEROME in loco.

4039.

It is computed that, in an ordinary way, a dromedary will perform a journey of five hundred miles in four days.

LEMPRIERE's Morocco, p. 98.

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4044. (Jer. i. 13.) See ADDISON's Paradise of the Anicrican Indiars, Spectator, No. 56.

EREMIAH, like John the Baptist, was chosen of God from the very womb. Son of that Hilchiah, who was a descendant from Ithamar; he lived at Anathoth, the seat of his ancestors, a place within two or three miles from Jerusalem. Though none of his prophecies appear to have been written till the fourth year of Jehoiakim; yet, as a denouncer of God's judgments against Judah, we find hin more early in life at the gates of the Temple, exhorting the idolaters in the inost pathetic manner to abandon their impieties.

Univer. Hist. dol. iv.

4045.

The savages of Canada had no cooking pots of metal previonsly to the arrival of Europeans. They had however found means to supply this want hy hollowing the trunk of a tree with Gre. When they used such a kettle made of wood they heated pebbles and diuts till they were red hot and cast them into the water it contained till the water boiled.

See Judg. xv, 19. St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature, Ezek. xxiv. 3 5

vol. iii. p. 247.

p. 95.

4041. (Jer. i. 11.] In their representative processions, the Chiuese still carry at the end of long silver rods, figures in silver of strange animals, hands, scales, fishes, and other mysterious things.

Bernier, in Pinkerton's Coll. vol. viii.

p. 201. part xxxii.

4046.

The poor untutored Savages of America, like certain spiritualizers in Europe, absurilly imagine that, after death, they shall be employed in hunting down the souls of beavers with the souls of arrows, and in dressing the soul of their game in the soul of pots !

Ibid. p. 305. See No. 1351, 430.

4042.

A rod of an almond tree] There can be no doubt but the Hebrews were acquainted with that rod, the caduceus, so famous in Egypl, and among all nations that ever had any commerce with the Egyptians, which was an Emblem of coalition, connexion, or conjunction : how they called it is what we fiud no where, except it be in this place.

Desveux. Bib. Research. vol. i.

p. 307.

4047. [Jer. ii. 19.] Misery is the natural, inevitable consequence of men's voluntary corruption of themselves : And they who resolve all the punishments and miseries of another life into a purely positive infliction of God, do think with the the vulgar.

Bp. Browne's Divine Analogy, p. 339.

4043. [-12. I will haslen my word. As shequed ani (Hebr.) apparently allode to the emblem of the rod, they should be rendered, I am tied to my word to perform it.

Ibid. p. 309.

4048. [-21. A noble vinc] Or excellent Church.

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