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earth. — Though the knowledge of this inclination or dip has hitherto been fruitless, it is to be hoped that in time some advantage may be discovered by its regularity

See Nat. Delin, vol. iv. pp. 199,- 201. Refer to what the Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg has said of the Magnetic or Rain-bow Ileaven : that is, the New Christian Heaven of the Intermediate state, where Jesus Christ rules all nations with a rod of iron ; the spiritual Sun of Righteousness being the centre towards which the Magnetic Needle continually points. See No. 361.

We see the axis of the earth always turned towards a point in the heavens, that is two degrees and some minutes distant from the Polar Star.

See Nat. Delin. vol. iv. p. 239.

4160. [Ezek. i. 4.] Amber, whose virtue may be excited by friction to such a degree as to appear lucid, and sparkle like fire in a dark room, is indued with the property of attracting light bodies, which, from its Latin name Electrum, is called Electricity. The same property is also found in jet, glass, sealing-wax, most kinds of precious stones, and in all resiuous and bituipinous substances. Mr. Martin observes, that the uses of this wondrous virtue of electricity have not yet been discovered ; but Mr. Gray, a little before his death, hit upon an experiment which seeined to indicate, that the attractive power which regulates the motions of the heaveuly bodies, is of the electric kind. (Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. viii. pp. 65, 110, 316.) — The experiment was this : He fixed a large iron ball upon a cake of resia and wax, and exciting the virtue strongly in the cake, a fine feather suspended by a thread, and held near the iron ball, was carried round it by this effluvia in a circular manner, and performed several revolutions. It moved from west to eaşt, as the planets do ; and its motion, like theirs, was not quite circular, but a little eliptical.

See No. 5. Smith's Wonders of Nature and Art.

4162. [Ezek. i. 4.] The Sun's place is : right ascension 245° 52' 30', and north polar distance 40° 22'

HERSCHEL. Phil. Trans. 1805, p. 264. The fundamentals of motion, like those of form (see Chap. xliii. 11), are five ; the rotary, the perpendicular, the circular, the horizontal, and the state of rest.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 128.


The Loadstone possesses four peculiar properties. ]. It attracts iron. 2. It turns one and the same point, when at liberty, constantly towards the north. 3. It declines some degrees from the true meridian line of the sun's shade at noon. 4. It inclines its northern poiut towards the


When Venus is brightest, and at the same time is at its greatest north latitude, it can then be seen with the naked eye at any time of the day: — This happens once in about eight years.

Vince's Astron. Art. 322. A whirl-wind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself.] The electric fluid may be plainly felt on the face or finger, striking against it like a puff of wind; and is sensible to the ear by a crackling noise, like that of burning charcoal.


At the above period, the Indians wrote also on a kind of paper wove of colton, which was drawn through rice-water, and then pressed sinooth. The Thibetians still write on cottou or silk cloth.

Ibid. p. 396.

4164. [Ezek. i. 5.) So penetrating was the sight of Lieberkiibn, that he could distinguish the satellites of Jupiter without a Glass.


4165. [-10.] The eagles were the principal standards of the Roman legions : they used to be set up in some eminent place of their camp to protect those who took sanctuary under them, they being allowed to be an inviolable asylum to such.

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 161.

4170. [Ezek. iii. 3.] The custom of chewing betel prevails almost uviversally among the eastern nations.

Phil. Trans. vol. xiv. p. 320. The betel bears some resemblance to the pepper-tree. It grows like ivy, and twists round other trees. Its leaves are long and sharp-pointed, but broad towards the stalk, and of a pale green color. They are like those of ivy, only softer, and full of red juice, which, among the Orientals, is reputed of wonderful virtue for fortifying the teetlı, and rendering the breath sweet. The Indians are continually chewing these leaves :

no body, rich or poor, being without their box of betel, which they present to each other by way of civility, as we do snuff.

Rees' Cyclopædia. The Asiatics have a custom of perfuming their letters, which they tie up in little bags of satin or damask.

Sir W. Jones' Works, vol. v. p. 579.

