100lb. of all these substances in a heap exposed to the air, and and to all men; but, at the same time, intimated that I must
sprinkled them every day with water ; in about ten days they put off my shoes. As I considered this ceremony in the
yrew hot, soon after caught fire, burnt several hours, and fell same light as uncovering the head on entering any of our
into dust. The fire of this mass be supposes to be the same temples dedicated to the deity, I did not hesitate to
with that of the cliffs, and to be produced by the same causes. comply.
Quoted from the Phil. Trans. in

Asiat. Research. vol. i. p. 289.
PINKERTON's Coll. of Voy. and
Trav. vol. ii. p. 293.


At the door of an Iudian Pagoda, are seen

as many slippers and sandals as there are hats hanging up in 679. (Exod. iii. 4.] As on the day of Pentecost the

one of our churches. tongues of fire gave utterance; so, on this occasion, says

Ives' Trav. pp. 75, 287. Josephus (recording a tradition of the Jews) the fire in the bush uttered a voice, called to Moses by name, and spoke xcords to him. See No. 183.

Antiq. b. ii. ch. 12. $ 1.



The Deity was believed by EPICHARMUS, Plato, and many truly pious men, to raise perceptions by his omnipresent Spirit in the minds of his creatures.

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 231.

685. (Exod. vii. 11.) Now the Magicians of Egypt, also, did in like manner, with their enchantments.

Egypt had priests; and they, lands assigued them : and it is likely they and the magicians were the


HUTCHINSON. 681. (Exod. vi. 3. And God spake to Moses, and said to him, I am the LORD: and I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, by the name of God Almighty] But


“Numenius Apamæus, a Pythagorean Phiby my name JEHOVAH was I not distinguished by them. (See Mr. Peter's Preface to his Critical Dissertations on

losopher, writes in his third Book, Concerning Good, as the Book of Job.)-He appeared to Abraham, to Isaac,

cited by Eusebius, Præp. Evang. lib. is. 8. that Jannes and 10 Jacob, on the earth, as he afterwards appeared to Moses

and Jambres, as most powerful in the Magic Art, were on Mount Sinai, and to Paul in the way to Damascus ; but by Musæus, the leader of the Jews, one who was powerful with

chosen by the general consent of the Egyptians, to oppose his Name Jehovah-by his manifested Image or apparent PRESENCE in the spiritual part of the atmosphere, where to

God in prayer, and brought grievous calamities on Egypt.”

PURVER. the beholder He is to-day, was yesterday, and will be tomorrow; by such daily appearance was He not known to them, as He was afterwards, for forty years together, to the

687. Israelites in the wilderness. Yet the appearance on Earth

Consult what the judicious Sir WILLIAM being but a secondary manifestation of the appearance above, TEMPLE has said of the Magic of the antient Egyptians. the name Jehovah, after the daily APPEARANCE was known,

It is well known that the priests of Egypt inade a particular became applicable to its occasional manifestations as above study of nature; and that they had formed of it a science recorded.

known by the name of Magic, the possession of which they

reserved to themselves. See No. 483, 579.

Studies of Nature, vol. iv. p. 100.


Among the Hindoos it never has been customary to call any prince by his proper name. His TITLES 688.

of all the different species of public exonly can lawfully be mentioned ; and the law is enforced with hibitions, the only one common at Cairo alone, is that of such rigour that Burmas, even in Calcutta, shudder when strollers who shew feats of strength like our rope-dancers, requested to mention the dreadful name.

and tricks of slight-of-hand like our jugglers. We there Asiat. Research.-See Bib. Rescarch. sce some of them eating flints, others breathing flames, some vol. ii. p. 11).

cutting their arms, or perforating their noses, without receiving any hurt, and others devouring serpents. The peo

ple, from whom they carefully conceal the secrets of their 683. (Exod. iii. 5. Put off thy shoes from off thy feet; art, entertain a sort of veneration for them, and call these for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground) Ai extraordinary performances, which appear to have been Patna, says Mr. Wilkins, I asked certain dissenters from very antient in those countries, by a naine which signifies Mahomet, the Seeks, if I might ascend into their chapel or prodigy or miracle. public hall. They said it was a place of worship open to me,

VOLNEY's Trav. vol. i. p. 415.


