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• le grand mot de circonstances imperieuses, de mal entendu, et de « l'incertitude d'un assent general dans un Republique et je n'y • manquais pas,' the whole of which is left out in the new im. pression. At p. 75 of the first edition, there is a still more remarkable passage, which is, in like manner, omitted in the new one. It is in these words. « J'ai toujours pris pour base de ma • politique l'interet des gens à qui j'avais affaire ; et ai detesté • les flatteurs du cour qui disent, « Ces Princes sont attachés
personellement à votre Majesté.” Ainsi l'on berce l'amour
propre des souverains, qui aiment autre cela qu'on leur dise, « Tout va bien au mieux !ou va être reparé.” At p. 100 of the first edition, there is also the following passage, which the last editor has been pleased to suppress. "Je lui prouvai' (he is speaking of Frederic-William of Prussia)' que depuis Pultava • il n'y avait plus de Charles XII, et qu'il était prisonnier chez
ses amis les Turcs. J'en etais faché, car il ne pouvait pas être (un Gustave Adolphe, qui faisoit trembler l’Empire ; mais je
voulais qu'on empechất celui de Russie de s'agrandir, et je regardais le Suede comme un contrepoids pour l'équilibre de PEurope.' At p. 120, there is another passage about the French military character, which does not appear in the last edin tion; and at p. 148, a severe attack on the influence allowed to kept-mistresses, valets and grooms, in the French court, which is suppressed in like manner. To make amends, we have, at p. 189 and 190 of the new edition, two lively paragraphs about the abuses and the uselessness of domestic espionage, which are not to be found in the former; and at p. 217, a whole page about counsels of war and court flatterers, to which there is nothing corresponding in the copy we have used in the preceding review.
We cannot tell what to make of these variations. To speak candidly, we do not see what interest or feeling of Bonaparte's could be served, either by the suppressions or the interpolations. The latter are in the spirit of freedom, as well as in the style of the rest of the work; and though the former may be supposed to be dictated by a jealousy for French honour, or royal dignity, yet it is difficult to ascribe them to this cause, when we find so many passages far more exceptionable allowed to remain. The arrogance of Louis XIV, the desolation of the Palatinate, and the instability, and levity of the French character, are spoken of without reserve in fifty places of the new edition. One thing, however, is certain, that those variations cannot have been introduced by accident or neglect; and that they afford a new and s:riking proof of that unprecedented faithlessness in the Parisian presses, which renders it necessary to watch over all their productions with the most unceasing jealousy..
ART. III. A Comparative View of the Plans of Education, as. detailed in the Publications of Dr Bell and Mr Lancaster.. The Second Edition. With Remarks on Dr Bell's “ Madras. School ; ” and Hints to the Managers and Committees of Charity and Sunday Schools, on the practicability of extending such Institutions upon Mr Lancaster's Plan. By Joseph Fox. čvo. pp. 76. Darton and Harvey, London, 180g. *
Instructions for forming and conducting a Society for the Eduta
cation of the Children of the labouring Classes of the People, · according to the general Principles of the Lancastrian or British · Plan. Second Edition, with considerable Additions. 8vo.
pp. 30. Longman & Co. London, 1810.*
The New School ; being an Attempt to illustrate its Principles,
Details, and Advantages. By Sir Thomas Bernard, Bart, · Third Edition. 8vo. pp. 111. Hatchard. London, 1810. +
THESE tracts relate to one of the most interesting and momentt ous subjects which have ever attracted the notice of those whole stations or whose virtues give them an influence over the lot of their fellow creatures. A method has been devised, and, after various improvements, seems now to be brought very near to perfection ;--by which the blessings of education may be extended to persons in the lower ranks of society, at a price within the reach of all but the poorest, and to them also, with a very moderate assistance from their happier brethren ;-by which the facility of learning is incalculably augmented to children of every class, and a vast saving of time secured even to those whose circumstances may put economy of money out of the question ; while the facility of teaching is fo much increased, that, within almost any given time, an indefinite number of instructors can be provided. This method, which, from its regular form and fuccessful experimental improvements, we 'may well denominate a practical system, having from the first attracted confiderable attention, has of late (owing, in some degree, to certain hoftile de
** The two first mentioned works are printed at Mr Lancaster's "press ;-an establishment, the profits of which are devoted to the promotion of his system. :+ This tract is published for and by the Society for bettering the Condition of the Poor ; of which Mr (now Sir T:) Bernard has long been a most active and distinguished member.
monstrations on the part of the bigotted an? perfecuting classes of fociety) increased in popularity, and shown signs of spreading, we would fain hope, over the whole empire. It is with the view of contributing our aid to so great and good a work, and of record ing the history of the system, that we now again bring this subject before our readers, after an interval of three years; during which, the new doctrines have been working their way, through the affected contempt of fome, and the feeble and forgotten reAltance of others. · We have, on former occifons, (see particularly No. XXI. of this Journal), explained the principles of this plan of education, and traced their operation in practice; and we refer the reader to those articles, and to the excellent writings of Mr Lancaster and Dr Bell themselves, for a full elucidation of the system. We purpose, at present, to consider the questions connected with its more general diffufion; and it is with unfeigned regret that, in the outset of this inquiry, we find ourselves involved in a controversy, which we heartily wish we could avoid--on every account,-- from our respect for the excellent persons engaged on both fides-froni a natural dillike of all such disputes--but more especially from an apprehension that the great cause itself may suffer by a protracted discussion among persons who, having the fame benevolent object in view, should exert themseives in perfect harmony to attain it.
