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452. (Gen. xiv. 14.] House-born slaves were called Ver(quasi viri nati) by the Romans, and were treated indulgently.

See Athencum, Nov. 1808, p. 406.

bore children on the wife's boson, which were deemed to be-
long to the latter.
Gen. xvi. 2. 1 Chron. ii, 18. See SMITH's Michaelis,

vol. ii.p. 2, Note.

457. {Gen. xlviii. 5, 12.] It was a constant custom among 453. (Gen. xlviii. 5.) To soften the unjust and odious dis

the Greeks, whenever they had a child, immediately to put it tinctions which existed between Patricians and Plebeians, the

upon the Grandfather's Knees. (TERENCE.)Thus Jacob Romans practised adoption. How many great men, in con- himself desired, that Joseph would give him his sons to be sequence, started

up out of the mass of the People, to merit his own by adoption. this kind of recompence, as illustrious as those which Couu.

JOSEPH. Antiq. b. iii. ch. xii. § 4. try bestows, and still more addressed to the heart ! Thus did the Catos and Scipios distinguish themselves, in hope of being ingrafted into Patrician families. Thus it was that the Plebeian Agricola obtained in marriage the daughter of

458. (Gen. xxx. 3.) I have been informed, says the Hon.

Daines BARRINGTON, by a learned friend, that some years Augustus. St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature, vol. iii. p. 258.

past it was not uncommon in many parts of England (in Oxfordshire particularly), for the grand-daughter to be delivered upon the knees not only of the grand-mother, but the grand-father. The husband often also places the wife upon

his knees for this same purpose, amongst the lower class of 454. (Gen. xvi. 15.] Adoption is very common among peasants both in Prussia and Lapland. the Turks, and yet more so among the Greeks and Arme

Archæologia, vol. v.p. 126. nians. Not having it in their power to give their estates to a The succession of emperors among the Greeks, for soine friend or distant relation, to prevent their property from falling generations before it was utterly extinguished by the Turks into the grand Seignior's treasury, when they are not likely under the reign of Mahomet II., was interrupted to such a to have any children of their own, they choose some pretty degree, that the title of Porphyrogenete, or person born in child of either sex, amongst the meanest people, and carry the Empress' lying-in apartment, was what many of their the child and its parents before the Cadi, and there declare princes had no sort of pretensions to. they receive it for their heir. The parents at the same time

PERRY's Levant, p.9. renounce all future claim to it; a writing is drawn and witnessed, and the child thus adopted cannot be disinberited.The adopting fathers are generally very teuder to those 459:

In Gen. 1. 23, as in Ruth iv. 17, and children of their souls, as they call them. I own, says 2 Sam. xxi. 8, the Septuagint translate the Hebrew word Lady WORTLEY MONTAGUE, this custom pleases me much jalad by teknogonia, which in 1 Tim. ii. 15, is rendered better than that absurd one of following our name. Methinks

child-bearing ; but in the former places it evidently denotes it is much more reasonable to make happy and rich an infant the adoption and consequent education of another's off-spring. whom I educate after my own manner, brought up (in the For the children of Machin the son of Manasseh, were not Turkish phrase) upon my knees ; and who has learned to

brought forth, but brought up on the knees of Joseph; look on me with a filial respect, than to give an estate to a Nahomi did not bring forth Obed, but brouglit him up: creature without other merit or relation to me, than that of a

and Michal was not the wife of Adriel, but Merab; and she few letters.

had no children, but brought up those whom Merab had to Letter xlii.

Adriel. The Jews observe on this 'subject, that whoever brings up a pupil in his house, is in Scripture said to have beyotten him. It is in this sense that, in Gen. xxxvi.

2, Aholibamah is called the daughter of Anah, the daughter of 455. [Gen. xxx. 3.) Among the antient Greeks, adoption Zibeon the Hivite; she being indeed the proper daughter of was not practised but with certain formalities, usually a sort of Ana, but the daughter of Zibeon by adoption or education. imitation of nature. It was called filiation. Ainong the Thus it is said, Moses was the son of Pharaoh's daughter, Turks the ceremony is performed by obliging the person though she had only taken care of his education, Exod. ii. 10; adopted to pass through the skirt of the adopter.

and it is perhaps in this sense that the generations of Aaron Wilson's Archeological Dictionary. are called the generations of Moses, Num. iii. 1.

Essay for a New Trans. part ii. p. 75.