An extraordinary natural production has been discovered by Mr. Briggs, a passenger on board the Nelly, an East India Country Ship, which arrived

THE PLAGUES OP EGYPT. on the Malabar coast, after a trading voyage. Mr. Briggs was fortunate enough to take this rare and valuable production in a cavern near Macao, and by great attention it 693. (Exod. vii. 20.) And Moses lifted up the rod, and has been preserved. It is called the Animal Flower, and a smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of good deal resembles the Passion Flower. It grows out of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants : and all the the rock without leaves, and the instant any object approaches waters that were in the river were turned to blood. within the distance of a foot, it suddenly contracts its blos

Such was the river (Nile) to the Egypsom; and withdrawing itself into a sort of hollow stalk, tians : but it was sweet and fit for drinking to the Hebrews, something like the skin of a worm, it shrinks totally into the and no way different from what it naturally used to be. rock, with so quick a inotion, that it is not easy to take them,

JOSEPH. Antiq. b. ii. ch. xiv. § 1. especially as they grow under water, which is more than knee deep. It is kept alive by being constantly in clean water. -Those who have had opportunities of examining this ex- 694, (Exod. vii. 21.) Neither this, nor any of the plagues traordinary production, are convinced it has a share of ani

sent on Egypt, affected the Israelites. mal life: It seems the link designed to connect the animal

See Dodd. and vegetable creation.

Public Prints.

695. [Exod. vii. 19.) As Moses turned all the waters

throughout all the land of Egypt into blood, the Magicians 690. [Exod. vii. 11, 12.) At Tappanooly, an English set- could only, by a well-timed pretence, seem to effect on their tlement on the Island of Sumatra, I saw, says Mr. CHARLES part, what Moses alone was really doing by a divine power MILLER (son of the late botanic gardener) what I find in and authority.--The like may be observed of the frogs which Purchas's Pilgrim called the wonderful plant of Sombrero.- covered the land of Egypt.-The fact was, as soon as the The name by which it is known to the Malays is Calan-lout, magicians had taken to themselves the pure water belongthat is, sea-grass.

It is found in sandy bays, in shallowing the Israelites, as theirs, it was immediately perverted : water, where it appears like a slender straight stick, but the effect produced by Aaron's rod, continued in force seven when you attempt to touch it, it immediately withdraws days, v. 25. itself into the sand. I could never observe any tentacula : The insects that, at the time of their coition, for the most a broken piece, near a foot long, which after many unsuccess- part discolour the waters, are the small insects of the shrimpful attempts, I drew out, was perfectly straight and uniform, kind, called by SWAMMERDAM, Pulex aquaticus arborescens. and resembled a worm drawn over a knitting needle; when dry These I have often seen so numerous in stagnating waters in it is a coral.

the sunmer months, that they have changed the color of the Phil. Trans. vol. xiv. p. 321. waters to a pale or deep red, sometimes a yellow, according

to the color they were of. Of this he has a pretty story, This coral, as growing in a valley near the lake Asphal- told him by Dr. FLORENCE SCHUL, viz. Se aliquando tites, is curiously described by Josephus, Wars, b. vii. ch. studiis intentum, magno quodam et horrifico rumore vi. 5 3. See Ezek. xlvii. 10, and Matt. vii. 10. This coral fuisse turbatum, et simul ad causam ejus inquirendam it seems, is red : its color,” says he, “ is like that of flame, excitatum ; verum se vix eum in finem surrexisse, cum and towards evening it sends out a certain ray like lightning.” ancilla cjus pæne exanimis adcurreret, et multo cum

singultu referret, omnem Lugduni (Batavorum) aquam

esse mutatam in sanguinem. The cause of which upon exa691.

Throughout the Antilles, and also in the mination he found to be only from the numerous swarms of East Indies, there is a creeping plant, known by the name of those Pulices. -See Swam. Hist. Insect. p. 70. snake-wood, the stem of which presents the figure of a serpent.

DERHAM. St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. ii. p. 454.

692. [Erod. vii. 11.)

When Maia's son to cheat e'en Argus sped,
His flying hat was fasten'd on his head,
Wings on his heels were huny, and in his hand
He holds the virtue of the snaky wand. -
That sleep-procuring wand wise Hermes took,
And made it seem, to sight, a shepherd's book.

Garth's Ocid, b. i. l. 925, &c.


There was nothing which the Egyptian priests abhorred more than blood. With the least stain of gore they would have thought themselves deeply polluted. Hence this evil must have been by them severely felt, as there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.

Bryant, on the plagues of Egypt.

