This verbose habit is very much to be regret- | principle has always been the advancement of ted, for, on the few occasions on which it has the power and glory of his country; and that been avoided, he has left most striking pieces he has taken a part in so many administrations, of oratory. His expressions in each clause of because they successively furnished him with a sentence are generally forcible, often epigram- the means of advancing that primary object. matic; it is the frequent repetition of the same He has been through life not so much a statesidea in different expressions, and putting it in man as a diplomatic soldier of the State. different lights, which weakens the force of his His talents for diplomacy and administration oratory. Yet, however widely it may deviate are unquestionably of a very high from the standard of ancient eloquence or ideal order. To immense acquaintance His characperfection, if we are to judge from the result, with foreign treaties and conven- ter as a diit was well calculated for the persons to whom tions he unites the rarer but not less plomatist it was addressed; for he was mainly instru- essential knowledge of courts and

and orator. mental in achieving the four great Liberal tri- statesmen, and the prevailing influences by umphs of the last half century-the repeal of which they are severally governed. As Secrethe Orders in Council, that of the Income Tax, tary at War during the contest with Napoleon, the passing of the Reform Bill, and of Negro and Home Secretary under Queen Victoria, his Emancipation.

administrative powers have been equally conIf there is any British statesman of his age spicuous; and such are his oratorical talents,

15. who has acquired a European rep- that no man can with greater certainty alternLord Palmer- utation, it may safely be pronounced ately keep the attention of the House of Comston: his Eu- to be LORD PALMERSTON, whose name mons awake during a long detail of diplomatic ropean repu- will be forever associated with the proceedings, or fascinate a popular audience by tation.

great change in our foreign policy, the beauties of a varied and highly wrought and the substitution of Liberal for Conserva eloquence. Indefatigable in his attention to tive alliances. Foreign nations, not aware of business, he yet finds time, as men of a similar the vital change which the Reform Bill made energetic turn of mind often do, for the pleasin our Government, ascribe this change chief-ures of society; and much of his political inly, if not entirely, to his individual influence; fluence is owing to the charm which manners and according as their statesmen and historians of the highest breeding, and courtesy of the belong to the democratic or monarchical par- most finished kind, lend to a varied and dety, he is the object either of vehement lauda- lightful conversation. tion or of impassioned hatred. In truth, how. The great fault of this accomplished minister ever, he is not the fit object of the praise he -and it is a very serious one, for it , has received, or the vituperation with which has more than once brought his coun- i he has been encountered. * In a despotic country to the brink of the most serious try, a minister may impress his own principles danger-is, that he never calculates the means upon the measures of government; in a consti- at his disposal for effecting the projects which tutional one he must receive it from the Legis- he has at heart, and engages in designs which lature. The Reform Bill having vested the gov- he has not the means of carrying through, or ernment of England in the class of urban shop- stimulates movements in other countries which keepers, the majority of whom are imbued with he has not the means of supporting. Bred in Liberal principles, the carrying out of their the school of Pitt, and essentially patriotic in wishes into our foreign policy became a matter his feelings and ideas, he sometimes forgets the of necessity, to which every minister, however difference in the situation and power of the otherwise inclined, must bend.

country at different times, and has often held as If this change of policy, however, was im- high language in diplomatic intercourse, when a

16. posed upon the country by the Re- refomed House of Commons had not left twenty His versa- form Bill, it is equally true that the thousand disposable men in the country, or ten tile talents character and talents of the Liberal ships of the line to form a Channel fleet, as when and char

ar. Foreign Secretary, in a prominent | Lord Castlereagh wielded the power of one acter

manner, fitted him for carrying it hundred and fifty thousand, and one hundred through. His abilities are not only of the ships of the line bore the royal flag. A sincere highest order, but they are of the most mark- friend of freedom, he has sometimes proved its etable description. No man knows better how worst enemy, by stimulating movements of the to address himself in speaking to the prevail. Liberal party among the excitable inhabitants ing feelings and tastes of his audience, in act- of other states, which the people of this country ing to the inclination and interests of the class had neither the means nor the inclination to in society upon which his influence is rested. support, and being forced, in consequence, to Great as are his talents, varied his accomplish- leave them to be crushed by the military force ments, they are rendered still more powerful of despotic states. With admirable skill he arby the versatility of their possessor. "He can ranged all the other powers of Europe to check be, when he pleases, all things to all men. He the ambition of France on the Eastern Question has been a member of every administration, in 1840; and it was owing to the influence of his with the single exception of the short one of diplomacy that the cordial alliance of France Lord Derby in 1852, for the last fifty years. and England was formed which put such a briHe has alternately aided in expelling his for- dle in the mouth of Russia in 1854. But on mer friends from power, and reinstating them other occasions his ill-timed assertions of Britin office; yet, strange to say, his character for ish influence have been attended with the ut. consistency has not materially suffered from all most hazard; for they brought us to the vergo these changes. The reason is that all men see of a war with France, and once with France and that, like the Duke of Wellington, his leading Russia united, at a time when the country was

18. His errors.

wholly unprepared to maintain a contest with with which his connection is more nominal than either the one or the other.

real-a conduct which has done more than any Lord John RUSSELL has not obtained the same thing else to win for him the respect of the coun

