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Pliny says, Trees were the first Temples ; under which
men assembled not for parade, but for real religious worship
in its native simplicity.
The degenerate plant of a strange vine]

Salt earth and biller are not fit to sow,
Nor will be taın'd and mended by the plough.
Sweet grapes degenerale there; and fruits, declin'd
From their first Hav'rous taste, renounce their kind.

Dryden's Virg. Georg. ii. I. 323. The vine, the fiy-tree and the olive, are natives of the Islands of the Mediterranean.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 463.

4053. (Jer. ii. 22.] In the vicinity of Surat, among other useful productions is a vegetable soap, called omlah ; the outs grow in clusters on a wild free, and the kernels, when made inlo a paste, are preferred to cornion soap for washing shawls, silk and enabroidery ; it lathers in salt water, and on that account is valuable at sea, where common soap is of little use; relah, another vegetable soap there, has the saine property.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 269.

4049. [Jer. ii. 21.] Barley, in rainy years, degenerates inlo oals; and oats, in dry seasons, change into barley. These facts, related by Pliny, Galen, and Mathiola, have been coufirined, says Saint-Pierre, by the experiments of several modern Naturalists.

Ibid. p. 461.


A swift dromedary traversing her ways] They say that one of these swift dromedaries will in one night, and through a level country, traverse as much ground as a single borse can in ten ; which can be no exaggerat:on of the inalter, since many have affirmed to ine, says MORGAN, that it makes nothing of holding its rapid pace, which is a most violent hard trot, for twenty-four hours on a stretch, without shewing the least sign of weariness, or inclination to bail; and that having then swallowed a ball or two of a sort of paste made up of barley meal, and may be, a little powder of dry dales among it, with a bowl of water, or camel's inilk, if to be bail, and which the courier seldom forgets to be provided wiih in skins, as well for the sustenance of himseli as of his Pegasus, the indefatigable animal will seem as fresh as at first setting out, and ready to continue running at the saine scarce credible rate, for as many hour's longer, and so on from one extremity of the African desert to the other; provided its river could hold out without sleep and other refreshmeuls.

Ilistory of Algiers, p. 101. - See Esth.

viii. 10 - 14.

4050. (22. Though thou wash thee with nitre] It is proper to observe here, that the uitre, or saltpetre of the moderns, is a different substance from the nitre of the Antients; which, though it has been neglected, and not persectly known for ayes, is found in several parts of Asia, thrown up in little biilocks, on the surface of the earth, in form of a coarse loose powder. This is what authors have usually called soap-earth, and might perhaps at this day answer the purpose of pot-ashes, in the making of soap and glass. Dr. Hill, describing this eartlı, assigns good reasons for believing it to be the true mitre of the antient Greeks, and the same that is bere mentioned ; for this is evidently spoken of a substance that has an a'istersive, or cleansing quality, and therefore is not applicable to our modern uitre.


4055. [-27.] The scarlet-fowered French bean turns round its stick or pole, invariably, the contrary way to the sun.

Month. Mag. for Feb. 1814, p. 54.

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The Antients, not acquainted with that useful substance soap, made use of a plant, called by Pliny radicula, and by the Greeks struthion, and which some think was our saponaria, soap-wort; they likewise employed with the same view, another plant, which Plmy describes as a species of poppy: - We are informed by other authority, that the Antients used ashes in washing; and some of the bolar earths were likewise employed for that purpose.

BERTHOLLET, on Dyeing ; by Hamilton,

vol. i. p. xix.


As the love of rule originating in the love of self is entirely opposite to love towards the Lord, the spirits who are in that love of rule (standing in an infernal sphere with their feet upwards and their heads towards the earth) turn their faces back from the Lord, and thus look with their eyes to the west of the spiritual world. Their bodies being thus turned the contrary way, the east is behind them, the north to their right, and the south to their left. The east is behind them because they hate the Lord ; the north is to their right, because they love fallacies and the falsities thence derived ; and the south is to the left of them, because they spurn the light of wisdom.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, 4057. [Jer. iii. 2.) The Arabs wait for caravans with the most violent activity, looking about them on all sides, raising themselves up on their horses, running here and there to see if they can perceive any smoke, or dust, or tracks on the ground, or any other marks of people passing along.

n. 144.


fire), and keep it within its origival limits, though ever so much heated.

See Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. xi. p. 469

4058. [Jer. iv. 17.] In the East, pulse, roots, &c. grow in open and uninclosed fields, when they begin to be fit for gathering they place guards, if near a great road more, if distant fewer, who place themselves in a round about such grounds.


4062. [Jer. vi. 1.) It was usual with the Persians, Grecians, and Romans, to signify in the night by signs of fire, and by burning torches, either the approach of an enemy, or succour from friends. The former was done by shaking and moving their torches; the latter by holding them still.

Lyd. de Re Militari, I. i. c. 3. p. 185. Kimchi observes that Beth-haccerem signifies a high tower, for the keepers of the vines to watch in. — We may remark further, that the watchers in such towers were employed day and night during the vintage in racking off the must from vessel to‘vessel, the moment it was beginning to ferment, till it were ultimately so cleared from the lees that it would keep sweet for almost any period of time. In the cyder countries, by thus racking the juice of apples, they prevent its undergoing either the vinous or acteous fermentation. By the same process, an unfermented liquor may be obtained from any kind of fruit.

4059. [30.] The Birmans, both men and women, colour their teeth, their eye-lashes, and the edges of their eye-lids, with black. This custoin is not confined to the Birmans, particlarly the operation of colouring the eyelashes : the women of Hindostan and Persia commonly practise it. They deem it beneficial as well as becoming. The collyrium they use is called surma, the Persian name of antimony.

Caplain SYMES, Embassy to Ava,

vol. ii. p. 235.

4063. [-29.] This passage is somewhat ambiguous, and interpreters translate the original Hebrew differently ; but most of them collect from it, that the founder added lead to the mixed mass which he wanted to refine.

When gold or silver is mixed with iron, copper, or tin, it is usual to add to the mixed mass a quantity of lead, in order to accelerate the purification ; for the lead will be converted into glass, and this glass will vitrify all the extraneous substances with which the gold or silver is polluted, without exerting the least action upon the precious metals themselves.

Watson's Chem. dol. iii. pp. 319,- 321.

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4060. (Jer. v. 6.) Some relate, that the Ethiopians having made an expedition against Egypt, were put to flight at Lycopolis, by a vast number of wolves. These could not be animals, as Hasselquist did not meet with either bears or wolves in any part of Egypt.

It is asserted by the Scythians, as well as by those Greeks who dwell in Scythia, that once in every year the Neuri are all of them changed into wolves. This idea, it is supposed, might arise from the circumstance of these people clothing themselves in the skins of wolves during the colder months of winter.

See Beloe, on Herodot. Euterpe Ixvii.

nole, and Melpom. cv. and note 113.

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4064. [

- 30.) In Mr. Waxell's collection, is a (plated) medal of Macedon, considered as of the most antient kind : this proves that the art of plating coins was practised about five hundred years before the Christian era. — The Grecian of this kind are more than the Roman, and those of the kings more rare than those of the cities.

Month. Mag. for April 1810, p. 202.

4061. [-22.] As the weight of 3 miles perpendicalar of common earth is capable of absolutely repressing the vapor of inflamed gunpowder, so we may well suppose that there may be a quantity of (superincumbent) earth sufficient to repress the vapor of water (arising from subterraneous

4065. [Jer. vii. 18. The women make cakes to the queen of heaven] Her cakes were stamped with a crescent. See No. 926.

See FULLER's Pisgah sight. And

Unider. Hist. vol. ii. p. 315. 4066. [Jer. vii. 18.] The Mexicans, whose country abounds with cocoa-trees, mix the nuts with Indian corn, and such sugar as is extracted from their own canes; together with a small quantity of Racou seeds, the color of which is the finest vermilion : they then grind all together between two stones, and work up the paste into Chocolate cakes, which are ealen dry when they are bungry, but dissolved in warm water when they would quench their thirst.