697. [Exod. vii. 17.) By the command of God, says Josephus, the river flowed bloody; and adds that it was not only of a bloody color, but gave excruciating pains to who say, that the very smells, exhalations and fumes issuing those who would drink of it. (See Antiq. l. ii. ch. 14. § 1.) from herbs, earths, and stagnant waters, give origin to such

- According to Michaëlis, Dathe, Rosenmuller, and Hazel, creatures. That afterwards, when they are produced, they the miracle consisted not in turning the waters into blood, or are propagated either by eggs or by gestation, disproves not making them of a bloody color, which they have once every their immediate origin; because every animal receives with year in the month of June, when the Nile exundates ; but in its viscera the organs of generation and the means of propaproducing this phenomenon at an unusual season (in February | gation, while the subjects of the vegetable kingdom that orior March), and in its being foreseen and foretold by Moses. ginate immediately from hell are propagated also, mediately, See Geddes' Critical Remarks, p. 185. by seeds, cuttings or grafts.

SWEDENBORG's Divine Love,

n. 341 to 347. 698. (Exod. vii. 19.) The water of the Nile is very thick and muddy, and it is purified by a paste made of bitter almonds, or by filtrating it through pots of white earth; the possession of 702. [Exod. viii. 2.) By dipping a ladle or bucket into one of these pots is thought a great happiness. (THEVENOT, the Nile, which is every where dark with mud, you take up part i. p. 245.)—Thus it seems probable, that the filtring swarms of animalculæ. Among these, tadpoles and young vessels at this time did not purify the water. It might be too frogs are so numerous, that, rapid as the current flows, there putrid to percolate.

is no part of the River where the water does not contain them.

Dr. EDWARD DANIEL CLARKE's Trav. 699. (Erod. vii. 18.] The purified water of Egypt is so

in Greece, Egypt, and the Holy delicious that one would not wish the heat should be less, nor

Land. to be delivered from the sensation of thirst. The Turks find it so exquisitely charming that they excite themselves to drink of it by eating salt.

703. (Exod. viii. 16.) The Egyptians told Herodotus, that MASERIER, Lett. i. p. 15.

particular species of animals were formed of the fermented mires of the Ocean, and of the Nile.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, 700. [Exod. vii. 19.) As I was embarrassed to conceive,

vol. i. p. 268. says Paul Lucas, how the wells or reservoirs near Cassar in Egypt, which are higher than the Nile, could yield any water, they told me that they filled themselves when the river rose, and that the water preserved itself in them a long while, as in a kind of cistern.

Voy. Egypte, p. 102.

704. (Exod. viii. 16.] And the LORD said to Moses, Say 10 Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land

of Egypt. 701. (E.cod. viii. 5.) And the LORD spake to Moses,

During summer, on each side of the Nile Say to Aaron, Stretch forth thy hand with thy rod over are rich fields of corn and rice, with such beautiful groves, the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause seeming to rise out of the watery plains, and to shade innufrogs to come up upon the land of Egypt.

merable settlements in the Delta, amidst never-ending planThe things which correspond to malignant | tations of melons and all kinds of garden vegetables, that, herbs and noxious animals are cadaverous, putrid, excremen- from the abundance of its produce, Egypt may be deemed titious and stercoraceous, rancid and urinous matters. In the richest country in the world. But to strangers, and places where these abound are produced, in the animal kiny- | particularly to inhabitants of northern countries, where dom, serpents, scorpions, basilisks, crocodiles, dragons, owls, wholesome air and cleanliness are among the necessaries of screechowls, mice, locusts, frogs, spiders; also flies, drones, || life, Egypt is the most detestable region on earth. On the Moths, lice, mites; in a word, those which consume grasses, retiring of the Nile, the country is one vast swamp. An leaves, fruits, seeds, meat and drink, and are noxious to atmosphere, impregnated with every putrid and offensive exbeasts and men :-in the vegetable kingdom, all the malignant, halation, stagnates like the filthy pools over which it broods. virulent and poisonous herbs; also the pulse and shrubs of Then the plague regularly begins, nor ceases until the waters the same kind:-and, in the mineral kingdom, all the poison- return again. About the beginning of May, when intermitous carths. Every one knows, that lakes, stagnant waters, ting fevers prevail, certain vinds cover even the sands of the dung, stinking earih, are full of such things; also that noxi- desert with the most disgusting vermin.-Lice and scorpions ous insects fill tlie atmosphere like clouds, and noxious worins abound in all the sandy desert near Alexandria. the earth like armies, consuming the herbs even to the roots.