456. (Gen. xxx. 3,4, 7, 8.) Rachel said to Jacob, Behold my maid Bilhah; go in unto her, and she shall bear upon my knees, that I may have children by her. Here the maid

460. [2 Kings xviii. 2.) As Ahaz was but twenty years old when he began to reign, and reigned only sixteen years ; Hezekiah must have been his adopted son, through the

P. 148.

medium of Abi, the daughter of Zachariah ; otherwise he Round the pale of his tent, within a pistol shot, were above could have had no hereditary right to the crown, being actu- two hundred tents, pitched in such a manner that the doors ally born nine years before this Ahaz became king.

of them all looked toward the Basha's tent; and it ever The word Sultan is a title given to the Ottoman princes, is so, that they may have their eye always on their master's born while their fathers were in possession of the throne.- | lodging, and be in readiness to assist him if he be attacked. The epithet Sultan therefore, is bestowed on him who enjoys Erod. xxxiii. 8, &c.

THEVENOT, Trav. part ii. the right of succession, as being the eldest-born while his father possesses the throne. (Baron du Tort, vol. i. p. 65.) -Zemes sailing to Rhodes, was there honourably received of the Great Master, and all the rest of the Knights of the 464.

- In Africa the Cheyk's tent is always known Order : to whom in their public assembly, three days after, by its situation in the centre of the dow-war, or wandering he openly declared the causes of discord between his brother

camp, and he by his garments, which are commonly longer and bimself: alleging as a color for his rebellion, that al

and finer than those of the rest; and his office is to rule though Bajazet were his elder brother, yet he was born while over, judge and take care of his little commonalty.—These his father lived in private estate, under subjection aud com- inferior Cheyks are subject to a higher, styled either Cheykmand, long before he possessed the kingdom, and so no king's

el-kibbeer, great lord or elder; or else Emeer, prince, who son: whereas he himself was the first-born of his father, has a number of dow-wars under him, according to the nuafter he had become an emperor ; and so not the heir of

merousness of the tribe over which he presides, his father's private fortune, but of his greatest honor and

Modern part of Univer. Hist. empire.

vol. xiv. p. 54. 2 Kings xvi. 2.

KNOLLES' Hist. of the

Turks, p. 412.

465, [Gen. xxv. 16.) As the Ishmaelites were thus governed by twelve princes ; so the Bedouins, their descendants, have always preserved some traces of this patriarchal government. Their families continue together; and under the name of Emir, one is prince among people, who are all his kindred, within a certain degree of affinity.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 232.

461. (Gen. xvi. 12.] And he (Ishmael) will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him: and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.

This prediction has been exactly verified in the several tribes of the Arabs, Ishmael's descendants, who are generally cruel, warlike, and given to rapine ; and whose habitation is in teuts within the neighbourhood of Judæa and Idumæa.

Univer. Hist, vol. ii. p.365.

466. (Gen. xvi. 7.) The Mahometans consider Mecca as the once favourite residence of Ishmael, the Arabian patriarch. To represent also the flight of Hagar into the desert, they look behind, and on each side of them; examine every creek and corner with a seeming solicitude and concern, and afterwards testify all the marks of a sudden transport and surprise, as if they had actually found the very thing so earnestly sought. This religious custom, you may plainly perceive, was derived from the scripture account of the well where Hagar and her son, after a tedious search, at last quenched their thirst.

See Roland's Mahometanism.

Nat. Delin. vol.ii.p. 235,

462.

From Ishmael descended the Arabian Nomades, a wandering people that lived in tents, and tarried no longer in any place than it afforded them provision for themselves and cattle. Their hands were against every man, and every inan's hand against them; for they lived chiefly by plunder, especially of the caravans, who being well armed, seldom either gave or received quarter in their violent rencounters with these desperadoes.

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 22.

463.

The Basha's tent, pitched near Cairo, was a very lovely tent, and reckoned to be worth ten thousand crowns.

It was very spacious, and encompassed round with walls of waxed cloth. In the middle was his pavilion, of green waxed cloth, lined within with flowered tapestry, all of one sort. Within the precincts behind, and on the sides of his pavilion, were chambers and offices for his women.

467. (Gen. xvii. 20.] In that desert there were then no inhabitants; and though Ishmael's succession was incompatible with God's promise to Abraham, and bis son Isaac, yet, neither Hagar nor he having sinned, justice required a reparation for the heritage he had lost. God gave him that very wilderness, which before was the property of no man, in which Ishmael raised the Arabs into a great nation, which continues in full vigor even at this day. See No. 417.