Nat. Delin. vol. i.

p. 283.


The nuts of the shell-barked hiccory of America, when poonded to pieces, cast into boiling water, and well strained, afford only an oily liquid, which the inhabitants call hiccory milk : it is as sweet and rich as fresh cream, and is an ingredient in most of their cookery, especially homony and corn-cakes.

Bartram's Trav. p. 38.

4068. [ 32.] During the last great plague in London, one pit, to receive the dead, was dug in the Charter House, forty feet long, sixteen feet wide, and twenty feet deep, and in two weeks received 1114 bodies. During this dire calamity there were instances of mothers carrying their own children to those public graves ; and of people delirious, or in despair for the loss of friends, who threw themselves alive into these pits.

See Journal of the Plague in 1665,

printed for E. Nult, Royal Exchange.

he bad seen sixteen swallows drawn from under the ice by fishermen's nels out of the lake of Samrodt, and about thirty out of a great fish-pond ; that he also saw two swallows just come out of the water, which could scarcely stand, being very wet and weak, with their wings hanging on the ground; and that he had often observed these birds to be weak for some days after their appearance. Notwithstanding these testimonies, however, several ingenious naturalists are of different sentiments, respecting the generality of those birds of passage : particularly Mr. Willoughby, who thinks that swallows in winter retire to Egypt and Ethiopia ; and perhaps the stork retreats to the same countries. This last conjecture seems the more probable when we consider, that at the time these birds leave us, the inuudation of the Nile is over, the waters are daily subsiding, and the marshes abound with aquatic animals, the proper food of the stork ; and it is well known that stagnating waters produce fies of various species, which are suitable food to the swallow and martin. — But how such unthinking animals should exactly know the best time for undertaking their journeys, and also whither to go, and how to steer their course, is really amazing. Who acquaints their young, that it will soon be necessary for them to forsake the land of their nativity, and travel into a strange country? Why do those which are detained in a cage express so much uneasiness at the season for their usual departure, and stem afflicted at their inability to join the company? Who is it that directs the strong to migrale, and the weak to remain behind ? Who teaches them to observe such wonderful order and discipline, in their perio. dical flights? Have they charts to regulate their voyage, or a compass to guide them infallibly to the coast they aim at, without being disconcerted by rains, winds, or the darkness of the nights ? Are they acquainted with the places where they may rest and be accommodated with refreshiments ? And what reason informs them, that this or that particular country will yield thein more convenient food and habitation than another ; that Egypt, for instance, will afford them belter accommodations thau France, or Spain, or any of the intermediate countries over which they direct their flight ? — The truth is, that although they have neither charts, compass, nor reason, they are generally by that powerful instinct, or influx through natural mediums, iafused by the Creator, whereby the stork in the heaven knoweth her appointed times, and the turile, and the crane, and the swallow observe the time of their coming."

Smith's Wonders. “ Lustinct appears to me”, says Addison, “ the immediate direction of Providence; and such an operation of the Supreme Being, as that which determines all the portions of matter to their proper centers."


'This valley was a very delightful place, watered by the springs of Shiloah. It was shady and beautified with gardens.

See St. JEROME, in loco.

4070. (Jer. viii. 7.) Olaus Magnus is of opinion, that in the winter swallows hide theinselves in holes or under water, and says, it is a common thing in the northern countries for fishermen to draw them up in clusters, hanging together head to head, feet to feet, &c. He adds, that such a cluster being accidentally carried by some buys into a stove, the swallows, after thawing, began to fly about, but weakly, and for a very sliort time. To the same purpose Etmuller relates, that he had found above a bushel of swallows under the ice in a fish-pond, all dead to appearance, but the hearts still relaining their pulsation. These accounts were firmed by Dr. Colas, who informed the Royal Society, that

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the advantage of high and favourable winds. The swallow is a bird so swift of light that it can with ease and pleasure move through the air even faster than the winds, and in a few bours' time shift twenty degrees from north to south, even from frozen regions to climates where frost is never seen, and where the air and plains are replenished with flying insects of infinite variety, its favourile and only food.