Dr. EDWARD DANIEL CLARKE. These testimonies of general experience are in favor of those

Append. Month, Mag. July 1814.


The utmost attention to cleanliness, by a with feathers, or flappers, to drive them away. Liquor could frequent change of every article of wearing apparel, could not be poured into a glass : the mode of drinking was, by not repel the attacks of these swarming vermin. A gentle-keeping the mouth of every bottle covered until the moment man inade his appearance, before a party he had invited to it was applied to the lips; and instantly covering it with the dinner, completely covered with lice. The only explanation || palm of the hand, when removing it to offer to any one else. he could give as to the cause was, that he had sat for a short

Dr: EDWARD DANIEL CLARKE's Trav. time in one of the boats on the canal.

in Greece, Egypt, and the Holy Dr. EDWARD DANIEL CLARKE.


706. [Exod. viii. 18.] It appears from the mummies, &c., that the Egyptians were blacks : but the Hebrews were whites. Now, says Mr. LONG, the lice which infest the bodies of negroes are blacker, and generally larger, than those which are found on white people.-And I have been informed, adds Dr. White, by negroes born in North America, that those lice which infest the Europeans seem to refuse the negroes.

Regular Gradation in Man, p. 79.


The musquito, of the same species, size and shape as the English gnat, lays its eggs on the surface of the water ; where, if there be no agitation to sink them, they are hatched in the course of a few days. While the egg is successively producing its grub, chrysalis and musquito; also at the moment the insect first spreads its wings, if the water be not perfectly still and the air calm, it is inevitably destroyed.At Skenesborough in America, mus. quitoes are so large as to be able to bite through the thickest boot.—Wherever they fix their sting, a small tumour or pustule usually arises, which, if imprudently rubbed, will cause a violent inflammation, and sometimes even the loss of a limb.

WELD's Trav. in North America,

vol. i. p. 285,

707. [Exod. viii. 21.) I will send swarms of flies upon thee.

In Mavor's account of Schouten and La Maire's voyage round the world, it is recorded, that at an island about 1510 leagues to the westward, from the coast of Peru, the Dutch “were attacked by such swarms of flies, that they were perfectly covered from head to foot. Their very apparel seemed alive; and the deep black tinge of the fies gave them a most ghastly appearance. Even the boat and oars were covered with myriads of insects; and when the party, which had been on shore, returned, the plague of fies might be said to begin on board. Every person was employed in defending his face and eyes; and it was almost impossible to speak or eat without swallowing mouthfuls. This dreadful visitation lasted three or four days, by the expiration of which the flies were almost annihilated.”

Vol. ii. p. 191.

[Exod. ix. 23.) And the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along the ground. So there was hail and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.

712. (Exod. ix. 18.) Monconys tells us, that, when he was in Egypt, it rained and hailed, with lightuing and thunder, almost a whole night and part of a day in the month of January. And Pococke eveu in Upper Egypt met with hail in the month of February; the very time when we may suppose the plague of hail to have happened.

See GEDDES' Critical Remarks, p. 195.


708. (Exod. viii. 20.] Musquitoes or gnats are very trou. blesome in the flat country near the Caspian Sea; and there is a white fly no bigger than a flea in Persia, which makes no noise, but its sting is like the prick of a pin.

PINKERTON, vol. ix. p. 185.


Perry, in his View of the Levant, p. 255, says that at Grand Cairo in Egypt he saw shower of hail, which the inhabitants told him, had not there been observed before in any person's memory.—Indeed, how should hail be frequent in a Country, where there is scarcely

any rain.

709. (Exod. viii. 24.) There are some viviparous flies, which bring forth 2000 young : these in a little time would fill the air, and, like olouds, intercept the rays of the sun, unless they were devoured by birds, spiders, and many other animals.

Univer. Mag. May 1759, p. 235.

714. (Exod. ix. 23.] Many would have us believe in Christendom, that it never rains in Egypt; but it rains much at Alexandria, and Rosetta also; though at Cairo, which stands higher, it rains less, and yet, says THEVENOT, I have seen it rain there very hard every year, for two days together, in the month of December; and at the same time it thundered so much that the eleventh or twelfth night of the said month, a man in the castle was killed by the light. ning. It had never indeed been heard before, that lightning had killed any person at Cairo.

Trav. part i, p. 247.