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4171. ( 14, 15.] E. Swedenborg, from his own experience, describes the state of a person thus carried away by the Spirit, as similar to that of a somnambulist. · Walking,” says he, through the streets of a city, and through the open country, and being at the same time in discourse with spirits, I knew no other than that I was awake and seeing as at other times, consequently that I was walking without wandering. In the mean time I was in vision, seeing groves, rivers, palaces, houses, men, and several other objects. But, after walking thus for some hours, on a sudden I was in bodily vision, and observed that I was in another place. On this being greatly amazed, I perceived that I had been in such a state as they were, of whom it is said, that they were conveyed by the spirit into another place : for, during the continuance of this state, there is no reflection on the length of the way, even if it were many iniles ; nor on the time, if it were many hours or days; nor is any fatigue perceived. The person is also led on such occasions through ways of which he himself is ignorant, until he comes to the place intended. This was done in order to convince me that a man may be led by the Lord, without his knowing whence or whither.

Arcana, n. 1894.

See No. 1338.

4169. [Ezek. iii. 1.] So early as the time of Alexander the Great, the Indians were accustomed to write on palm-leaves. (BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 395.) - A roll or book of such leaves might be eaten : and, as palm-leaves are medicinal, being sweet and purgative, they would be, as Johu says, sweet in the mouth and bitter in the belly. See Rev. x. 10. - xxi, 2.

4172. (Ezek. iv. 1.] The Indians do not print their cotton stuffs with wooden blocks, but paint then with a brush made of the cocoa-nut rind, which, when beaten, approaches nearly to an equality with horse-hair; becomes very elastic, aud cau be formed into any shape the painter chooses.

Bartolomeo, by Johnston, p. 398.

scarce, the cow-dung is made up into cakes, and dried for fuel, which the Brahmins and Hindoos of rank prefer to any other.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iij.

p. 96.

4173. [Ezek. iv. 9.) What in the East is called dourra, according to Niebuhr, is a kind of millet, which, when made into a bad bread with camels'. milk, oil, or butter, is almost the only food eaten by the cominon people in Arabia Felix.

4177. [Ezek. iv. 15.] of dourra, or Indian millet, the Egyptian peasants make a bread without leaven, which is baked, through want of fire-wood, with the dried dung of buffaloes and cows. This, tasteless when cold, is, with water and raw onions, their only food throughout the year.

VOLNEY's Travels, vol. i. p. 189.

4174. - 12.] In Arabia, the dung of asses and camels is chiefly used for fuel, because these two species are the most numerous and coinmon.

NJEBUHR, vol. i. p. 91. In Georgia of Persia, as the country yields not one single tree, they are forced to burn cows' dung. lu Erzeron also, you see neither tree nor bush, and their common fuel is cows' dung, which they make into turfs. It is almost inconceivable what a horrid perfume this dung makes in the houses ; every thing they eat bas a stench of this vapor.

TOURNEFORT, vol. iii. pp. 95, 137.

4178. [Ezek. viii. 7 --- 10.] The prophet here evidently alludes to the particular idolatry of Egypt, where dark secluded recesses, ornamented with every form of creeping things and abominable beasts, where called Mystic Cells; and in them were represented by the animals, &c., the secret mysteries sacred to or hieroglyphical of Isis and Osiris.

MAURICE. In after ages, when the Egyptians began to worship in temples, the custom of adorning them with paintings, &c. still coutinued. M. RIPAUD, in his Report of the Antiquities of Upper Egypt, says of them, "If the first aspect of a temple creates an animating surprize in the mind, the paintings which adorn every part of its surface, prolong and extend it. They represent offerings and sacrifices, as well as subjects connected with astronomy and agriculture, in a style of drawing frequently approaching to perfection.”

See Bib. Research. vol. ji. p. 188.


Wood and coals are so dear in some parts of Persia, that they are obliged to make use of a lurs made of camel's dung, cor-dung, sheep's dung, horse-dung, and ass-dung; or else the fire would cost more than the victuals. This turf they use more particularly for heating of ovens, in which they bake most of their meals without trouble, and at a small expense. They even apply human dung this way.

Le Bruyn, p. 228. They make in their tents or houses a hole about a foot and a half deep, wherein they put their earthen pipkins or pots, with the meat in them, closed up, so that they are in the hole above the middle. Three-fourth parts thereof they lay about with stones, and the fourth part is left open, through which they fling in their dried dung, which burns immediately, and gives so great a heat that the pot grows as hot as if it had stood in the midst of a lighted coal-heap; so that they boil their meat with a little fire, quicker than we do ours with a great one on our hearths.

RauwOLF, P. 192. The common fuel used by the inhabitants of Egypt is prepared from camel's dung, mud, and straw : these ingredients they mix as a paste, and form into circular cakes ; from the ashes of which the muriat of aminonia is obtained, and sent into Europe.

Clarke's Trad. in Greece, Egypt, and

the Holy Land.


