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and in addition to the contemplated riot in the in the field, which have won for the Duke of

De streets, it was intended to attack the Wellington, as a soldier, a general, and a con1830. 158, Duke of Wellington's house while the queror, a great, brilliant, and imperishable re159, Roe police were absent in other quarters, nown, coupled with a deviation by the noble buck, i. in order to give a political color to Duke from his proper sphere into the labyrinth 412, 413. 3. the disturbance.

of politics—I wish to heaven I had not lived to Immense was the effect of this announcement see the day when the forgetfulness of the peo

upon the already excited minds of ple of the merits of the soldier, and the forgetGeneral con- the metropolis. The most alarm- | fulness of the soldier of his own proper sphere sternation on ing reports were immediately in of greatness, display to England, to the occasion. circulation, that a vast conspiracy | Europe, and to the world, that he 1830, 161, 162:

1 Ann. Reg. had been discovered; that we were on the edge can not accompany his Majesty on Parl. Deb. i. of a terrible convulsion; that the Revolt of the his journey into the hearts of an at- 74, 75 (new Barricades was to be re-enacted that very day | tached and loyal population." series.) in the streets of London. The citizens looked. It was now evident to all the world that the to the bolts and bars of their doors; the more downfall of the Wellington Minis- 79. courageous laid in arms, and prepared for re. try was at hand, and the only Division on sistance; the shutters were lined with iron question was on what point they the Civil List

leaves Minisplates, and iron blinds were hastily run up. | should make their election to be ters in a mi Such was the general consternation that in two beaten. Three important questions nority, hours the Funds fell 34 per cent. Before the stood for early discussion--the Civ. Nov. 15. end of the week the panic had subsided, when il List, Parliamentary Reform, and Negro Slay. it was seen that no outbreak took place, and ery-of the two last of which notices of motion that the excessive alarm had been in a great had been given by Mr. Brougham, and the measure unfounded. But with that reaction former stood for the 16th of November, Mincommenced a new set of feelings still more dam- isters, with great propriety, resolved to retire aging to the Government. Ashamed of their on the first, on which they foresaw they would own fears, and of the ridiculous length to which be beaten, because, by so doing, they avoided they had been carried, the citizens were fain to implicating the Crown or themselves upon the throw the responsibility for them upon the Min- all-important national questions which remained isters; and those who had a few days before behind. The debate came on upon the 15th been loudest in the exaggeration of the danger, November, when the Chancellor of the Excheq2 Ann. Reg.

were now foremost in proclaiming uer moved in common form that the House do 1830.9160.461. its entire groundlessness, and the resolve itself into a committee on the Civil List,

it Martineau, ii. culpable timidity of the Govern whereupon Sir Henry Parnell moved as an 18; Roebuck, ment which had yielded to such amendment, “that a select committee be api. 415, 416. unfounded alarms.?

pointed to take into consideration the estimates The liberal chiefs in Parliament made a skill- and accounts printed by command of his Ma78.

ful use of the consternation pro. | jesty regarding the Civil List." The debate Speech of Mr. duced by this event. “I regret was a very short one, but it was distinguished Brougham on much," said Mr. Brougham, the by one significant circumstance. Three old the occasion. appearance of the letter of this Tories—Mr. Bankes, Mr. Wynn, and Mr. Holme morning. I regret it on account of the mischief Sumner-spoke in favor of Sir H. Parnell's mowhich it is certain to cause in the mercantile tion, and against the Government. On a divi world, and still more from the connection which sion there appeared 233 for the amendment, it has with the fatal speech from the throne, and 204 against it, giving a majority of TWENand the still more fatal speech of the Duke of TY-NINE against Ministers. Mr. Hobhouse imnWellington against every species of reform-a mediately asked Sir Robert Peel* whether Mindeclaration to which I conscientiously believe isters intended to retain office after this expreshe owes nine-tenths of his present unpopularity. sion of the sentiments of the House, to which he I wish that that declaration had not been made. properly declined to give any an- a Ann Rea I wish also that I had not lived to see the day swer at the time; but the next day 1830, 162, 163: when a forgetfulness of the invaluable services the Duke of Wellington announced Roebuck, i.

in the House of Lords, and Sir Rob- 429, 430. Mar. men' the time has at length arrived, and all London meets

tineau, ii. 19: on Tuesday Come armed; we assure you, from ocnlar demonstration, six thousand cutlasses have been removed that they held office only till their 87. 88 (new from the Tower for the immediate use of Peel's bloody

ert

successors were appointed.2 series). gang Remember the cursed speech from the throne. These damned police are to be armed. Englishmen, will * He had lately succeeded to the baronetey on the death you put up with this !"-Ann. Reg., p. 159, 160.

of his father, at the reverend age of eighty.

nons, Parl Deb. i.

