goods might know at sight the standard weight of what he received for his goods.

Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 293.

588. [Gen. xx. 16.) The Lydians, says HERODOTUS, are the first people on record who coined gold and silver into money, and used it in commerce.

Clio, ch. xciv.

maritan; for which no other reason can be assigned, but that Simon must have been willing to preserve the antient form of those that had been coined before the captivity, as well in the character, as the metal, and figure, and weight.

Accordingly these, like the old ones, have on the one side a cup or pitcher, supposed to be the pot of manna ; and on the other a branch or the budding rod of Aaron, or a palm. branch ; some have a vine, others a bunch of gra,'s, or a wheat-shcaf; some have two doves, others two towers, or the front of an cdifice supposed to be that of the Temple.

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 63.

589. [Gen. xxxii. 19.) The oldest Indian coins have no inscription, but only the representation of a cow, an elephant, &c.

BARTOLOMEO's Voyage to the Eas! Indies,

Translated by Forster, p. 85.


The cycle or period of computation employed by the Tartars, was similar to that still used by the Chinese and Monigols, and contained twelve years, each successively marked by a different animal: 1. a mouse ; 2. an ox; 3. a tyger; 4. a hare; 5. a crocodile or dragon; 6. a serpent ; 7. a horse; 8. a lamb; 9. an ape; 10. a hen; 11. a dog; 12. a hog. Of ihese all but the crododile, the ape and the bare, appear on ihe (Russian) coins; and perhaps the Tartars who over-ran Russia, used instcad of them, the swan, harpy, and

The (Russian) coins impressed with the figures above-mentioned were probably struck in the corresponding years of the (Tartarian) cycle. The annual tribute paid by the Russiaus to the Tartars was marked by the animals which denote the particular year of the cycle; and, as in some coins two of these animals are represented at the same time, probably the tribute of two years was delivered at once.

CoxE.— Pinkerton's Coll.

part xxvi. p. 829.

592. (Gen. xxxiv. 1, 2.) And Dinah the daughter of Leah went out to see the daughters of the land. And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, Prince of the country, saw her, he took her, and lay with her, and defiled her.

The Antients lay down, instead of sitting at meat, on a sort of beds or couches denominated Triclinium. John xiii. 23.

Roman Antiquities, p. 200.



By the laws of Menu, it is declared an adulterous act for a woman to sit on the same couch with a man (of a different religion), and is severely punishable, 1 Cor. viii. 10. A. 7, John viii. 3.

See No. 563. TENNANT's Indian Recreations, p. 165.

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Le Clerc has favoured the public with a curious account of the Numismatic History of Russia, which he has rendered extremely valuable by engravings of one hundred and seventyseven of the most antient coins.

See Hist. de la Russ. Ane.

vol. ii. pp. 527 to 529.

594. (Gen. xx. 2.] The antient Heathens, the false Priests to their False Gods, performed, says HUTCHINSON, almost every individual article, I think, in the institution and exercise of the (true) priesthood.

Use of Reason recovered, p. 81.

595. (Gen. xxxiv. 2.] Among the true worshippers, the 590. (Lev. v. 11.) At Atcheen, they have a small coin of First-born, the priest,- his sous, family and relations, as leaden money called cash; of which from twelve to sixteen well before the apostacy of the Gentiles at Babel, as after it, hundred are bat in value about twelve-pence English.

till they were in Egypt; ate the sacrifice of the Paschal Captain HAMILTON.--Pinkerton's Coll. Lamb,—the bread, wine, &c.,—from the time the priesthood part xxxiii. p. 445:

of the First-horn was renewed, till Aaron was appointed; who with his line of chief-priesis, priests and Levites,—their

sons, families, and relations, -as also those of the other 591. (Luke ii. 24.] Several pieces of Jewish coin, exe- eleven tribes, all ate of the Passover. Much in the same cuted by Simon the Just, are still preserved by the curious : manner, the Heathens' first-born, priest, and people, ate of the inscription on some of them is, The shekel, or Half- of their sacrifice; had their bread, their cup; -drank the shekel of Israel; on others, the first or second, &c. year blood (of the grape), &c. Equally in both instances, the of the deliverance of Israel, of Sion, of Jerusalem, &c. Passover was sacrificed and ate in private houses, - -on altars, Others again are inscribed, Simon prince of Israel. What or tables raised on high for the purpose. -Since the re-union is remarkable in these inscriptions is, that they are not in the of Jews and Gentiles, we also, though of the line of the new Assyrian characters, adopted by Ezra, but in the old Sa- Heathens, as brethren, relations, of his family,-nay, sons


