gratitude or loyalty of those to whom this act whom its principal votaries are always to be of justice was done that she is indebted for this found. The whole vantage-ground gained by blessed consummation; she owes it to their in the Catholics during the struggle for emancigratitude and blind submission to a foreign po- pation was lost by its acquisition. tentate, which, by depriving the Catholics of | Nor have the consequences of that concession the remuneration for their industry, has driven been less injurious to the cause of Ca- 172. them headlong across the Atlantic. That which tholicism on the other side of the At- And in all the wisdom of man had failed to effect has lantic. The pastors in vain followed America. resulted from the unforeseen and not intended their flocks to the New World; their ascendconsequences of his passions. Thus does the ant was at an end when they left the shores of wisdom of the Almighty cause even the wrath the Emerald Isle. Vast was the difference beof man to praise Him.

tween the dark night of Celtic ignorance, lightNor have the consequences of emancipationed only by the feeble rays of superstition, and

been less decisive against the spread the bright aurora of Transatlantic energy, illu

an of the Catholic faith in Great Britain. / minated by the effulgence of knowledge, intelliReaction against Ca- It was natural that the Romish hie-gence, and intellect. The priest was swallowed tholicism in rarchy, seeing this great victory gain- up in the gulf of democracy. The ascendant Great Brit

ito ed by the effects of agitation in Ire- which the Romish clergy had acquired amidst ain.

land, and many persons of distinc- the ignorance and solitude of the Irish wilds, tion of both sexes in England embracing their was speedily lost when surrounded by the turfaith, should have thought that the time had moil of American interests, the conflict of Amercome when the work of the Reformation was | ican sects. So signally has the influence of the to be undone, and the British Isles were to be Church of Rome declined in the United States, wholly regained by the Holy See. They open- that, notwithstanding the immense influx of ly announced the project accordingly. Great Irish Catholics in the last ten years, there are Britain was divided into ecclesiastical districts; only now 1,200,000 members of Romish churchbishops were appointed, and the cardinal-legate es in the Union, out of 13,000,000 embraced in assumed the long-forgotten title of Catholic the whole divisions of the Christian communtimes. The effect was decisive. A burst of ion. It is a common complaint, accordingly, Protestant enthusiasm ensued unparalleled since of the Catholic clergy in America, that they the Reformation, and the prime-minister of the have lost all influence over their flocks; that Crown, a leading supporter of emancipation, their followers live altogether without God in took the initiative in calling it forth. The ag- the world; and that, without embracing any gressive and ambitious spirit of the Church of new faith, they have simply renounced the old. Rome-which is recorded in every page of This, it is to be feared, is too often the case. modern history, but had come to be forgotten From superstition to infidelity is but a step. during the tolerant slumber of the close of the It is by the torch of knowledge, and it alone, nineteenth century — was again brought to that the flame of a pure and lasting piety is, in light, and the contest of the Protestants with an enlightened age, to be kindled. But that the Catholics was renewed, but without the torch is not awanting in America; and, withwithering alliance with political distinction out anticipating the march of events that yet which had so long detached the generous from lie buried in the womb of time, it may with the side of the former. Men saw that the confidence be predicted that, however strongly Church of Rome was unchanged and unchange- the Catholic tenets may be rooted amidst the able, and must be combated with vigor as in traditions and corruptions of the Old World, it the first fervor of the Reformation, but the will never make head against the energy and contest came to be carried on, not by pains, intelligence of the New; and that still less will penalties, and disabilities, but by reason, argu- infidelity permanently retain any hold of a peoment, and intelligence, and above all, by rais-ple open to the influences and blessed by the ing the intellectual character of women, among choicest gifts of Nature.




The English nation can never have more than constant asseveration of the movement party

one object of interest or ambition that a majority of the House of Conimons was

at at one time; and thence it is that returned by two hundred and fifty individuals, The interval between eman- internal discord has so often been most of them members of the Upper House, cipation and the appeased by the advent of for. who had thus come to engross in their own passing of the

e eign war. Accordingly, the three persons the whole power of the State, by havReform Bill was entirely years which elapsed between the ing got the command of both Houses of Parliaoccupied by the passing of the Catholic Relief Billment. question of re- in 1829, and the Reform Bill in 2. This system, which had come to be styled form.