CHAPTER XXIII.

DOMESTTO HISTORY OF ENGLAND FROM THE FALL OF THE WELLINGTON ADMINISTRATION IN 1829, TO

THE PASSING OF THE REFORM BILL IN 1832.

1.

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Thus fell the Wellington Administration, the ther met their wishes, nor provided for their

most important event in the do- necessities. Reflections on

on mestic history of England since the The very errors, as they were deemed by the fall of the Revolution, in the general annals many at the time, were themselves a Wellington of Europe since the battle of Wa-forced upon their authors by general

ntinued. Ministry. terloo. “In the decisive and last- and irresistible causes. It is easy to ing transference by the political power in the see now, on the retrospect, that it was the monState by which it was followed to another etary measures of 1819 and 1826, coupled with party, it bears a very close resemblance to the the emancipation ofthe Catholics, which brought overthrow of the Coalition Ministry by Mr. Pitt about the change, because it was these which in 1784, which terminated a dominion of nearly spread discontent and division among the rural a century by the Whigs, and introduced one of and industrious classes, who had heretofore been half the time by the Tories. But in its polit- the firmest supporters of the throne, the steadical and social results it was far more import-iest friends of the constitution. But that only ant than Mr. Pitt's triumph. It induced a trans- removes the difficulty a step farther back. The ference not merely of the reins of government question remains, What caused these measures from one party to another, but of political to be adopted by successive governments, in power from one class in society to another. It opposition alike to the interests of the whole terminated the long-established dominion of industrious classes of the people and their rethe landed and commercial aristocracy, and ligious feelings, and in direct antagonism to the vested it in the class of shop-keepers and small policy pursued for a century and a half by the householders. It closed the sway of the inter-Government, and under which the country had ests of production, whether in land or manu- risen to an unexampled height of prosperity factures, and created that of buying and sell and glory? It is evident to any one who attening. Thence has ensued an entire change in tively considers the progress of these changes our whole domestic policy, both in relation to that they were not forced upon the Legislature agriculture and manufactures, and the adoption by individual men, but forced upon individual of a series of measures calculated, by cheapen- men by the Legislature; and that a fixed maing every thing, to benefit consumers and the jority had got into the House of Commons, holders of realized capital, without any regard / which rendered it impossible to carry on the to their influence on those engaged in the work government in any other way. Each successof production. Thence also have arisen changes ive administration since the peace had been in our foreign policy equally startling and un- compelled to relinquish, as the price of retainexpected. It has displaced Great Britain from ing office, a part of the old system, until none the head of Conservative alliances, and placed remained, and an entire change of government her in the front rank of the coalitions founded and of the constitution had become unavoidupon movement; and, stifling the ancient ani- | able. mosity of France and England, has brought the It is not difficult to see, at this distance of legions of both nations in cordial amity and time, what was the cause which ren- 4 generous rivalry to combat the forces of the dered this change of system neces- What had set Czar, in defense of Turkey, on the shores of the sary; and what is very remarkable, these causes Crimea.

and perhaps unprecedented in hu- in motion. Superficial observers, and those whose atten- man affairs, that cause is to be found in the nat

tion is exclusively fixed on the ural consequences of the entire success of the Causes which influence of individual agency in opposite system. So amazingly had the whole rendered the human affairs, see in these vast industrial interests of the community - landchange so de- events and this entire change of ed, manufacturing, commercial, and colonialcisive.

system, both foreign and domes-grown and prospered under the old protective tic, the effect only of the capacity of the lead-system, under which they had all found shelter ers and their dexterity in the management of during a hundred and fifty years, that a new parties; and they declaim against the mistakes interest had arisen in society, the fruit of their which, as they conceive, have ruined ancient prosperity, but which was destined to limit and interests, and the tergiversations which have restrain it. This was the interest of REALIZED broken up old alliances. But without disput- CAPITAL, the produce of long-protected and thriving the important effect of individual men in ing industry, but which had at length, from the moulding the fate of nations, it may with safe. unexampled impulse and successes of the war, ty be asserted that, in this instance, the great acquired an influence which enabled it to set change which took place was owing to general all other interests at defiance. This interest, causes. The Wellington Administration, and by the command of ready money, and the acwith it the old system of government in Great quisition of the close boroughs, had succeeded Britain, fell, because it had become unsuited to in acquiring a majority in the House of Comthe altered circumstances of the people; it nei- | mons, and with it the entire government of the