The subject now before us, the extension of popular education, gives rise to two distinct questions. It has unhappily been contended by son:e persons, that no good can result from promoting the instruction of the bulk of the community. They have even pretended to foresee a variety of evils as likely to originate in the greater diffusion of knowledge ; and, combining with their fanciful anticipations of danger, views of past events just as fanciful, have not scrupled to raise apprehensions of anarchy, tumult and revolution, from the progress of information among the people. The first question, then, and one of a preliminary nature, is railed by those persons; and, thould their objections be successfully obviated, there follows, of course, the inquiry as to the best means of diffusing education ;--which involves the matters in dispute between the patrons of the different plans now under consideration.
The general objections to educating the poor, need not surely detain us long. Had they not received a higher sanction in the authority of some eminent statesmen, than they ulually claim from the character of their ordinary supporters, we should willingly have left them to their fate. They are certainly not of a modern date; and the following passage from Mandeville will fhow that they are not purely of clerical origin. After expatiating upon the uses of poverty in society, and the necessity of kecping up, by all
pollible, pollible means, the stock of poor people, this licentious writer proceeds-- To make society happy, and people easy, under the
meanest circumstances, it is requisite that great numbers of them 'fhould be ignorant, as well as poor. Knowledge both enlarges
and multiplies our defares; and the fewer things a man wishes
for, the more easily his neceffities may be supplied. '* Now, were it not trifting with our read rs to answer such positions, we might observe in paffing, that his iwo arguments in favour of ige norance and of poverty, are altogether at variance with each other; for, the more contented a poor man is, the less will he work: and you have no surer way of getting him to labour, than by multiplying his defires; that is, by enlarging his knowledge. D: Mandeville always supposes, like his orthodox followers in modern times, that, by increasing the knowledge of a poor man, you, give him, not merely new delires, but new supplies, without labour, both of those necessities which he always had, as well as new gratifications of his nt wly acquired desires. In this strain he proceeds The welfare and felicity of every state and kingdom, • require, that the knowledge of the working poor should be con• fined within the verge of their occupations, and never extended
(as to things visible) beyond what relates to th-ir calling. The ' more a shepherd, a ploughman, or any other peasant, knows of • the world, and the things that are foreign to his labour or employ. "ment, the less fit he'll be to go through the fatigues and hardships • of it with cheerfulness and content. '7 The answer to all which is so fingularly apt in a subsequent passage of the fame.work, that we ihall save our own time by placing them together. ' A man,' he observes, who has had some education, may follow husbandry
by choice, and be diligent at the dirtiest and most laborious • work ; but then the concern must be his own; and avarice, the . care of a family, or some other pressing motive, mult put him
upon it.' I It is no doubt exactly lo : the pressing motive of want alone could make any man work as a day-labourer; nor will all the learning of the schools 1.fen chat motive, unless knowledge ihall somehow or oiher acquire the property of filling the belly and covi ring the back. Nor, again, is it educated men alone to whom Dr Mandeville's remark applies, unless he can also show that, without reading and writing, a man cannot tell whether or not he wants food and clothing. And then, if it be said that a learned pealint will neit' er do without eating, nor work to gain his bread, it must follow, that the love of lubour, for its own sake,
. Fable of the Bees, vol. i. p, 256. (Essay on Charity, and Chą. rity Schools.) + Id. ibid.
# Ibid. p. 258.
is natural to man, and that it requires deep learning to make him prefer plenty and ease. :
But let us look to his other arguments ; for it does so happeni, that this pious author has anticipated all the topics which have lately illuminated some of our pulpits, excepting the cominon addition of the French Revolution, which is now-a-days added to ea very argument againit improvement, às regularly as the money counts, or the names of two distinguished legal characters, are to certain parts of a record. Dr Mandeville pursues his reasoning thus— Reading, writing, and arithmetic, are very neceflary to those whose business requires such qualifications ; but, where
people's livelihood has no dependence on these arts, they are vea "ry pernicious to the poor, who are forced to get their daily bread
by chcir daily fabour. , Few children make any progress åt • school, but, at the same time, they are capable of being tema, 6 ployed in some business or other; so that every hour those fort . of poor people spend at their book, is so rruch time lost to the r society.'* To which the answer is obvious:–Either instruct children at so early an age, that the loss of their labour is not worth the trouble of reckoning; or, if you teach them when they might be employed in earning their fubsistence, take care to let their parents maintain them all the while ; and educate no one for nothing, unless his parents cin, at the same time, afford to sup. port him. This check will affix limits within which the gratui. tous affiftance of the higher claffps never can, by pollibility, either diminish the industry of the lower orders, or in the smallest degree derange the general structure of society. And let it bo observed, that this remark presupposes no material benefit to be derived from the education of the children in question ;--nothing to be communicated which is worth the value of their labour.
'The reverend author, whose work we are consulting, then brings forward another, and one of the most favourite of the modern topics Reading and writing,' he says, ' are not at. "tained to without some labour of the brain, and assiduity; and « before people are olerably versed in either, they esteem them
selves infinitely above those who are wholly ignorant of chem;
often with as little justice and moderation, as if they were of ' another species.'t To this, also, the answer very commonly given, seems quite irrefragable-that if all men were well edua cated, no one would be vain of his acquirements, any more than any man is, in this country, vain of wearing a hat; which, nevertheless, is, in some countries, a distincrion confined to the prince; and, of course, an object of great vanity. Akin to this, is the
* Ibid. p. 257.
* Id. Ibid.