1832, presented but one feature, the indirect representation, had 3. the preparation for or approach of reforin. As worked well, and given rise to no The interests the Hundred Days were nothing but the eve serious complaints, as long as the of the bor

oughs now at before the battle of Waterloo, so these three interests of those who got into the variance with years were nothing but the eve before the Re- boroughs, either by purchase or those of the form Revolution. All interests were wound up the favor of the proprietors, were country. in it, all desires centred in it, all heads occu- identical with those in the unrepresented great pied with it. The indifference which had so towns. As long as men see their interests atlong prevailed on this subject had passed away, tended to, and their wishes consulted by those and been succeeded by an intense passion, which intrusted with the administration of affairs, gradually went on accumulating in violence, they are contented, even though they have until at length it became altogether irresisti. had no hand in their selection. It is when a ble. Various causes conspired at that time to divergence between the two begins that disfeed and strengthen this passion, which had content commences, and the cry for a change nerer before come into operation, and by their of institutions is heard. This dirergence was combined action brought about the great and first felt after the termination of the war. Durall-important, though happily bloodless, revo-ing its continuance, as prices of the produce lution of 1832.

of all kinds of industry were continually rising, 1. The first of these was the immense increase the interests of the landlords, the capitalists, 2.

of manufacturing and commercial and the commercial men were the same-all

0 Great want of wealth and industry which had were making money; and therefore all alike representation taken place during and since the were interested in the support of the protectfor the com- war, and the great number of ive system, by which the prices of all the mercial towns.

13. considerable places, abounding in productions of industry were kept up, and the riches and teeming with energy, which were process of accumulation favored. But when wholly unrepresented in Parliament. If it is the war ceased, and prices rapidly fell, the intrue that knowledge is power, still more is it terests of the different classes of society, so far true that wealth is power; and in the great from being identical, came into collision. To commercial cities of Britain both these were sell dear was the interest of the producers and combined, without the constitution giving their those who rested on their industry; to buy inhabitants any channel by which they might cheap was the interest of those holding realmake their influence felt by the Government. ized wealth, and the whole class of urban conThis was a serious defect, and was felt as a sumers. Thence a clear and decided breach very great grievance. In carly times it had between them, and the commencement of disbeen obviated by the practice which prevailed content and complaint against the proprietors of sending writs to each borough or village of the close boroughs, and the members whom which had become considerable, commanding they sent to Parliament; for the measures which them to sand burgesses to Parliament. But they pursued, suggested by their opulent conthis practice, which was entirely in harmony stituents, were often not only noways conducive with the spirit of the constitution, lad long to those of the unrepresented towns, but difallen into desuetude, since it had been discov- rectly at variance with them. ered that a majority in the House of Commons 3. This divergence appeared in the most strikgave the party possessing it the command of Jing manner, and became irreparathe State; and now the great towns, many of ble, upon the passing of the mone- Effects of the which had quadrupled in population and wealth tary bill of 1819, and the commence contraction or during the preceding quarter of a century, re- ment of the system of free trade the currency

Webin on the desire mained without representation; while vast and a restricted currency. As this