710. (Exod. viii. 20—24.) In Egypt, when the mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer was at 90., such a plague of flies covered all things with their swarms, that it was impossible to eat without hiring persons to stand by every table


Thuuder, says Volney, is known in the 719. (Rev. xvi. 21.) Mezeray, in his history of France, Delta, as well as in Syria; but with this difference, that in tells us of a terrible shower of hail, which happened in the the Delta and the plain of Palestine it is extremely rare in year 1510, when the French monarch invaded Italy. There summer, and more frequent in winter, while in the mountains of was, for a time, a horrid darkness, thicker than that of mid. Palestine it is more common in summer and very seldom heard night, which continued till the terrors of mankind were in winter. In both these countries it happens oftenest in the changed to still more terrible objects, by thunder and lightrainy season, or about the time of the equinox, especially the ning breaking the gloom, and bringing on such a shower of autumnal one: it is further remarkable that it never comes hail, as no history of human calamities could equal. These on the land side, but always from the Mediterranean sea. hail-stones were of a bluish color; and some of them weighed 1 Kings xviii. 43, 44.

Trav, vol. i. p. 352. not less than a hundred pounds. A noisome vapor of sul

phur attended the storm. All the birds and beasts of the country were entirely destroyed. Numbers of the human

race suffered the same fate. But what is still more extraor716.

VOLNEY adds, on the 26th September, dinary, the fishes themselves found no protection from 1783, as night was coming on, a storm appeared in the south- their native element, but were equal sufferers in the general east, which soon produced several claps of thunder, and calamity. ended by a violent fall of hail as large as the largest sort of

GOLDSMITH's Hist of the Earth, &c. pea. li continued ten or twelve minutes; and my compa

vol. i. p. 375. nious and I had time enough to collect a quantity of hailstones, sufficient to fill two large glasses, and could say that we had drank iced water in Egypt.

It is proper to add, that this was at the time when the southerly monsoon begins to blow on the Red Sea.

These storms in general happen either in the evening or 720. (Exod. ix. 3), 32.) And the flax and the barley inorning, and rarely in the middle of the day : they are ac- were smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax companied with violent showers, and sometimes with hail, was bolled. But the wheat and the rye were not smitten : which in an hour's time render the country full of little lakes." || for they were not grown up. NORDEN says, “ in Upper Egypt the air is always clear

In Egypt there came from Ethiopia annuand serene : I have however experienced at Meschie, which ally in April or May a violent and pestilential wind which, is opposite Ackmim in Upper Egypt, many miles south of | blowing from north to south, flatted and sometimes wholly Cairo, a very violent rain accompanied with thunder for the rooted up their barley. space of a whole hour.

DIODORUS, l. 1; and ABBE PLUCHE, And at Komeride, which is many miles above Cairo, we

Hist. of the Heavens, vol. i. p. 23. had little wind and a great deal of rain.

See Trav. vol. i. p. 140,
and vol. ii. p. 20.


Flax is said to have been first discovered

on the banks of the Nile, and Isis to have been the inventress 717. Virgil's account of thunder is replete of spinning and weaving.

Darwin's Temple of Nature, with genius ; that is, with observations of nature entirely

canto iv. I. 254.
new. He introduces into its composition fire, air, water, and
kail: the last he denominates crisped rain.

Tres imbris torti radios, tres nubis aquosæ
Addiderant, rutuli tres ignis, et alitis Austri.

In Egypt, I have seen, says HASSELQUIST,
See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,
vol. iv. p. 56.

a stem of fax four feet high, and as thick as the stem of a common rush.—The thicker the stem, the coarser the fila. ments: we hence see why the flax of Egypt, though abun

dant, was not fine. It flowers in winter. 718. In the Savannahs of New Andalusia,

Trav. p. 245. flakes of fire rise to a considerable height : they are for hours together in the driest places; and it is asserted, that, on examining the ground which furnishes the inflammable matter, no crevice is to be found. This fire, which 723

M. De Maillet, who had lived above sixteen resembles the Will-o'-the-wisp of our marshes, does not burn years in Egypt, informs us, that in Lower Egypt the barvest the grass; because, no doubt, the column of gas, which comes on in May; above Cairo, it is in April; and in Higher developes itself, is mixed with azote, and carbonic acid, Egypt, in March or even sooner. and does not burn at its basis.

DIODORUS, I. 1 ; and ABBE PLUCHE, HUMBOLDT's Trav. in S. America.

Hist. of the Heavens, vol. i. p. 83.



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