Crimea

State. Its interests were no longer identical claims to a higher situation than the aristo with those of the industry from which it had cratic Whigs were willing to allow to any man sprung; on the contrary, they were adverse io who had raised himself by the unaided force it. To sell dear is the interest of the creators of his own abilities, without patrician conneeof wealth; to buy cheap is the interest of its tions or support. On the other hand, it was inheritors. It is in the nature of things that very material to take the question of reform, Sir R. Peel the father, who made the fortune, which had only been postponed to the 25th should be the supporter of the protective; Sir November, out of the hands of a man at once R. Peel the son, who succeeded to it, the ad. so powerful, and so little inclined to follow the vocate of the cheapening system. Thence the dictates or counsel of any other person. So change of system in the Legislature when the strongly was Mr. Brougham himself impressed inheritors became the more powerful body; and with these difficulties, that in postponing his thence the creation of a general discontent in motion for reform, which he stated he did with the industrious classes, which at length over great reluctance, he said, “No change that can whelmed at once the Ministry and the previous take place in the Administration can by possi system of government. When once capital, for bility affect me." Earl Grey first proposed for its own advantage, had rendered the currency him the situation of Master of the Rolls, which of the country entirely dependent on the re- is permanent, and is consistent with a seat in tention of gold, and introduced free trade into the House of Commons, but to this the King the principal branches of manufacture, a revo- peremptorily objected. The Attorney-Generlution in the whole frame and system of gov.al's gown was next offered to him, but at once ernment had become inevitable, and it was rejected. At length, on the King's suggestion, merely a question of time when it was to take it was agreed to offer him the Great Seals, place.

which were immediately accepted. No furIt was this circumstance which rendered the ther difficulty was experienced in making up

5. Duke of Wellington's famous decla- the Administration, which was composed almost What made ration against reform so very influ. entirely of noblemen of the Whig party. The the Duke's

o's ential in inducing the immediate Duke of Richmond, as representing the ultradeclaration against Re

Re. downfall of his administration. It Tories, was made Postmaster-General, with a form so im- announced the determination of Goy- seat in the Cabinet; a negotiation was opened portant. ernment at all hazards to maintain with Sir Edward Knatchbull, the leader of the the existing system in the House of Commons. same party in the House of Commons, but it But that was the precise thing which the coun- failed of success. The new Ministry was of. try desired to have altered, because it had been ficially announced on the 21st November, and the cause of all the suffering which had been gave very general satisfaction to experienced. It was against the “borough the country.* It is remarkable is

? Ann. Reg.

1830, 163, 165; mongers," as they were called, that the outcry that in a Liberal Cabinet of fif- Roebuck, i was directed, because they brought in the men teen members thirteen were peers, 434, 450, Marwho had pursued the system which had been or sons of peers, one a baronet,

pet lineau, il. 21, attended with such disastrous results. There and only one commoner." was no hostility against the Crown; little, com- Earl Grey, who at this eventful crisis sueparatively speaking, against the House of Lords, ceeded to the government of the 1 except in so far as it influenced the House of country, has left a name which Character of Commons. It was the venal and nomination never will be forgotten in English Earl Grey. boroughs which were the object of the general history, for he introduced that change in the indignation, and they were so because the per- constitution which has been attended with such sons who got into "Parliament through their great and lasting effects. He was beyond all seats had first, by the measures they pursued doubt a most remarkable man. Gifted by nafor the advantage of capital, created the dis- ture with talents of a very high order, he postress, and then shown themselves insensible to all petitions for its relief. When the Duke of

* The new Ministry stood as follows:

In the cabinet.--First Lord of the Treasury, Earl Grey; Lord-Chancellor, Lord Brougham: Chancellor of the Ex

| chequer and leader of the Commons, Lord Althorpe ; Presonly thwarted a vehement national passion, but ident of the Council, Marquess of Lansdowne ; Lord Privy