for reform. numbers of little boroughs, which had declined great change rendered the fall of with the changes of time to a mere fraction of prices permanent, and ere long caused it to their former inhabitants, still sent members to amount to 50 per cent. on every species of prodParliament, many of them at the dictation, or uce, it placed the interests of the consumers and in pursuance of the sale, of a neighboring mag of the holders of realized wealth irrevocably nate. So far had this gone, that it was the at variance. The former were interested in measures tending to lower prices, because it | penalties of high treason, had succeeded so well augmented the value, and in effect increased in Ireland, why might it not be attended with the amount of their fixed incomes; the latter similar results in Great Britain, the more espewere dependent on the rise of prices, because cially as the voice of the great numerical mait diminished the weight of their debts and ob- jority, particularly in the large towns, which ligations, and increased the remuneration for was sure to be loudest and most attended to their industry. It was impossible to reconcile in the matter, was sure to be raised in its supthese opposite interests: the amiable dream of port? It was resolved accordingly by the Libthe interests of all classes being the same, van eral leaders to make this the next cheval de ished before this stern reality of their being at bataille with the Government; and although it variance. The inhabitants of the great unrep- was well known that most of the Whig aristocresented boroughs were not aware to what racy, who influenced so many of the close bortheir distresses were owing: they ascribed it, oughs, would be reluctant to part with what at the dictation of their political leaders, to they regarded as their birth-right, yet it was the weight of taxation, the extravagance of anticipated, not without reason, that they would Government, or the like; but they all felt the be overpowered by the loud voice of the peopressure, and discontent was general, because ple, and be constrained, in the last resort, to suffering among the industrial classes was uni-listen to their demands rather than lose their versal. The demand for reform, which was reg- support. ularly hushed over the whole empire when suf- 5. In this expectation they were not disapfering, from an extension of the currency, had pointed, and very much owing to a 6. disappeared, was revived with increased intens- defection in the ranks of their ad- Division ity when, by any of the measures which have versaries, which had never before among the been mentioned, the currency was rendered been experienced, but was the natu

Tories from

the effect of scanty. So invariable is this sequence, that ral result of the measures which had the contracit obviously stands in the relation of cause and recently been adopted. Not only tion of the effect. * In times of distress or disaster," says was the Tory party divided in con- currency. Nir. Roebuck, “reform excited much attention; sequence of the forcing of the Relief Bill on the but when prosperity and success returned, it nation, but a considerable part among them, seemed to have passed almost out of remem estimable alike by their courage, their sincerbrance. The matter, however, was never en-lity, and their character, had been driven for tirely forgotten; for although pressing public the time into the ranks of their opponents. exigencies might induce the people occasion Their incomes had been halved by the conally to postpone their desires, although great traction of the currency and the adoption of prosperity led to a temporary forgetfulness, free trade, while their debts and obligations rethe cry for reform always returned with the mained the same: their petitions for inquiry and

Roebuck reappearance of distress; and to the relief, again and again presented, and supported History of' faulty constitution of the House of by a fearful array of facts, had been disregardthe Whig Cominons liberal politicians were ed or derided; and almost every successive ses

istry, i. ever prone to ascribe nearly all the sion had been marked by legislative measures 187. national misfortunes."

which went to diminish their own fortunes and 4. In this state of affairs the Catholic agita- augment those of the urban capitalists, who had

tion began, and the great and dan- become their opponents. Capital, intrenched Efector Cath. gerous example was presented to in the close boroughs which it had acquired olic agitation the world of a vast political change by purchase or influence, disregarded the comand its suc- being forced on the Government plaints of rural industry, as an enemy in poscess in stimu

- against its will, by the efforts of a session of an array of strong fortresses despises lating reforma

.. well-drilled and numerous party in the partial insurrection or general suffering of the State. Ministers had, with more sincerity the inhabitants of the fields. Accordingly, disthan wisdom, admitted that they had yielded content at existing institutions and the desire to external pressure; the Duke of Wellington for change had become of late years more genhad declared, amidst the cheers of the House eral among the farmers and land-holders than of Peers, in words more graceful in a veteran even the inhabitants of towns; and the quesconqueror than judicious in a young statesman, tion was often put in the form of the algebraic that the point was yielded to avoid the terri- problem: “Given the Toryism of a landed proble alternative of civil war. This important prietor; required to find the period of want of acknowledgment was not lost upon the friends rents which will reduce him to a Radical reof parliamentary reform. If agitation, kept | former.” within legal bounds, and steering clear of the 6. When the minds of the industrious class

es, especially in the country, were * PETITIONS TO PARLIAMENT IN FAVOR OF REFORM.

in this state of discontent, owing to Catholic eman

Currency. the constant difficulties in which cipation pow1820. ......, .. £34,145,385

they were kept by the fall in the er‘ully aided 1821 30,727,630

the desire for 25,658,600 price of every species of produce, !

reform. 27,396,544 and the vexatious contrast which

32,761.152 their situation presented to that of the monJR25 ....

