The present Greek text, was doubtless published at a very early period; who the translator was cannot, at this distance of time, be determined ; probably it was the Evangelist hinself. - As to the language also of Mark, some critics have contended for a Latin original, because of the several Latin words found in it, such as spechulator, Ch. vi. 27.; kenturion, xv. 39, 44, 45; sussemon, xiv. 44. And according to Dr. Lardner, Luke was by birth a Jew, who probably wrote in Hebrew. But that John's Gospel was originally written in Greek, is the general and most likely opinion.

See Dr. A. CLARKE's Preface to the Gospels.

motives, abstain from all flesh-meat; but eat the soft submarine plants of almost every kiud, as the greatest dainties. For these the fishermen's wives (the best divers of the country) will dive even forty fathoms. When washed and sorted, these inarine plants, these fish, are, in the markets, regularly exposed for sale. Malt. xv. 34. See Kempfer's Hist. of Japan, in Pin

kerton's Coll. vol. vii. p. 698.

1699. [Matt. xiv. 17.] The books of the old Mahometan theologists prescribe, that the fish to be eaten by the Faithful, must be gathered with the hand, fresh; just when the wuler, ebbing away, leaves the shores dry. Matt. xvii, 27. See Niebuhr's Descrip. Arabie, p. 169.

Fr. Edit.

4695. [Matt. xiv. 17.] la Hungary they eat melons without bread; which custom must be very prejudicial, where the body is constantly weakened by the influences of a very warm sun.

See No. 989. Neh. xiii. 16. RIESBECK. Pinkerton's See John xxi. 6 - 9.

Coll. part xxiii.p. Ul.


Loaves in the East are very small; and more like our rolls thau loaves.

Dr. Geddes.


Some kinds of sea-weed are eaten, either fresh out of the water; or boiled tender with butter, pep

per, &c.

NICHOLSON's Encyclopedia, Art. Fucus. Sea-kale. This plant, a native of the sea-shore in England and other parts of Europe, is now much cultivated for the sake of its young shoots, which are blanched in the spring, and when boiled, are thought by many to be little inferior to asparagus. Its root is fleshy, resembling a lurnip; from which it shoots forth several spreading stems, a foot and a half or two feet high.

Rees. These plants are in general, a kind of amphibia, growing on the sea-shores, and occasionally covered with water : but they are also found at the bottom of the sea, in which situation they are of a superior quality, and are properly denominated opsaria (Grk.), dainties or delicacies.

See No. 993.

4701. [-25, 31.) A peculiarity of the Dead Seawater, is its specifio gravity found to be 1,211; a degree of density scarcely to be met with in any other water.STRABO states that men could not dive in this water, and in going into it, would not sink lower than the navel; and Poco KE, who bathed in it, relates that he could lie on its surface, motionless, and in any attitude, without danger of sinking These peculiarities are fully confirmed by Mr. GORDON of Clunie, who recently travelled into that country: he also bathed in the lake, and experienced all the effects just related. - Dr. MARCET, who analyzed the waters of the Dead Sea and of the River Jordan, found their saline ingredients so nearly alike, that, in his opinion, the same source of impregpation inight be common to both. That source is the Sea of Tiberias, on whose 'dense’ waters Jesus was now walking.

See Phil. Trans. for 1807, pp. 296,-314. The water of the Dead Sea is very clear, but is extremely salt, and withal bitter and nauseous : so that I do not at all wonder, says THOMPSON (iu his Travels through Asia, &c.), at the prevailing tradition, that no Fish, or other animals, can live in it.

4697. - The Aesh of the red coral is soft, slippery, and full of minute vessels. Its bone, divested of the flesh, is the true coral of the shops : this, in its natural state, is of a strong texture, and of a bright red color, having the outside marked with minute furrows, or irregular striations, interspersed with a few slight depressions, correspouding with the situation of the shells, before the flesh be removed.



With those who doubt, one scruple avails more than a thousand confirmations. To such, one scruple is as a grain of sand placed near before the pupil of the eye; which, though it is single and small, takes away however all the sight.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 6479.

4698. ---- The 'natives of Japan, from religious

4703. (Matt. xv. 2.] The bread, throughout all Curdistan and frequently in Persia, was light and excellent, consisting of Mat cakes, very white and well baked : the hands, however, served in lieu of either spoons, knives, or forks according to the custom of Persia.