Ibid. pp. 281, 283.

quarter of an hour's length. He attests likewise, that he had seen a swallow caught during winter out of a lake with a net, drawn, as is common in northern countries, under the ice : this bird was brought into a warm room, revived, fluttered about, and soon after died.”

In consequence of this information, Mr. Klein procured affidavits on oath before magistrates, froin many fermiers generaux of the King of Prussia's domains, who had great lakes in their districts, that in the winter season swallows had been frequently caught in their immense nets, and brought to the fire in a warm room, where they had gradually revived, and then died positively in a few hours. " It is therefore biglily probable, or rather incontestibly true”, remarks Forster in his notes on Kalm's Travels in North America, “ that swallows retire in the Northern countries during winter into the water, and stay there in a torpid state, till the return of warmth revives them again in spring."

Pinkerton's Coll. part liv. p. 548. .

4075. (Jer. viii. 7.} Small birds, and even butterflies, says HUMBOLDT, are sometimes forced out to sea by the impetuosity of the winds, as we observed in the southeri ocean, where we

were on the western coasts of Mexico. But in June, at a period when the seas had not for a long time been agitated by tempests ; when we were forty leagues east of the island of Madeira, a common swallow came and perched on the topsail-yard. It was so fatigued that it suffered itself to be easily taken. What could engage a bird, in that season, and in calm weather, to fly so far? - In the expedition of d'Entrecasteaux, a common swallow was seen at 60 leagues distance from Cape Blang; but this was to wards the end of October, aud M. Labillardiere thought it had newly arrived from Europe.

Travels in South America.

4072. [Jer. viii. 7.] I have found by experience, says JlaSSELQUIST, that (migrating) birds go in a direct line from North to South, and never take their course froin East to West, or West to East.

Travels, p. 209. The swau and wild duck have an accurate knowledge of the Latitude where they ought to stop, when every year they re-ascend in spring to the extremities of the North. They can find out unassisted by compass or oetant the spot where the year before they made their nests. See No. 3896.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. i. p. 294.


Behold the loud, sonorous, watchful Savannah cranes, with inusical clangor, in detached squadrons. See them spread their light elastic sail : at first they move from the earth heavy and slow; they labour and beat the dense air ; they form the line with wide extended wings, tip to tip; they all rise and fall together as oue bird ; now they mount aloft gradually wheeling about ; each squadron performs its evolutions, encircling the expansive plains, observing each one its own orbit; then lowering sail, descend on the verge of some glittering lake; whilst other squadrons, ascending aloft in spiral circles, bound on interesting discoveries, wheel round and double the promontory, in the silver regions of the clouded skies ; then contract their plumes and descend to the earth, where, after resting awhile on verdant eminence, near the flowery border of the lake, they, with dignified, yet slow, respectful steps, approach the kindred band, confer, and treat for habitation ; the bounds and precincts being settled, they confederate and take possession.

BARTRAM's Trav. p. 141.


The sun having passed the line to move towards one of the poles for example, the Arctic, coining to cast its rays that way, makes there impression enough to depress a little the Arctic pole, and to do that more anil more according as it advances towards the Tropic; letting it rise again by little and little, according as he returns towards the Line, until by force of his rays he do the like on the side of the Antarctic pole. If then it be true, that having passed the Line to go towards one of the poles, he causes a change in the direction of the axis of the earth, and a depression in the pole on that side, the other pole must needs be raised, and consequently the sea and the air, being two fluid and heavy bodies, must run down in this inclination : so that it would be true to say, the sun advancing towards one pole, causes two currents, one of the sea, another of the monsoon wind, as he causes two opposite ones, when he returns towards the other pole. (BERNIER.) - This will account for the periodical migrations of both fowls and fishes.