BRUCE, Trav. vol. i. p. 289.

CIRCUMCISION.

dæus, and Josephus), that it already was, among the Egyptians, a custom (at least) of the priests. Abraham and his descendants, therefore, as soon as they were circumcised, were to be regarded as priests dedicated to the service of the True God.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 83.

(Gen. xvii. 10.) And God said to Abraham, This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee ; Every man child among you shall be circumcised.

468. (Gen. xvii. 13.] This mode of ADOPTION, thus begun in Abraham's family, ran through the Mosaic æconomy of the law instituted four hundred and thirty years after the appointment of circumcision, and ended in God's adoption of sons among the Gentiles by the spirit of His Son sent forth into their hearts, crying, Abba, Father; Gal. iv. 4–6.

Rev. RICHARD CLARKE.

473.

The present Jewish mode of circumcision is actually different from that of the Mahometans, Egyptians, and Ethiopians. But so little is said here (Gen. xvii. 11.), respecting the manner of circumcision, that we cannot so much as know with any probability what species of it God commanded; yet Abraham must have understood him, and consequently the meaning of the term (orla) must at that time have been clear, from the practice it expressed. Ezek. xvi. 4.

Ibid. pp. 79, 83.

469. (Gen. xvii. 11.] Grotius has evinced from a multitude of different authors, that God, in commanding Abraham to use the rite of circumcision, meant it as a mark of covewant between his posterity and the Creator ; and that every other nation, practising it, learned it either from him or his descendants.

Univer. Hist. vol. xvii. p. 551.

474.

Had such notions been adhered to, concerning the divine goodness, as the light of reasou dictates, the Egyptians and some other Pagan Nations could never have thought that cutting off the foreskin (not to be performed without great pain and hazard) could have been esteemed a religious duty acceptable to a good and gracious God; who makes nothing in vain, much less what requires the cutting off, even with extreme danger as well as anguish. Had nature required such an operation, Nature, being always the same, would still have required it.

Christianity, as old as the Creation, p. 77.

470.

The rite of circumcision has prevailed among almost all original and unmixed nations, and it now prevails among the savages both in the islands and continent of the Terra Australis, or great Southern Continent.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xvii. p. 105.

471. (Gen. xiv. 18.] Among the Israelites, if proselytes

475. (Luke ii. 21.] The Mosaic law in Levit. xxi. 17, 20., became circumcised, they were thereby separated from their required that the high-priest should be perfect in all his own people, adopted as children of Abraham, and were bound

limbs, &c., so that on the loss of any of them, he was immedito keep the law of Moses. These were called by the Jews

ately divested of that office, and another was to be chosen in

his room. proselytes of Justice, to distinguish them from proselytes of

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 143. the gate, who were circumcised, only observing the laws of Noah, and therefore called Noachidæ.- These two sorts of proselytes became so numerous, that in Solomon's time there were a bundred fifty-three thousand and six hundred of them 476.

As no one who was maimed, or any in his kingdom : 2 Chron. ii. 17.-As such proselyted Kings

way mutilated, was allowed to appear in the presence

of God made peace betwen the nations they separated from, and the even as a common Priest ;-How could the Jews be circumnations they were adopted to, we may hence see the reason

cised, according to the preposterous and indelicate notion why the patriarch of Sodom, who is styled King of Justice, which has been too generally received respecting circumciis also denominated King of Peace.

sion, since Gentiles as well as Jews began to err not knowSee Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 370.

ing the Scriptures” ?-In Chaldea, eunuchs were made: in Egypt, circumcision was barbarously performed in mutilating

the flesh. Both acts are in Deut. xxiii. 1. peremptorily forbid472. (Gen. xvii. 11.) The first and most obvious design den.—“Is any man called, being circumcised ? let him not beof circumcision, as God expressly declared on its institution, come uncircumcised.—“ Circumcision is nothing—but the was to serve as the sign of a covenant into which the posterity keeping of the commandments of God.”—Of course, “ if thou of Abraham were to enter with the Only True God, to adore be a breaker of the law thy circumcision is made uncircumand reverence no other God but Him Alone. How it could cision.” – Now the law, to which the Jew was separated in be the sign of such a covenant, becomes intelligible, when we being circumcised or cut off from sin when he entered into kuow (from Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Philo Ju- the congregation of the LORD, might be ceremoniously kept in the letter while it was virtually broken in the spirit, con- priest prays for it, unties its girdle and liven clothes, and scquently true " circumcision,” says the apostle, “is that of wipes off the unction. The tonsure is then performed, by the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter; whose praise is not cutting the child's hair, and the child is considered as conof men, but of God,"

secrated to the Lord, Phil. iii. 3.