St. Ephrem, in his commentary on the thirty-third Chapter of Isaiah, makes mention of the two obelisks, so much celebrated, called the ueedles of Pharaoh : This house of the Sun," says he, " is the city of Heliopolis in Egypt, where the worship of demons, and the adoration of Idols were most sedulously observed. Io this place were some enormous columns worthy of admiration. Each of them was sixty cubits bigh, and the base on which they stood ten cubits. The cap on the head of every column was of white copper, and weighed a thousand pounds and upwards. On these columns were the figures of men and animals, wont to be adored by the idolaters of those days: the colomns were likewise loaded with inscriptions in the characters of the priests, which inscriptions related the mysteries of paganism.”

ABD. ALLATIP's Relation respecting Egypt.

Pinkerton's Coll. part lxiv. p. 827.


-15.) In places (of India) where wood is

4180. [

-12.) Not far from the city of Assuan, the aptient Syen described by Strabo, on the confines of Ethiopia, the rocks on the western banks of the Nile are hewn into grottoes, with places of worship, columns, pilasters, and hieroglyphics, as particularly mentioned by modern travellers. Strabo also describes the adjacent island of Elephantina, with its surrounding rocks in the Nile ; from whence were hewn those enormous masses used in the magnificent structures of Egypt, and especially of that amazing cube, each side measuring sixty feet, in which the sanctuary of Butis was cut. The island of Elephantina in the time of Strabo contained a small town, with the temple of Cneph, and a celebrated Nilometer.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. i.

pelitioner his paper torn, and dismisses him. (See D'ARvieux, Voy dans la Pal. pp. 61, 154.) The custom of placing the ink horn by the side, Olearius says, continues in the East to this day.

See HARMER, vol. ii. p. 458. Such, at this day in the East, is the costume of literary persons : The Hierogrammateus, when he goes abroad, has a pen in his hair, and in his hand a book and a ruler, with a vessel by his side containing ink, and the reed used for writing. It is his province in the intermediate class of the Egyptiap priests, says CLEMENS Alcxandrinus, to understand the hieroglyphics, as they are called, - cosmography, and geography, with the course of the sun, the moon, and the five planets; and in a more particular manner, the special geography of Egypt, and the description of the Nile. He must also be acquainted with the description of the sacred vessels, and the places consecrated to them, and the measures and all other things used iu sacred transactions.

See Smith's MichaELIS, vol. iji.

P. 448.

p. 383.

4181. [Ezek. viii. 12.) Behind the Blue Mountains of North America, in Maddison's Cave, where petrifactions are formed into pillars of different heights, if you retire to a distance, and leave a person with a lighted torch moving about among the pillars, a thousand multiplications of his figure present themselves in various forms, and you might almost fancy yourself in the infernal regions, with spectres and monsters op every side.

WELD's Travels in N. America,

dol. i. p. 229.

4184. [Ezek. ix. 11.) The girdles, used by the Turks, are usually of worsted, very artsully woven into a variety of figures, such as the rich girdies of the virtuous virgins may be supposed to have been, Prod, sxxi. 24.- They are made to fold several times about ihe body ; one end of which heing doubled back, and sewn along the edges, serves them for a purse; whilst the hojias, i. 6. the writers and secretaries, suspend in the same their inkhorus ; a custom as old as the prophet Ezekiel who (ch. ix. 11) mentions a person clothed in white linen, and an inklorn upon bis loins.

Shaw's Trav. in Barbary.- Pinkerton's

Coll. part Ixiii. p. 659.

4182. [-14.] An account of the ceremonies, used by the women of different nations, in weeping for Thammuz, or Adonis, inay be seen in Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, from p. 341 to 345 of dol. i.

It is a remarkable property of the river Adonis in Phepicia, that, at certain seasons when it is swelled to unusual heights, it appears bloody from a kind of minium, or red earth, periodically mixing with its floods. Hence arose that extraordinary superstition of weeping for Thammuz, or Adonis, yeurly wounded. (Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 300.) We

e saw, says MAUNDRELL, the water of Adonis stained to a surprising redness; and observed, that it had discoloured the sea a great way into a reddish hue.

Maundr. Journ. from Alep. to Jerus. p. 34. Adonis, or Thammuz, was the Osiris and Thamas of Egypt.


4185. [Ezek. s. 7.] When the sun shines hot on a brick wall, or other dark-coloured surface, if the eye of an observer be placed nearly in a line with the wall, while another person, at 30 or 40 yards' distance, extends any object towards the wall, an image similar to it will appear to come out to meet it.