4077. [-17.] The basilisk is a species of serpent frequently mentioned in scripture, though never described farther than that it cannot be charmed so as to do no hurt, nor trained so as to delight in music; which all travellers who have been in Egypt allow is very possible, and frequently seen (Ps. ix. 13). However, it is the Greek text that calls this serpent basilisk; the Hebrew generally calls it tsepha, which is a species of serpents real and known. Our English translation very improperly renders it cockatrice, a fabulous

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anjinal that never did exist. The basilisk of scr plure seems to have been a snake, vot a viper; as its eggs are mentioned (Isai. ix. 5): whereas it is known to be the characteristic of the viper to bring forth living young.


4083. (Jer. ix. 25.] The female Indians, to the east of the Mississippi, decorate their heads by inclosing their hair either in ribbands, or in plates of silver gradually tapering down to the waist ; while those to the west, divide their hair in the middle of their head, and form it into two rolls that hang iu a perpendicular attitude at the front of each ear, and descend as far as the lower part of it.


p. 147. The Arabs also, shave or cut their hair round; as do the Macians, a people of Lybia : leaving a luft on the top of the head.

See HERODOTUS, lib. iii. chap. 8; and

lib. iv. chap. 175.

4078. [Jer. viii. 22.) Between the Red Sea and Mount Sinai grows the fainous balm of Gilead. It is procured from a shrub, by slittug the bark and receiving in vessels what drains froin the wound.

Captain Hamilton. - Pinkerton's Coll.

part xxxii. p. 276.


The balm-trees, which formerly grew in Judea, have been all absolutely eradicated from that soil, and transplanted to Grand Cairo, which is supposed to be the only place in which they are reared at present.

Nar. Delin. vol. ii. p. 291.

4084. ( 26.] The men, in most of the Hindoo tribes, shave the head and beard, but leave the mustachios on the upper lip, and a small lock of hair on the head. Compare Lev. xix. 27. Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. i. p. 72.


Tartary being joined 10 America, it is easy to account for the similarity of religious customs, which the attentive Reader of this Work will every where perceive on what have been considered as two distinct continents; but it is in vain, says Abbe P: CHE, to seek a passage by sea to the-Iudies, or China, by either the north of Tartary, or north of America

Nat. Delin. vol. iv. p. 214.

4080. [Jer. ix. 25.] I will punish the circumcised that has a foreskin. Rab. Nath. in Lexic. sub. voce orlah (Hebr.), as quoted in Universal Hist. vol. iii. p. 65.

4081. [-25, 26.] It is hence manifest, that the Egyptians, Edomites, Ammonites, Moabites, and Bedouin Arabs, were circumcised as well as the Jews, but liad withal vucircumcised hearts.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iii. p. 75.

4086. (Jer. x. 3-9.] The Heathen image-makers, having formed a human figure of some hard substance, covered it with fusible metal, including the whole within another mould of metal able to stand the fire; then made an aperture, let that which would inelt run out, and picked out the core : So called them covers, temples, naoi (Grk.), shrines (Acts xix. 24) of their supposed deity.

Bp. HORNE's Hutchinson, p. 272.


Among the Tartars, it was a particular custom to shave or pluck off all the hair except a small luft on the crown of the bead: This mode is said to have been enjoined by the Tartarian emperors, on their accession to the throne of China.

They also are a people that dwell in the wilderness, living chiefly in tents, and roving about in different hordes, without any fixed abode.

See Carver's Truv. in N. America, pp. 135, — 6. The American Indians who wish to appear gayer than the rest, pluck from their heads all the hair, except from a spot on the top of it, about the size of a crowo piece, where it is permitted to grow to a considerable length : on this are fastened plumes of feathers of various colors, with silver or ivory quilis.

Ibid. p. 144.

4087, [-6. Upright as the palm-tree] Certain palm-trees in America, that seein to be a different species from the cabbage-tree, have straight trunks sixty, eighty, or minety feet high, with a beautiful taper, of a bright ash color, uulil within six or seven feet of the top, where it is of a fine green color, crowned with an orb of rich green plumed leaves: the stem of these pluines has been found to be fifteen feet ju length, and the plume itself nearly the same length.

The Carica papaya also, rises erect to the height of filleen

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