PETRO DELLE VALLE, Pinkerton's Coll.

vol. ix. p. 15.

4709. [Matt. xvi. 2, 3.] Kalm, the Swedish Traveller, was told by experienced observers in North America, that, when you see clonds in the horizou in the south-west, about suusetting ; and when those clouds sink below the horizon, in an hour's time, such appearances prognosticate rain the next day, though all the forenoon be fair and clear: but that, if some clouds be seen in the south-west, in the horizon at sunset, and these rise shortly after, you may expect fair weather the next day.

Pinkerton's Coll. part liv. p. 535.

4704. [ 3. Why do even ye transgress &c.] Not also; for that would be to admit guilt on his part.

4705. [ 4.] At Canton in China, if a parent be brought to poverty and want, and have not brought his son up to some calling, whereby be may get his living, the son is not obliged to assist his father ; but otherwise he is.

Captain HAMILTON, Pinkerton's

Coll. part xxxiji. p. 506.

4706. [5.] Origen on this passage says, he should never have understood it, had it not been for the information which he received from a Jew, who told him that it was the custom with some of their usurers, when they had a tardy debtor, to transfer the debt to the poor's box; by which means he was obliged to pay it, or bring on himself the impatation of cruelty to the poor and impiety towards God; and that children would sometimes so transfer what was due to their parents.

See BURDER's Oriental Customs, vol. ii. p. 303. Christ here nolices a vow commoti in his time, whereby a man consecrated wbat he was bound to apply to the support of his parents; and He declares it as so impious, that we cannot possibly hold it as acceptable to God.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. p. 264.


The sufferings of the Continent by the ravages of war, have been aggravated in some provinces, by the calamities of the season. The forests in the Tyrol have been ravaged by conflagrations, occasioned by the intense heats of the summer. Sixty-four villages, innumerable cattle, barvests and vineyards, have been destroyed, and twenty-four thousand peasants driven sheiterless and famishing into the fields. The forest of Riamner, seven miles in extent, caught fire on the 26th of July, and had not ceased burning on the 4th of August. In various parts of Silesia, Poland, and Lithuania, the wheat, oats and barley have been scorched to the ground, the streanis bave disappeared, the trees have been stripped of their leaves, and the earth has become 'as iron, and the sky as brass, with the excessive drought. Cottages have been struck with lightning, and the hamlets in which they stood were burnt to ashes for want of water to check the contagion and quench the fury of the flames. At Munster, on the 12th of August, a dreadful fire broke out, and speedily the whole town appeared one burning inass.

Two courents, with their churches, the roof of the parish church and its steeple, and more than 300 houses, became a prey to the fames. In Russia, the town of Kioff is reported to have been totally destroyed by fire ; 3000 houses, many hundreds of the inhabitants, and property to an incalculable amount have been consumed.

Public Prints for 1811. Who cannot in these things see the hand of a correcting Providence ?

See No. 1206, 1362.

4707. [- 11. Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man] Thiese words have not a general, but a limited seuse, thus: -- Not a lillle soil or filth taken into the mouth by eating with unwaslien hauds, can defile a man; but evil thoughts, and other evils of the heart, when expressed in speech, and realized in act, are (verse 19) the things that defile the man.

4711. [Matt. xvii. 1. A high mountain) Mount Tabor. BOYLE, on the High Veneration Man's Intellect

owes to God, p. 93. Verse 2.] Faith is the spirit of the Christian Heaven ; Charity, that of the Jewish ; Wisdom, that of the Noaich; and Love, that of the Adanic.

4708. [- 19.] The whole of thought enters from within ; but not from without, though it appears so.

It is contrary to order, that what is posterior should flow into what is prior, or what is crasser into what is purer; as if body could fiow into soul.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 3219.

4712. [-15.] In every eclipse of the moon, Lord Chancellor Bacon was seized with a sudden fit of fainting; Being directed to turn his eyes from time to time towards the quarter on which it stood, lie perceived with amazement, that, as the day advanced, the hill gradually souk towards the horizon, and at length totally disappeared.jected to the same disgrace; and no citizen can exercise any public employment, while the debts of his father remain unpaid.