Seal, Earl of Durham ; Home Secretary, Lord Melbourne; expressed his determination to uphold what was Foreign Affairs, Lord Palmerston ; Secretary of Colonies, the source of all the suffering which was expe- Lord Goderich, First Lord of the Admiralty, Sir James

Graham : President of the Board of Control, Mr. Charles

Grant ; Postmaster-General, Duke of Richmond, Chanhad become a great national grievance. It is

cellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Lord Holland; without no wonder that it accelerated his fall.

office, Lord Carlisle. Earl Grey, as a matter of course, was sent for

Not in the l'abinet.- President of the Board of Trade,

Lord Auckland; Secretary at War, Mr. C.W.W. Wynn, 6. by the King to form the new Min

Naster-General of Ordnance, Sir James Kerupt, Lord The difficulty istry, which it was easy to fore Chamberlain, Duke of Devonshire : Lord Steward, Narin forming

quess Wellesley; Master of the Ilorse, Lord Albemarle; the new Min

| Groom of the Stole, Marquess of Winchester; First Com istry ases Mr. not entirely, of the leaders of the

missioner of Land Revenue, Mr. Agar E!i3: Treasurer Brougham's Liberal party in the two Ilouses of

of the Navy, Mr. Poulett Thomson ; Attorney-General, claims. Parliament. No small embarrass- Sir T. Denman; Solicitor-General, Sir W. Horne. ment, however, was experienced in forming the

sea: Lord-Chance!'or, Lord Plunkett : Combiander of the adm tio

Forie3, Sir John Dyg: Chief Seclary, Lord Sisley. difficulty of finding a suitable situation for Mr. Ariorcy-General, Mr. Pennetather; Solicitor General, Brougham, whose great abilities, and position / lr. Crompton. as the real if not tlie avowed leader of ihe Lib

In Scotland.---Lord-Advocate, F. Jeffrey, Esq.; Solicit

or General, IL Coolburn, E-.--- Ann. Reg., 1600, p. 164, eral party in the Ilouse of Commons, gave him | 105; ROEBUCK, vol. i. p 450, 431,

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onsequence of the sea ; Lord-Chancellor Zoentenant, Marguess of Angle

sessed, at the same time, that quality of still power he enjoyed when the victory was gained. rarer occurrence, but which. when it does ex- | There was much to condemn in the mode in ist, seldom fails to lead to early shipwreck or which, in its latter stages, he carried on the ultimate greatness—moral courage, and invin contest, but nothing save to admire in the concible determination. His political life was conduct he pursued after it was over. He then sistency itself. He shared with his party their boldly confronted menaced rebellion in Ireland, early hostility to the French war, and must coerced its wildest excesses, and when he had bear with them the obloquy, in the eyes of pos- the power to have carried innovation in Great terity, of having defended the French Revolu- Britain to any imaginable length, stopped short tion long after its atrocities had discredited it with one organic change, and observed hencein the eyes of all impartial men, and resisted forward the landmarks of the constitution. the contest with it when it had become appar- Although the practical results of the Reform ent that it was waged by this country for the Bill, which he carried through, liberty and independence of mankind. But this have been widely different from u

10.

He was miswas the result of the firmness and consistency what he either intended or de- led by others of his character, which, having once embraced sired, yet this is not so much to as to the effect an opinion, adhered to it for good or for evil be ascribed as a fault to Earl Grey, o

of the Reform

Bill. through all the mutations of fortune. On the as it was the unfortunate result subject of reform he was the same throughout. of the elevated position he occupied, and the Unlike the greater part of the Whig aristocra- sphere in which he had moved in society. In cy, who supported it in public, and in secret the framing of that measure itself he was as deprecated it as the most dangerous innovation completely misled by the representations of alike to the country and themselves, he was its others of inferior rank about him, who posadvocate from his first entrance into public life; sessed the practical knowledge which he wantand the plan of reform which he brought for- ed, and had their own ends in view in their vard in the House of Commons, without suc- representation, as he had been in early life as i See Hist. cess, in 1797, differed in no material to the tendency of the French Revolution by of Europe, degree from that which he brought the declamations of the philosophers and Gic. xxii. 69. to a triumphant issue in 1832.' rondists. He said it was the most aristocratic As a public speaker he must be assigned a | measure ever brought forward in Parliament,