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697. [Judges xxi. 16-23.) When Romulus, the founder 601. [Ruth iii. 15.] The Hindoo women are not entitled of Ronie, had formed his infant republic, finding that he had to any inheritance. If a man die without male issue, his no women, and that none of the neighbouring nations would fortune descends to his adopted son; or, if he have none, give their daughters in marriage to his men; he proclaimed to his nearest kinsman, who is obliged to maintain the wo. a solemn feast, and an exhibition of gaines in honor of men that belonged to, and were maintained by, the deEquestrian Neptune, and by that means gathered a great ceased. And, if there should even be no property, that number of people together. On a signal given, the Romans, duty falls on those who enjoy the right of inheritance. with drawn swords in their hands, rushed among the strangers,

Sketches relating to the History, and forcibly carried away a great number of their daughters

Religion, and Learning of the to Rome. The next day Romulus himself distributed them

Hindoos. One vol. 8vo, p. 250. as wives to those of his citizens, who had thus by violence carried them away. (Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, vol. i. p. 137.)—They were not,” says PLUTARCH,“ in- 602. [Ruth i. 5.) At Athens, as well as at Jerusalem, cited to this violence (towards the Sabine women) by lust or the mother was excluded from the inheritance of her son. injustice, but by their desire to conciliate and unite the two

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. iv. p. 218. nations in the strongest ties.(See his Lives, vol. i. p. 94.)—These dances (in rings), during which songs of praises were sung, forined a very antient part of the festal solemnities of the Hebrews.

603. [Ruth iii. 12, 13.] He who is the next in blood See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 189.

(says the Grecian law) to an orphan virgin, who hath no fortune, shall marry her himself, or settle a fortune on her, ac

cording to liis quality ; if there be many relations, all equally 598. (Gen. xxxiv. 24.] The gate or port of a city, was

allied, all of them, according to their several qualities, shall its place of worship, and court of justice. When consulta

contribute something towards her fortune. (Dr. W. Alex. tions were held, the priests went out from their proper apart

ANDER's Hist. of Women, vol. i. p. 135.)— The customary

law of the old Arabians obliged every brother to give bis ment, to meet in the outer court (called by Moses the tabernacle or tent of the congregation) such magistrates as came

sister in marriage with a fortune.

Ibid. vol. iv. p. 209. in from the people to assist in the administration of justice.

Sce Gen. xxiii. 10.

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606. (Gen. xxxviii. 9 ] In the origin of society, seed- by a number of servants, and stop hard by it; but the genegrain would necessarily be the representing token of all rality proceed thus : They sit within the temple, wearing on wealth. We find accordingly, that the Tartars, in portioning their heads garlands of flowers, intertwined with a thread. out their daughters, covered them with millet. For this Some are ever coming, and others are going away (as during purpose a dish, of about a foot in diameter, was placed on the Sacrament in some Christian Churches]. Between the the head of the bride ; over this a veil was thrown, which places where they sit, there are long passages for aisles), covered the face, and descended to the shoulders ; millet was through which the strangers walk up and down, to pick out then poured on the dish, which, falling and spreading around whomsoever they fancy. Having once taken her seat, a ber, formed a cone, with a base corresponding to the height woman is never allowed to return home, until a stranger, of the bride. Nor was her portion complete, till the millet throwing some money into her lap, say, “I invoke the godtouched the dish, while the veil gave her the power of res- dess Mylitta,” which is the Assyrian name of Venus. Whepiration.— The Turks and Armenians, who make their cal. ther the sum be great or small, she must not refuse it : culations in money, still preserve the dish and the veil, and for it is brought to the sacred treasury. She must follow the throw coin on the bride, which they call spilling the millet. first man who offers her money, and not reject any one as - Have not the crown and the comfits, used at the marri- unworthy of her. After she has paid [into the treasury) ages of Europeans, the same origin?

this tax of love, and so done honor to the goddess, she BARON DU TOTT, vol. i. p. 213. returns home.

Book i. ch. 199.-Wesseling's Edition.

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(Gen. xxxviii. 14 ] And Tamar put her widow's garments off from her, and covered her with a vail, and wrapped herself, and sat in an open place, which is by the

way to Timnath.

609. [Gen. xxxviii. 27.) This kind of religious woman, sent out into the highway side, at a small distance from an idol's temple, to induce strangers to come in and lie with her in eating at the sacramental table, was among the Hebrews, and previously among the Canaanites, termed Kedescha, that is, consecrated. In this way, says HERODOTUS, among the Babylonians, every native woman must unce in her life (to make converts) prostitute herself to a stranger at the temple of Venus. Many however, he adds, who in the pride of wealth think it unbecoming to mingle with others, come to the Temple in close carriages, attended

These women wear in all, four kinds of veils ; two kinds, at home, and two when they go abroad. The first kind is made as a kerchief falling on the back of the wearer by way of ornament. The second passes under the chin, and covers the bosom. The third is the white reil, which covers the whole of their persons. And the fourth is a kind of handkerchief which hangs as a curtain over the face : this has a network at the place of the eyes, like point or thread lace, to facilitate the sight.