41,049,298 1926


eyed classes, who were every day growing 1827..

31,493,250 richer from the same cause, Catholic emanci1828.

28,394,497 | pation blew it into a perfect flame, and created 1829


that schism among the upholders of the consti-Quarterly Review, No. xc., July, 1831; and Tooke On Itution which gave it every prospect of sticcesi. Prices, ii, 381, 383.

Injured in their fortunes and circumstances by



1822 1823 1824





June 2

the measures which had been pursued, they ties under which, from the effect of legislative now found themselves wounded in their affec- measures, the industrious classes la- 8. tions. The strongest convictions of their under- bored. By the act passed in Febru- Great effect standings, the deepest feelings of their hearts, ary, 1826, regarding small notes, it of the entire

suppression had been set at naught or lacerated by a great had been provided that, though no or small measure forced upon the nation, in opposition new stamps were to be issued for notes in alike to the wishes of the Sovereign and the small notes after its date, the notes March, 1829. loudly expressed sentiments of a decided ma- already in circulation were to continue to circujority of the people, by ministerial influence | late, and be received as a legal tender for three and the votes of the representatives of the close years longer. These three years expired in boroughs. Immense was the impression which March, 1829; and all notes in England below the perception of this occasioned. It was ad- £5 immediately disappeared from the circulamitted by the advocates of emancipation that, tion. Great was the effect of this decisive change if the popular voice had determined the ques- upon the fortunes and well-being of the industion, it would never have been carried; and trious classes, both in town and country, over yet it had become the law of the land. Before the whole nation. Coinciding, by a singular this stern reality the illusion of the people's chance in point of time, with the sudden convoice being all-powerful in England had melt. version of so many statesmen and legislators, ed away. The wrath of the leaders of the old in both Houses, on the subject of the Catholic Tories and the High Church party exhaled in claims, and the passing of the Relief Bill in conParliament on many different occasions. So sequence, it powerfully tended to inflame the vehement did the excitement become that the desire for radical change, by superadding perDuke of Wellington challenged Lord Winchel-sonal and private distress generally in the insea for words spoken in the House of Peers, and dustrious classes to indignation at public measa duel ensued, happily without any serious re-ures, distrust in public men. The diminution Tone, sults on either side. * A motion was made in the circulation in consequence was immedi

*** for parliamentary reform soon after the ate and decisive; but this effect, great as it was, Relief Bill passed, which was negatived by a was the least part of the evil.* It was the conmajority of 74 in a House of 184; but the names traction of credit consequent on the diminution in the minority revealed the great transposition which was the real evil, and that in a commerof parties which had taken place. In the course cial country soon induced universal distress. It of it, Mr. William Smith, the member for Nor- is one thing for bankers to issue small notes to wich, said, “One effect, he was happy to find, customers of their own, striking off which from had been produced by the Catholic Relief Bill, being the general medium of circulation, they

on which its best friends had not antici- are sure will not come back upon them for å i Parl. Deb. xxi. 1688: pated: it had transformed a number very long period, if at all: it is another and a Ann. Reg. of the highest Tories in the land into very different thing to issue sovereigns or large 1829; something very nearly resembling notes, whether of their own or the Bank of EnChron. 58. Radical reformers."

gland, which can only be purchased for full A circumstance occurred at this time which value. most materially tended to swell the cry for re- The silk-weavers were the first who brought form in Parliament, by increasing the difficul- their sufferings before the Legisla

|ture, under the new state of mone- Motion on * This duel deserves to be noticed as the last between any men of mark in Great Britain before this barbarous | tary matters. It appeared from the the distress practice went into desuetude. The cause of offense was, statements made by the petitioners. of the silk. that, in a letter published in the newspapers to the secre- Ithat since the change in the law re

weavers. tary of the Association for establishing King's College, London, Lord Winchelsea said: "Late political events

that the whole transaction (regarding had been a progressive and most alarming dimthe College) was intended as a blind to the Protestant and inution in the importation of the raw material, High Church party, that the noble Duke, who had for