very high place--second, perhaps, when it was a measure, as experience has now His character only to Pitt and Fox in the Au- ) proved, which took the government of the counas an orator, gustan age of English oratory. He try entirely out of the hands of the aristocracy. and in privale had not the power of lucid expo- He declared he would stand or fall by his order, sition of the former, nor the impetuous flow of and yet he exerted all his talent and influence the latter, but in condensed expression, cogent to carry through a measure which politically argument, and sarcastic power, he was equal nullified that order, and substituted that of to either. He had not the poetic fancy or play- shop-keepers, with whom assuredly his aristoful expression of Canning, but he was more cratic feelings had nothing in common, in its thoroughly, and at all times, in earnest-the room. In this there was no duplicity or disgreat secret for moving and permanently rul- ingenuousness on the part of this proud and ing the hearts of men. His well-known philip- straightforward nobleman. He believed all he pic against that celebrated orator, when he suc- said, and acted accordingly; but his measures, ceeded to power in April, 1827, is deservedly being founded on no practical acquaintance placed among the most brilliant specimens of with the community to which they referred, rhetorical power which the English language had a directly contrary tendency to what he can boast. In society, his manner, though some intended, and ere long precipitated himself from what reserved and stately, had all the courtesy power, and his order from the dominant posiwhich belongs to real high-breeding, and in iion it had so long held in English society:* domestic life he was simplicity itself the sure sign of a mind superior to any station, how

* In the course of the debates on the Reform Bill in the House of Peers, Lord Sidmouth, who supposed Lord Grey

to have been carried by circumstances far beyond his origvated.

inal intention, said to him, “I hope God will forgive you The great fault of Earl Grey, as of most men

on account of this bill; I don't think I can." To which

Lord Grey replied, " Mark my words: within two years of his rank who are called to the

you will find that we have become unpopular from hav. llis defects general direction of affairs, was a ing brought forward the most aristocratic measure that and errors, want of practical acquaintance with lever was proposed in Parliament." Lord Althorpe, too, but noble

did not conceal his opinion; he avowed it," that the Re. use of power ver mankind in all grades. He shared

form Bill was the most aristocratic act ever offered to the when ac- this defect with his whole cabinet, nation, and the wonder is, who can doubt it, while tho quired.

new county representation preponderates over the addi.

tion to the towns."-See Sidmouth's Life, iii. 439; and almost entirely composed of the nobility; and

Miss MARTINEAU, ii. 28, 29. The truth is, that there 60 conspicuous did this deficiency immediately

was much plausibility in the reason thus advanced to become, that, as will appear in the sequel, he prove the aristocratic tendency of the Reform Bill, and was saved from early overthrow only by iden.

without doubt these noble lords were perfectly sincere in

the opinion thus advanced. But what they did not see, tifying himself with the extreme movement

though their followers did, was, that these aristocratic party, and advancing a measure which entire. tendencies were entirely neutralized and overpowered by ly and forever changed the institutions of the three circumstances, the action of which has now been

completely demonstrated by experience. These were: 1. nation. He did great service to his country

The working of the ten pound clause, which in all the by taking the direction of that movement, and boroughs (that is, three-tiins of the llouse of Commolis) preventing it from falling into other and less vested the returns in one class-that of small shop-keep

ers; 2. The operation of the monetary laws, which, by scrupulous lands, and deserves its lasting grat

adding 50 per cent, to the value of money, and taking as itude for the use which he made of the vast much from the remuneration of industry, has rendered * Consumed in British Islands, 1854 : If the legislative measures in which Lord

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Second only to Earl Grey in influence and Brougham took an interest, or has been main

u station, and superior to him in versa- | ly instrumental in promoting, are 13 Character tile power, LORD BROUGHAM now stood considered, we shall have more cause His characof Lord prominently forward in a totally dif- to admire the variety of his acquire ter as a Brougham. ferent sphere and position from that ments, the versatility of his powers,