Luke ii. 21.

JONES' Dict. of Religious

Opinions, p. 76.

480. [Gen. xvii. 10.] HERODOTUS says,

“ The Syrians that are in Palestine are circumcised.—They had, remarks CHIRCLUS, round rasures on their heads.

See Joseph. Against Apion, b.i. $ 22.

477. (Josh. v. 8.] The Israelites eucamped in Gilgal on the 10th of the First Month, Josh. iv. 19. They were circumcised on the 11th, and kept the passover on the 14th of the same month, ver. 10. The circumcision therefore, used by Joshua, could not be that barbarous one of cutting the prepuce; which, according to Sir J. CHARDIN, obliged an adult to keep his bed for about three weeks : at least, says he, during that time the circumcised are not able to walk about but with great difficulty.

See Dr. A. CLARKE's Commentaries,

on Josh. v. 8.

481. (Gen. xvii. 5.) The circumcised among Jews, were esteemed as new-born children, and had a new name imposed as a sign of their right to a new nature, which was given them as worshippers of the true God, and members of his family.

LIGHTFOOT, vol.ii. p. 533.

rences.

478. [Ezek. xvi. 4.) In the Korân, circumcision is not

482.

The Asiatic Princes have constantly once mentioned ; but a long account of this rite, as used by assumed new titles or epithets at different periods of their the Modern Arabs (and Modern Jews), may be met with in lives, or on different occasions; a custom, says Sir W. JONES, Dr. Pococke, and others.—The Mahometan Writers affirm,

which we have seen prevalent in our own times both in Iran that their Prophet was born circumcised, or with his umbi- and Hindostán, and which has been a source of great conlical vessels cut, to the great astonishment of all present. fusion even in the scriptural accounts of Babylonian occur(See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 19. See in particular, Gagn. la vie de Mahom. tom. i. pp. 77. 78.)—And the Jews

Works, vol. i. p. 76, reckon seren saints who were boru circumcised.

SMITH's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 92, Note
STRABO (b. xvii.) reckons it among the customs of the
Egyptians, that they circumcise boys and girls, as the Jews
also did.
From Niebuhr's Description of Arabia, pp. 76-80, we

483. (Gen. xvii. 1.) The LORD appeared to Abraham, learn, that in Egypt until this day, Mahometan females are

and said to him, I am the almighty God: walk before me, frequently circumcised.

and be thou perfect. The Abyssinians also, though Christians who deein not circumcision a divine command, do nevertheless practise it as

The patriarch Abraham, and his descendants,

knew God by the name El Shadai (Hebr.), the mighty or a national custom, and on both sexes : this is well known from Jobi Ludolphi Historia Æthiopica, lib. iii. c. i.-See self-sufficient God, till He made His peculiar name Jehovah

known to them. See Exod. vi. 3. Aud to worship Him under Smith’s Michaelis, vol.iii. art. 185.

oaks, and in oaky groves, was common to all the descendants In Egypt the Copts, in common with the Abyssinians,

of Noah. administer circumcision to both sexes; and so scrupulous are

Univer. Hist. vol. xviii, p. 7, Note (E). they in that point, that, in the year 1689, one of their most considerable persons, at Alexandria, refused to marry a young woman of sixteen years of age, who had been espoused to him, till she had regularly undergone that religious

484. (Gen. xviii. 10.) JOSEPHUS (Antiq.b. i. c. xii. § 2.) operation.

calls the Being, who appeared to Abraham, and foretold the MAILLET See Modern Part of Univer.

birth of Isaac, directly God; and afterwards ($ 3.) a divine Hist. vol. xiv. p.211.

Angel.

In the Greek Church, previous to baptism, the priest avoints the child with oil; and afterwards he applies the holy chrism, composed of unctuous ingredients. After a few days the child is again brought to the Church, when the

479.

485. (Gen. xviii

. 22.] It is not probable that Moses should call a mere angel by the name JEHOVAH; that Abrahain should intercede with such a one, as Judge of all the earth; or that an angel should peremptorily say, If I find forty, thirty, or twenty righteous persons in the place, I will

spare it for their sakes. It must therefore have been the Great Angel of the Divine Presence, CHRIST HIMSELF, emphatically called the JUDGE OP ALL THE WORLD.