and increase in the importation of the foreign sore time previous to that determined upon breaking in upon the constitution of 1688, might the more effectually, manufactured, insomuch that "there had alunder the cloak of some outward show of zeal for the ready been lost to the industry of this country Protestant religion, carry on his insidious designs for the

no less than £1,000,000 yearly. Hence our silkinfringement of our liberties, and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State." The Duke,

mills and loons were standing still, the wear. March 19.4


upon seeing this, wrote to Lord Winchelsea, ers were starving, and it was quite certain that ** "No man has a right, whether in public or pri

many even of the masters were giving up the vate, by speech, or in writing, or in print, to insult another, by attributing to him motives for his conduct, pub

trade, and becoming mere importers.”+ The allic or private, which disgrace or criminate him. If a gentleman commits such an act indiscreetly, in the heat of

* Years. Currency. debate, or in a moment of party violence, he is always ready to make reparation to the party whom he may have

1827 £31,493,250" 1829 £28,501,450 thus injured. I am convinced that your Lordship will, !

28.394,487 1530

26.965,090 upon reflection, be anxious to reclaim yourself from the - TOOKE On Prices, ii. 381, 383. pain of having thus insulted a man who never injured or offended you." Lord Winchelsea refused to make what was deemed by the Duke a satisfactory explanation: the

+ IMPORTS OF WROUGHT SILK. IMPORTS OF Raw Suk. March 21. o parties met, and Lord Winchelsea fired in the

Value. *** air, after receiving the Duke's fire, which car.

Average-ih 18:26

£445,000 1821-2-3 ried off a curl of his hair. The Earl, having done so,

2,091,000 1827

555.087 1826-1-8 1,642,600 made a very handsome apology for words which were


676,973 certainly unwarrantable in the circumstances, because they imputed motives not apparent on the face of the In 1824-5 there were 17,000 looms employed in Spitaltransaction. The Duke rode to the place of meeting at fields; in 1829 there were 9000. The rate of wages in Chalk Farm, attended only by Sir Henry Hardinge as the former period was 17s. a week, in the latter 98. his second, and a single servant.-See Ann. Reg., 1829, Weavers in the former period got 88., in the latter 58.p. 58, 62.

| Parl. Deb. vol. xxi. p. 751, 754. Ann. Reg. 1829, 116, 117.





legations of the petitioners were so notoriously £10,500,000. In 1816, the official value-that well founded, and so entirely supported by the is, the quantity-was the same, but the money parliamentary returns on the subject, that Min- or declared value bad sunk to £7,100,000; in isters did not attempt to deny the facts assert- other words, £3,400,000 was lost to Ireland on ed, but only alleged that the distress was owing, the exports alone, being 34 per cent., although not to Free Trade, but to over-production, that the rents, taxes, and engagements of every kind it was as great in France as in England; and remained the same. In 1817, the distress bethat matters would be still worse if the system came such that Government was compelled to of protection were restored. They took, how- postpone for two years longer the Bank Reever, the only proper course which could be striction Act, and the 'consequence was that. adopted under the circumstances, and in con- in 1818 the exports of Ireland to Great Britain formity with the principles of Free Trade; and rose to £10,300,000—within a trifle of what that was, to make a considerable reduction in they had been in the last year of the war. But the duties on the importation of the raw mate- in 1819 the Bank Restriction Act passed; and rial. The duties, accordingly, were lowered, on the consequence was, that though the producfine silk from 58. to 38. 6d., and on inferior from tions exported rose in 1822, as measured by 58. to 1s. 6d. This change only augmented the official value, to £6,100,000, the money value i Parl. Deb. general clamor, as it threw numbers sunk to £7,000,000! For more work they got XXI. 779, of persons engaged in working up less than two-thirds of the return in money! 782; Ann. raw silk out of employment, and seri- | Whoever considers these figures will have no us : Mar: ous riots took place in Bethnal Green difficulty in perceiving to what cause the whole tineau, i. and Spitalfields, during which proper. subsequent difficulties and disturb- 1 Parl. Deb. 508. ty to a large amount was destroyed." ances both of Great Britain and Ire- xxi. 1231, The gradual recovery of the country from land have been owing."