that I ments the versatility of his powers statesman. in which he had first moved and risen to such than the length of his vision or the solidity of eminence. A tribune of the people, he was his judgment. He did not foresee the real tendsuddenly made a senator; a brilliant and suc- ency of the measures which he so powerfully cessful advocate, he was at once, and without advocated, and in consequence brought about having gone through any of the intermediate results the very reverse of what he intended stations, elevated to the very highest judicial and desired. He professed to “stand upon the station; a common lawyer, chiefly known in ancient ways of the constitution" in all his propolitical or popular cases at nisi prius, he was jects of reform; and yet he strenuously supput at the head of the Court of Chancery, and ported, or besought the House of Peers, "on immersed in all the subtleties of conveyancing, his bended knees," to pass a bill on that suband the niceties of the law of equity. He was ject, which entirely altered those ways, bethe first barrister, if we except perhaps Lord cause, in lieu of the old representation of classErskine, who was made Lord-Chancellor, andes and interest, it introduced the new repreput at the head of the court of last resort, en sentation of mere numbers. He was the untirely from political considerations, and to avoid compromising foe through life of West India a difficulty in the formation of an administra- slavery, and the generous advocate of the poor tion, without any regard to his competency to negro's rights; and yet, by urging on the fatal discharge the important duties with which he step of immediate and unprepared emancipawas intrusted.

tion, he has proved his worst enemy, and thrown He was no common man who could stand back the sable inhabitants of the Antilles cen

12. such a change of position, not only turies in the path of real and lasting improveHis merits with no diminution, but in some re- ment. No man saw more clearly, or has exas a Judge. spects with an increase of reputation. pressed more strongly, the decline which would It is reported to have been said of him, when be brought on British agriculture from the unhe was elevated to the Wool-sack, by a very restrained competition of foreign states; and great lawyer, “It is a pity Lord Brougham yet he has been active in the furthering of a does not know a little of English law, for then series of measures which have rendered Great he would know something of every thing;” Britain, in seven years, from being practically and certainly his judgments in the Chancery self-supporting, dependent on foreign states, in Court will never be placed on a level with ordinary years for a seventh, in unfavorable those of Lord Eldon, or Lord St. Leonards, or ones for å fifth, of the national subsistence. * the other great masters of the law of equity. In two important particulars, however, his laBut it is a mistake to imagine that he proved bors have been attended with unmitigated good. a failure on the bench. It was not to be sup. He has been through life the zealous supportposed that a man of his extraordinary versatiler of the cause of general education, although ity of talent and variety of information should sectarian jealousy has hitherto much impeded have acquired the vast store of precedents the beneficent results of his efforts; and he has which can be mastered only by a powerful devoted his great powers, with equal judgment mind exclusively devoted to their acquisition; and success, to the great and difficult subject still less that he should be on a level with ex- of Law Reform. perienced equity lawyers, when the first time. His style of speaking, though always enerhe entered the Chancery Court was in advanced getic and powerful, affords the most.14. years as its head. But his example, and the striking contrast to that which his llis style great ability wbich he has shown now for a taste approves, and which he has uni- of oratory. quarter of a century in determining cases in formly recommended to the imitation of others. the House of Peers, proves that an extensive The last is condensed even to the confines of acquaintance with precedents is not an indis- dryness; the first diffuse to those of excess. pensable requisite for a great Judge; and that No one feels more strongly, or has expressed strong natural talents, and habits of forensic more emphatically, the manly simplicity of andebate, in a different branch of jurisprudence, cient oratory; and yet no one in his own may, when the cases are fully laid before him, speeches has deviated more completely from sometimes enable the Judge to supply the want the style of Demosthenes, or overlaid ideas alof early acquaintance with another branch of ways forcible, often striking, by an overwhelmlaw. Lord Eldon's judgments on Scotch cases ing deluge of words. It would seem as if in are universally regarded with the utmost re- his own style of oratory he was desirous, by spect by the Scotch bar, and yet he never prac- the process of reductio ad absurdum, of estabticed at it, and had little experience of appeal lishing the truths of the general principles on cases from that part of the island before being eloquence which he has elsewhere inculcated. put on the Wool-sack.

Qrs.

........ 32,850,000 these small shop-keepers chiefly dependent on the money. By animals and distillers. .... 16,350,000 ed and commercial, instead of the landed and aristocratic

- 49,200,000 class; 3. The vast extension of the commerce and manu

Produced ..........

42,265, 771 factures of the country, which rendered the greater part Imported on average of seven years, 6.929.786 of the boroughs, and many of the counties in the manu ending 1852 ......................) facturing districts, dependent on the employment furnish

9.987,714 ed by the great manufacturing cities, not the purchases - M.CULLOCH, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edil, made by the impoverished landlords in their vicinity. voce Great Britain.

By man ......,

.

donendent on the emnlovment furnish.

Imported. 1853. .

...........

..........

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