CHARDIN, Voy. en Perse, tom. ii. p. 50.

In Turkey, no woman, of what rauk soever, is permitted to go into the streets without two murlins, one that covers her face, all but her eyes; and 616. [Gen, xli. 6.] An East-wind, directing its course another, that hides the whole dress of her head, and hangs from Asia into Europe, and finding no sea in its passage, half way down her back : their shapes are also wholly con- introduces fair weather, and on long continuance, drought cealed by a thing called a feugee, which so effectually dis- and even famine. guises them, that there is no distinguishing the lady from her


Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 189. slave. Lady WORTLEY MONTAGUE.

617. [Gen. xli. 57.] However, the famine increased

among the Egyptians; and this heavy judgment grew more 613. (Gen. xxxviii. 18.) In the East the Imans, the oppressive to them, because neither did the river overflow Kadis and other learned Arabs usually write their names the ground, for it did not rise to its former height (through with letters interlacing each other in cyphers, in order that the drought in Ethiopia), nor did God send rain upon it their signature may not be imitated. Those who cannot (even upon Lower Egypt, where it frequently rains); nor write, cause their names to be written by others, and then did they indeed make the least provision for themselves, so stamp their name or their device with ink, at the bottom of ignorant were they what was to be done; but Joseph sold the paper, or on the back of it. But usually they have their

them corn for their money. name or their device engraved on a stone, which they wear

Joseph. Antiq. b. ii. c, vii. $ 7. on their finger, See No. 522: NIEBUHR, p. 20. Fr. Edit.

618. (Gen. xli. 35, 36.] The university, at Malta, was enabled to build storehouses where a sufficient quantiiy of corn might always be kept, not only to ensure the inhabita:1:3 from

the misery of famine, but at the same time to enable it to JOSEPH's coat.

sell cora at a moderate price. The grain was preserved in

extremely large piis followed in the rock: with beds of wood 614. [Gen. xxxvii. 3.] Now Israel loved Joseph more

and straw placed at the bottom, on which it was spread. than all his children, because he was the son of his old

When these were entirely filled, they were closed by a large age : and he made him a coat of many colors.

stone, which was plasiered over with puzzolana ; the corn This coat of divers colors, it is

thus kept from the air, might be preserved perfectly good for

slipposed, was made of cotton, and finer than those of his a hundred

years. brethren. (Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, vol. ii.

BOISSELIN's Malta, vol. i. p. 42. p. 91.)—And denoted by its three colors of black, white, and purple, the three offices he was born to, as Jacob's heir ; that is, when he became a patriarch in his father's stead,

619. (Gen. xli. 56.] Joseph's granary, still remaining at he was to be prophet, priest, and king. Prophets wore sack

Old Cairo, is very large, and consists of seven compartcloth that was black : The sun became black as sackcloth

ments; each of which was full of wheat up to the verge of of hair, Rev. vi. 12. The priests were clothed in white

their walls, which are twenty-two feet high. When the cotton : No wool shall come on them, Ezek. xliv. 17. Kings compartments are quite full, they spread mats over the corn, were clothed in purple; Judg. viii. 26. Mark xv. 17, 20. which are all it has to defend it from the weather. Dr.

Perry says, he is well assured, that in the time of Joseph there were seven granaries, each like to what we now see. He likewise mentions, and partly describes, as remarkable pieces of antiquity nou extant, Joseph's well, his hall, ban

queting-house and dungeon, with the hall of his steward, &c. FAMINE IN EGYPT.

See his View of the Levant,

pp. 230, 233, 234. (Gen. xli. 27.) And :Je seven empty ears blasted with the east wind shall be seven years of famine.


Corn has been stored up and preserved 615. (Gen. xli. 5.) From one grain of Maize, or Indian good for a hundred and ten years in the castle of Sedan, wheat, shoot forth four, five, and sometimes six sterns like

which stands ou the frontiers of Champaigne. reeds, that mount nearly seven feet high, and contain a

Memoirs of the Acad. of Sciences, sirupy pith, from which may be extracted a real sugar. Each stem regularly supports two, and sometimes three spikes, or large ears, enclosed in several teguments as tough almost as parchment.

621. (Gen. xli. 48.] The following are the rules observed Nat. Delin. vol. ij. p. 211.-See also

by the little common-wealth of Geneva, in the manageFrag. to CALMET's Dict. 2d Hun- ment of their Public Granaries. There are three of the Little dred, p. 108.