1232. 10. the monetary crisis of 1825, and the How this state of things affected the generThe Badget non-arrival as yet of the lowering ef- al interests of industry throughout 12. of 1829. fects of the suppression of small notes the country was demonstrated in Mr. Waithin March, 1829, enabled the Chancellor of the a very clear way from the parlia- man's exposi.

tion of the efExchequer to exhibit a more cheering picture | mentary returns by Mr. Alderman fect of the of the state of the finances than had been ex- Waithman. He pointed out the monetary syshibited in the preceding year. The revenne of effect of the monetary system, in- tem on manu

factures. 1828 had been £55,187,000, and the expendi- troduced in 1819, on the manufac- " ture £49,336,000, leaving a surplus applicable turing industry of Great Britain, in diminishto the reduction of debt of £5,850,000. These ing the money price of commodities, insomuch figures deserve to be particularly noted, as af- that while in seven years, from 1814 to 1820, fording a proof of the elasticity of the British though years of much distress, the excess of real finances, and the large sums which, notwith or money value in exports was £41,000,000; standing the copious bleedings to which the in eight years, from 1821 to 1828, the excess of Sinking Fund had been subjected, were still ap- the official value over the real was £80,000,000! plicable to the reduction of the national debt, Including colonial produce, which had suffered before the extinction of small notes, and conse extremely by the fall, the annual depreciation quent contraction of the currency, took full ef- on goods exported between 1814 and 1828, a fect. It will appear in the sequel how woeful- period of fourteen years, was £28,000,000 on ly matters changed after this decisive contrac- £48,000,000, or 60 per cent.* Whoever contion; and as Catholic emancipation was the siders this immense depreciation, and the effect last triumph of the nomination borough-hold-it must have had on industry of every descrip. ers, so this was the last year when any material

* EXPORT OF MANUFACTURES AND PRODUCE OF THE reduction of the debt was effected. In three

UNITED KINGDOM FROM 1814 To 1828, BOTH IN. years after this, the surplus entirely disappear CLUSIVE, WITH OFFICIAL AND REAL VALUE. a Parl, Deb, ed, and was succeeded by a course

Year. | Official Value. Real Value. Difference. xxi. 1170, of years, during which, in a period 1231; Ann. of profound peace, considerable ad

1814 136,092,167 147,851,153 £11,759,286

1815 44,053,455 53,217,445 9,163.960 Reg. 1820, ditions were annually made to the 119, 121.

1816 36,697,610 42,942,931 6,228,398 public debt. ?

1817 41,558,585 42,955,256 6,257,646 The debate on this budget, however, elicited

1818 44,564,044 43,696,253 2,097.668

35,634,415 48,903,760 4,139,716 11. some facts regarding the state of the

1820 40,240,277 37,339,506 1,705,091 Statement country, which threw an important

Excess of real over official value in 241.521.795 of Mr. Att- light on the causes which had brought seven years .. wood as to the causes about the recent great change in Ire

1821 | £40,240,277 238,619,897 £1,620,380 of Irish dis. land, and were preparing a still great

1892 40,831,744 36,659,631 4,172,113 tress and er in Great Britain. The former were 1823 44,236,533 36,698,954 7,269,569 agitation. thus stated by Mr. Attwood: “In 1824 43,804,372 35,458,048 8,346,324

1825 1814, the last year of the war, the exportations




1826 40,965,735 31,536,723 9,429,012 from Ireland to Great Britain amounted to


52,219,280 37,182.857 15,036,423 £5,100,000, official value-official value is the


52,797,455 1 36,814,176 15,988,279 measure of quantity; this account exhibits the Excess of official over real value in /

£80,532,795 gross amount of corn, cattle, linen, salted pro eight years ....... visions, and other commodities sent from Ire

Exports of Colonial produce, real valueland to Great Britain in that year. But the 1 average, 1814 to 1820 .....

£14,517,378 prices of these articles were set down accord- | Exporis from 1821 to 1828 inclusive .... 9,992,6681 ing to the old valuations in 1697; the real

Difference...... £4,524,690 money value, which is the declared value, was 1-Parl. Deb., xxi. 1202.


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