Phil. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 671.

183. [Ezek. ix. 2.] The Arabs of the desert, when they want a favor of their emir, get his secretary to write an order agreeable to their desire, as if the favor were granted : this they carry to the prince, who, after having read it, sets his seal to it with ink, if he grant it; if not, he returns the

86. [Ezek. xi. 1, &c.] Such visions as appeared to Prophets, cannot happen to any man when his body is awake. See ch. iij. 14, 16. SwedenBORG, on Divine Prodi.

dence, n. 134.

4187. [Ezek. xii. 3.] This is as they do in the caravans, they carry out their baggage in the day-time, and the caravan Joads in the evening ; for in the morning it is too hot to set out on a journey for that day, and they cannot well see in the night.


4191. (Ezek. xiv. 9.] Have I the LORD deceived that prophet! Nay, I have stretched out my hand against him, and will remove him from the midst of my people Israel.

Bib. Research. col. 1. p. 319.

4188. [

-18, 19.) Water is the liquor of the universe ; it is the life of animals and plants, and should be of men; and is the only true digester: All sublunary things are water and earth; we are so qurselves. It is a greal error to imagine that strong liquors support and comfort us; the comfort is false, being but for a time, and leaving a poison behind.

GODFREY's Miscellanea, p. 42. See No. 345, &c.

4192. [Ezek. xv. 2.] From the following qnotations it will appear, that all the interrogatives in this Chapter, respecting the Vine, should be turned into affirınatives. PLINY (Lib. xiv. chap. i) speaking of the Vine, says, ihe Antients very justly reckoned Vines among trees, on account of their magnitude, and because no wood is of a more lasting nature. At present, it is found, that the great doors of the cathedral at Ravenna are made of sine-tree plauks, some of which are twelde feet long, and fifteen inches broad, (Evelyn's Siloa.) — There are, on the Barbary coast, Vives of surprising dimensions, some of them, it is said, have trunks eight or nine feet in circumference.

SPEECHLY, on the Vine, p. 261.

4193. [Ezek. xvi. 3.] The city Jerusalem is situated in the very middle (of Judea); on which account some have, with sagacity enough. called that city the nadel of the country.

Joseph. Wars, b. iii. ch. iii. $5.

4189. [Ezek. xiii. 10.) The mortar in Persia (used by builders)

is made of plaster, earth, and chopped straw, all well wrought and incorporated together : but this is not the material with which they cast, or coat over, their walls. For casting they make a mixture of plaster and yellowish earth : this earth, which is rather of a cinnamon color, they obtain from river sides, and work it in a great earthen vessel; but they put so little earth in proportion to water, that it remains liquid like muddy water, or at most like strained juice ; and it is altogether of the color of' that earth. They make use of it to work the plaster in another earthen vessel, where they iningle this water with plaster in such a quantity, that it retains the color of the earth. Their walls being cast with this inixture, at first look grayish ; but when fully dry, they grow so white, that they look almost as if they were plastered over with pure plaster. This mixture is used not only for saving plaster, but also because it holds better than plaster alone.

Thevenot's Trav. part ii. p. 86. At Calcutta, they make a mortar called Puckah, which is a composition of brick-dust, liine, molasses, and cut hemp or oakum. This, when thoroughly dry, is as hard, firm, and strong, as any stone, closely adhering to the bricks.

Modern Univer. Hist. dol. x. p. 248.

4194. (4.) When the people of Bamba bring their children to the Father, to be baptized, they also bring a little salt upon a leaf, to bless the water. ANGELO's Voy. to Congo. - Pinkerton's

Coll. part lxiv.p. 159.

4190. [- 18. Pillows to 'arm-holes] In Eastern houses, along the sides of their chamber-walls, on the floor, a range of narrow beds or mattresses, is often-placed on rich carpets ; and for the luxurious ease of the family, several damask or velvet bolsters' are placed on these carpets or mattresses ; an indulgence here and elsewhere stigmatized by the prophets.

Dr. Shaw,

4195. (-10.] The manufacture of East India chintz, known under the name of Organdi, has not yet been initated by any person in Turkey, Persia, or Europe. This fine cotton cloth was known in the time of Job See Ch.

The making and painting of it, with the preparation of its colors, give employment in ludia to male and female, young and old.

In spinning, weaving, and dyeing - or rather painting

their cottons, the Indians excel all other nations in the world.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 399.'

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