See his Travels in Southern Africa, p. 107.

which left him, without any remaining weakness, as soon as the eclipse ended.

See His Life, by Mallet, p. 98 As the duration of the winds, which have such a powerful influence not only over the various products of the earth, but ou our bodies also, is measured in general by the several phases or aspects of the Moon; and as we say one quarter is rainy, and another hot, we readily impute that to the moon, which, in fact, proceeds only froin the air.

Nat. Delin. vol. i.p. 290.

4716. (Matt. xvii. 25.] Among the Mahometans, tribute was paid only by those who professed a different religion.

See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 205.

4717. (-26. Are then the children free ??] The Roman people, so far froin paying imposts, were frequently supported by largesses of corn, and the tribute of the conquered Provinces.

Among the Turks, the carach or tribute is paid only by the Greeks. - Whatever is partial, can never be just. Yet, for the sake of peace, even Jesus Christ complied : “Give to them,” said he to Peter," for me and for thee".

See St. Pierre's Works, vol. iv. p. 260.

4713. [Matt. xvii. 20.) Speaking of the Meteors in Greenland, Nothing," says KRANTZ, ever surprised me more, than, on a fine summer's day, to perceive the islands that lie four leagues west of our shore, putting on a form quite different from what they are known to have. As I stood gazing upon them, they appeared, at first, infinitely yreater than what they naturally are; and seemed as it I viewed them through a large magnifying giass. They were thus not only made larger, but brought nearer to me. I plainly descried every stone upon the land, and all the surrows filled with ice, as if I stood close by. When this illusion had lasted for a while, the prospect seemed to break up, and a new scene of wonder to present itself. The islands seemed to travel to the shore, and represented a wood, or a tall cut hedge. The scene then shisted, and shewed the appearance of all sorts of curious figures; as ships with sails, streamers, and flags; antique elevated castles, with decayed turrets; and a thousand forms, for which faney found a resemblance in Nature. When the eye had been satisfied with gazing, the whole group of riches seemed to rise in air, and at length vanish into nothing. At such times the weather is quite serene and clear; but compressed with such subtle vapors, as it is in very hot weather; and these appearing between the eye and the object, give it all that variety of appearances which glasses of different refrangibilities would have done."

See Acts. x, 11-16.

4718. [-27.] As the Hebrew word shekel comes from shakal, to weigh, and as the Greeks had at this time a coin, nained (apo tou isasthai, ab appendendo) stater, the Jews had adopted this stater for their shekel, which they coined in silver, of the same weight, that is, the weight of half an ounce (Loth) nearly. Now one half oi this shekel, highly raised as was its standard, they had each to pay every year to the Temple, as a capitation tax.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. jii. p. 12.


This piece the Greek calls stater, and the Hebrew astira ; it was equal to the double shekel, and worth about half a crown of our money.

Unider. Hist. vol. x. p. 343.


In the memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences we learn, “the mountains of Corsica, seen from the coasts of Genoa and Proveuce, seem at certain hours to plunge into the sea."


The stater was equal to a shekel, (verse 26), or to two shillings three pence farthing, half farthing, the tribute for two.

Essuy for a New Trans. part ii. p. 36. The didrachma, or the half drachma, was in value fifteen pence. See Luke xv. 8.


In looking, says Barrow, through the exhalations of the beds of nitre which frequently occur on the Karoo plains, a meteorological phenomenon was here accidentally observed Tu marking about suprise the bearing by a compass ui a conc-shaped will that was considerarly elevated above the hor 2011, a peasant well acquainted with the country observed that it must eitner be a new hill, or that the only one which stood in that direction, at the distance of a long day's journey, inust have greatly increased its dimensions.


Pearls engender in oysters in the same manner as eggs in the belly of a fowl, whereas the largest egg being most advanc d towards the orifice, comes out first, leaving the smaller ones behind till further perfected, so like


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4728. [ 10. The angels of them] This passage appears to intimate, that the Angels, now in glory, are the departed souls and spirits of ivfants, as well as of just men made perfect.

4722. (Matt. xvii. 27.] On the coast of Japan there are large pearls, and of a fine water, but very rough. A fishery has been established there by Dutchmen.