Univer. Hist. vol. ij. p. 371.

488. (Gen. xix. 24.) At Copenhagen, May 16th, 1646, when the whole town was overflowed by a great fall of rain, so that the streets became impassable, the air was infected with a sulphureous sinell; and when the waters were a little subsided, one might have collected, says WORMIUS, in some places a sulphureous powder, of which I have preserved a part, and which in color, smell, and every other quality, appeared to be real sulphur.

Mus. Worm. lib. i. c. 11. sect. 1.

486. (Gen. xvi. 13.) Those who have once believed that God is the inspector of their lives, will not permit themselves in any sin.

JOSEPH. Against Apion, b. ii. § 17.

SODOM AND GOMORRAR.

487. (Gen. xix. 24.) The LORD rained upon Sodom and opon Gomorrah, brimstone and fire.

489. [Gen. xix. 28.) The smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace ; that is, from the volcanic eruptions which had destroyed the cities of the plain.

About four o'clock in the morning of June 16th, 1794, “ the crater of Vesuvius began to shew signs of being open, by some black smoke issuing out of it, and at day-break another smoke tinged with red issued from an aperture near the crater; whilst a considerable stream of lava issued from the other side of the mountain, and ran with great velocity through a wood, which it destroyed. The conical part of Vesuvius was totally involved in dark clouds ; but above these we could often discern fresh columns of smoke rising furiously from the crater, until the whole mass remained in the usual form of a pine-tree, and amidst that gigantic mass of clouds, the volcanic lightning was frequently visible." Gen, xix. 11. Wisdom xix. 17. Sir WILLIAM HAMILTON.

LOT'S WIFE.

490. [Gen. xix. 26.] She became a pillar of salt ;-probably, at Salt or Melach ; a city in the vicinity of the lake Asphaltis mentioned Josh. xv. 62.

[Gen, xviii. 32.] I suspect, says Hutchinson, that the men of Sodom were guilty of a wickedness, of which what is now called sodomy, was but a consequence.—The worshipping the creature (the Image of a Man amidst fire) was a crime that could be committed by every soul in those cities, or by all within ten; and if that kind of worship had at this time prevailed vastly more there than in other places, destroying them, as it were, by the hand of what they worshipped, was the most likely to reform their neighbours. (See his Nat. Hist. of the Bible, pp. 121-132.)—Thus was the religious world twice destroyed, when utterly fallen : first, by water, at the termination of the Adamic Church in Egypt; next, by fire, in the consummation of the Noaich Church at Sodom.-See 2 Peter jii. 5–7. Wisdom xiii. 1-9.

As it was still known in the world that the Shechinah had stood before Adam encompassed with fire, these wicked men counterfeited that appearance by exhibiting their Baal surrounded with a natural fire, as if he were the true Shechinah restored.--See Deut, iv. 36.

And as it was equally known at that time, that the Sheehinah had re-appeared before Noah encompassed with a Rainbow of Light amidst a luininous cloud, these idolatrous descendants of the Noaich Church counterfeited also the manifestation of the LORD IN GLORY, by exhibiting a firefilled Moloch of brass amidst a cloud of smoke froin incense and other combustibles.-See Ecclus. xvii. 13. xlii. 25. xliji. 1. Baruch jii. 37. 2 Esdr. i. 37.

This double mimicry of the Shechinah as the afterwards actually appeared to the Israelites in an illuminated cloud by day and in a fiery veil by night, constituted the fulness of the iniquity of that idolatrous Church which perished as to both its parts, at the awful, the memorable destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.-Eruptive volcanic fire destroyed Sodom, lightning or fire from heaven consumed Gomorrahı.-Sce Wisdom x. 6, 7. Deut. iv. 36. Exod. xxxiij. 4, 10. xl. 34.

491. (Gen. xix. 17, 26.] Lot's wife, turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, though God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt : For, says, JosEPHUS, I have seen it, and it remains at this day. Wisdom x. 7.

Antiq. b. i. ch. xi. § 4.

a

492.

IRENÆUS, (lib. iv. cap. 51.) assures us that, in his time, this pillar retained the form of woman; and, says CALMET, some travellers assert, that the rocky pillar into which this woman was petrified was shewn them in the midst of the waters of the Dead Sea, Now as these waters must have been at the time, by means of the sulphureous eruption, of a vitriolic nature, such a petrifaction was not impossible; as will appear by the following ex

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