Council deputed for this office. They are obliged to keep

for 1708.

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together a provision sufficient to feed the People at least two || seventy-eight years following, as to raise seventy persons af years, in case of war or famine. They must take care to the Exodus into six hundred thousand adult males, as many 6ll their magazines in times of the greatest plenty, that so adult feinales, and at least, three times as many children and they may afford provisions cheaper, and increase the public young persons under twenty years of age ! But, when you revenue at a small expense of its members. None of the admit that they were so increased by spiritual adoption or three managers must, on any pretence, furnish the granaries | religious conversion, the incredibility vanishes. Exod. from his own fields, that so they may have no temptation to xii. 37, Num. i. 3. pay too great a price, or put off any bad corn on the public. They must buy up no corn growing within twelve miles of Geneva, that so the filling of their magazines may not prejudice the market, and raise the price of their provisions at 625. (Gen. xlix. 1.) And Jacob called un to his sons home. That such a collection of corn may not spoil in keep

and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you ing, all the inns are obliged to furnish themselves out of it, that which shall befall you in the last days. by which means is raised the most considerable branch of

In England, estates, and even privileges, the Public Revenues ; the corn being sold out at a much before the beginning of the eighth Century, were conveyed dearer rate than it is bought up, to such as have money without any writing:-Withred king of Kent, who began to mough to spend at taverns and public-houses.

reign about the year 700, is said to have granted the first ADDISON's Trav. p. 289. written Charter or diploma.

See SPELMAN, tom. i. p. 125.

622. (Gen. xli. 57.) About the year 1694, a time of scarcity coming on in Egypt, Caciouch Mainet, who was then 626. [Gen. xlix. 2, &c.] Before Moses introduced writing, in the zenith of power at Grand Cairo, gave strict orders that there was no way of conveying knowledge but by picture or Dobody should sell wheat for more than sixty Medins the hieroglyphic, as is evident from the characters Jacob here gives Ardeb, which is equal to four shillings and four-pence Eng. of his sons: writing was to supersede the use of these relish. At which the great men of Cairo, who had corn to presentations, and so to prevent their perversion and abuse. sell, being highly incensed, posted a fellow in a Mosque, who

Bp. HORNE's Hutchinson, p. 26. shot him dead as he passed by; and the very next day wheat was sold at a hundred and fifty medins the ardeb, rising to six hundred and sixty, so that the poor were starved


At Ravenna it was the custoin for Mas to death, and many ate even their own children.

ters, a little before their death, to give their slaves their Perry's View of the Levant, || freedom, if they had deserved it at their hands. pp. 161, 162, &c.

ADDISON's Trav. p. 78.

628. [Gen. xlix. 4: Thou wentest up to thy father's bed]-Though the eldest son had, by long continued custom,

regularly succeeded the father in the Mogul's great empire, 623. (Gen. xlvi. 27.] All the souls of the house of yet Achabar Shah, father of the late king, on high and just Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten. displeasure taken against his son for climbing up to the bed

In the above enumeration, either Jacob or of Anarkalee, his father's most beloved wife, and for other Leah must be omitted : JOSEPHUS says, Jacob was not in- base actions, resolved to break that antient custom; and eluded in the seventy.

therefore, often in his life time protested, that not he, but his Antiq. b. ii. ch. vii. $ 4. || grandchild Sultan Coobsurroo, whom he kepl in bis court,

should succeed him in the empire.

Sir T. Roe's Embassy to the Great 624. (Gen. xlvi. 12.] As Pharez, Tamar's son, Gen.

Mogul, p. 470. Xxxviii, 29, could not be more than ten years of age, when Jacob went down into Egypt, it is impossible that Hezron and Hamel could be other than his adopted sons, or religious 629. (Gen. xlix. 10. From between his feet), alluding converts into the priesthood, as Timothy was Paul's son in to the cereinony of ADOPTION, which was the form of taking the Gospel.

BY CHOICE. --Accordingly, at the time the Redeemer came, But to make all the souls of the house of Jacob which the Roman governors were not imposed on the Jews, as a came into Egypt, threescore and ten, Dr. A. CLARKE conquered people, as many have imagined; but sent to them says, " it is very probable that what is called the going || by Augustus Cæsar, pursuant to their own desire and petition, down into Egypt, includes the seventeen years which instead of their kings, from whose tyranny they requested, Jacob spent there" !-Very extraordinary indeed, that Jacob's after Herod's death, to be delivered, and to be reduced into family should increase so very little in Egypt during the first the form of a province, with their old constitution and laws. seventeen years, and so exceedingly fast in the hundred and

JOSEPH. Antiq. b. xvii. ch. xi.

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