Ibid. pp. 253, 254. In the Persian Gulf, on the coast of the island of Baherem, the East India Company had the finest pearl fishery in the world, which produced (them) annually above fifty thousand pounds, till it was recovered by the Arabians.

Ibid. vol. ix. p. 177,


There is a shell that sometimes yields pearls, found plentifully on all the Japanese coasts, which is univalve, in shape almost oval, pretty deep, open on one side, where it sticks to the rocks and to the bottom of the

The fishers have an instrument made on purpose to pull it off from the sides of the rocks, &c. which it sticks close.

KEMPFER. Ibid. vol vii. p. 690.

4729.-20.] In the Pirke Avoth, chup. iii, the son of Kalaptha is introduced as saying, “Wheresoever two or three are sitting together and conferring about the Law, there the Shechinah will be with them ”- In this sense our Saviour may be understood to say, Wher soever two or three are gathered together in social worship, there am I, the Christian Shechinah, in the midst of thein by my in-dwelling Presence, or special exibition of Myself (in and around all true vorshippers) by manifest signs of spiritual blessing and grace.Some enlightened Heathens have said: God is the centre of all things, especially of all men.

See Dr. GREGORY's Presence of God in Holy

Places, pp. 136, 140.


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PINKERTON's Coll. part. xxii. p. €90.

4738. [Matt. xviii. 34 The tormentors Examiners by torture.

CAMPBELL. See No. 1090, 1208.

4733. [Matt. xviii. 25.] The Saxons had a' law, that, when any one had committed theft, and the goods had been found in his house, all the family were made bond, even to the child in the cradle.

Month. Mag. for Jan. 1815, p. 532.

4734. - Grotius proves from Plutarch and Dionysius Halicarnassensis, that children were sold by the creditors of their parents in Asia, at Athens, and at Rome.

4739. [Matt. xix. 4.5.) Whatever were the ceremonies of marriage in the primitive ages, it appears plain from the most aptient traditions, that the commerce between the sexes began to be regulated by the first sovereigns and law-givers. Menes, who is said to have been the first king of Egypt, is also said to have been the first that introduced matrimony, and fixed the laws concerning it. The Greeks give the honor of this institution to Cecrops; the Chinese to Fo Hi, their first sovereign; the Peruvians to Manco-capac; and the Jews to God Almighty Himself. Nor does it only seem that matrimony was early introduced, but that its first introduction among most nations, was that of one woman only being des tined to one man. See No, 161. Dr. W. ALEXANDER'. Hist. of Women,

dol. ii. p. 190.


In Pegu, and the adjacent countries in East India, the creditor is entitled to dispose of the debtor himself, and likewise of his wife and children; insomuch that be may even violate with impunity the chastity of the debtor's wife; but then, by so doing, the debt is understood to be discharged.

Rees. In Africa, not only the effects of the insolvent, but even the insolvent himself, is sold to satisfy the lawful demands of his creditors.

Mungo Park's Trav. In the middle ages, when it was customary for creditors to seize and sell the wives and children of a debtor, they were not empowered to take his widow: the connection was dissolved, and she was no longer his property; though her sous and daughters were, and might be taken and sold accordiogly.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women,

dol. ii. p. 294.


It is only by interlacing their branches that two feeble shrubs are capable of resisting the storm. Poor downcast ivy, rest thy feebleness on me. I will be thy supporting palm-tree.

St. Pierre's Works, vol. iv, pp. 552, 555.

p. 296.


Genuine conjugial love cannot possibly exist but between two; that is, in the marriage of one man

-and of one wife. In no wise can it be between more than two at one tiine. The reason is, that conjugial love is mutual and reciprocal; and the life of one conjugial partner is in that of the other reciprocally, so that they can be as it were vatally oue. Such union may exist between two, but not between more : a plurality of wives, or husbands, would read it asunder.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 2740.

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4742. [- 8.] The men of the most antient Church, who were celestial, and in perception of the good and true spheres, like angels, had solely one wise apiece. Se: No. 833,



At Sierra Leone, in recovering debts between the natives of different villages, should the real debtor escape, the creditor is allowed to seize any man he pleases in the village, and his neighbours are obliged to redeem him, by paying the demand.



There is this difference between a Divorce and a Repudiation, tbat the former is made by mutual consent arising from a mutual antipathy; while the latter is formed by the will and for the advantage of one of the

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