19. elevated niche in the temple of fame try, for the obvious reason that it is the rarest Lord John as Lord Grey and Lord Palmerston; quality in public men, and the one which most Russell, but still the nobleman who carried the observers feel themselves least competent to Reform Bill through the House of Commons, and imitate. has since for years held the highest place in LORD MELBOURNE was a man of very differthe councils of his Sovereign, or been the lead. ent abilities and character from the 21. er of the House of Commons, must be regard. eminent ones which have now been Lord Mel. ed as no common man. As an orator he occu- drawn; but he has occupied too im- bourne. pies a useful rather than a distinguished place. portant a position in the councils of his SoverHe seldom aims at the highest Hights of elo-eign, on her first accession to the throne, and quence, and his speeches are distinguished by for some years after, not to deserve a distinbusiuess-like habits, by information on the sub guished place in a contemporary gallery of state ject, and acuteness in reply, rather than either portraits. If his talents were not of the highgenius of conception or cogency of argument. est order, they were of the kind of all others best If he owed, however, the distinguished position adapted for the important and responsible duty he has so long held in the House of Commons, to which he was called, of guiding a youthful in the first instance, to family influence, and Queen in the first and most important years of the prestige of an illustrious name, he has since her reign. To great and almost unrivaled pow. shown that he was not unworthy of it, by the ers of conversation he united the charm of the qualities he has exhibited while discharging its highest breeding, and the grace of the most pol. duties. To admirable temper and great tact in ished manner. A man of the world in every debate he unites a thorough acquaintance with sense of the word, he had mingled in all its eirthe feeling and prevailing inclination of the cles only to glean from each what rendered him House, and especially of his own side-quali- a delightful companion, a brilliant ornament to ties invaluable in the leader of a party, and the most elevated. His store of anecdote was much more important than the more showy immense, and related to the most interesting qualities which often dazzle only to mislead. characters; his felicity in recounting thern equal His figure is not commanding, and his voice to the tact with which they were given out or feeble, so that nature has not endowed him withheld. An accomplished classical scholar, with the physical qualities requisite for subdu- and well versed in the traditional history of ing stormy assemblies, but she has in a great great families, he had little information on the degree made up for the deficiency by the gift subjects required by a statesman, and took his of the prudence and judgment which succeed opinion on the measures brought forward rathin the end in leading them.

er from the authority of others than his own Sydney Smith has said, that such is Lord reflection. Yet his suavity of disposition and

20. John Russell's confidence in himself, courtesy of manner conquered all opposition; His intrepid- that he would, with equal readiness, and when, as prime-minister, he gave in the ity and sell at a moment's warning, assume the House of Lords, with perfect nonchalance, in anconfidence lead of the House of Commons, or swer to a question put to him, “I really know take the command of the Channel fleet, or un nothing at all about the matter," there was a dertake to cut for the stone. Assuming that the loud laugh from all sides, and no farther incelebrated discourser has here strained some quiries were made. The truth was, all parties, what for the sake of point, it is evident, from and especially those of them who were nearest Lord John Russell's public career, that there is the throne, were aware of the vast importanee some truth in the assertion, though his success of the duties which, when prime-minister, he in literature and biography by no means war- discharged as counselor and almost guardian rants the belief that the confidence is well found of our present gracious Sovereign in her early ed. On several important occasions he has years; and if we are to judge of the debt of shown that he does not shrink from responsi- gratitude which the nation owes him for the bility, and that, supported only by courage and manner in which he discharged them, from the conscious rectitude, he can engage fearlessly in strict propriety and wisdom of her Majesty's the most hazardous undertakings. His conduct conduct ever since her accession to the throne, as the leader of the House of Commons on occa- the debt is great indeed. sion of the Reform Bill in 1831, and the war with Sir JAMES GRAHAM Owes more to natural adRussia in 1854, and of Cardinal Wiseman's as vantages than any of the statesmen Bumption of titles when he was prime-minister, who have been mentioned. A tall ands

Sir James sufficiently demonstrates this. Unfortunately, commanding figure, handsome coun- Graham: his colleagues in the Cabinet are not always postenance, and powerful sonorous voice, his adnudsessed of the same determination, and thus it has give him the superiority in debate is


powers not unfrequently happened that the most in which, in civil almost as much as mili per trepid denunciations on his part have been fol. tary contests, these qualities never fail to confer; lowed by no corresponding state measures, and and to these he unites administrative and orathus bave entirely lost their effect. In one re- torical talents of a very high order. As First spect his conduct has always been worthy of the Lord of the Admiralty on the Whigs' accession very highest admiration: he never shirks re- to office in 1830, and again when the Russian sponsibility, but, on the contrary, not only takes war broke out in 1854, he evinced a degree of his full share of it when his own, but generously vigor and capacity which was appreciated and comes forward to divide with others a responsi acknowledged by all parties; and he displayed bility which belongs to their department, and equal ability as Home Secretary during a very



trying time, from 1841 to 1846. Indefatigables and satisfaction in the determinations of Parliain his attention to business, and endowed with ment. Any thing short of this will be insuffigreat powers of application, he is always pre- cient. But while seeking for this end, I am pared on his own subjects; and, unlike Lord anxious not to disturb, by violent changes, the Melbourne, can give a satisfactory answer to established principles and practice of the conevery question put regarding them. The exstitution. To such a measure I have secured pression of his countenance has a supercilious his Majesty's assent. The important matter of east, a qnality which has been complained of of the poor will also be considered, and the laws him in official intercourse, though none is more which regulate the provision which the State bland or courteous in private society. He is a makes for them. The whole and earnest atpowerful debater, as well from the cogency of tention of my colleagues and myself shall be argument employed as the stores of information directed to economy in every department of displayed, and is excelled by none in the rare the State, and every saving that can Mi

1 Mirror of and effective power of reply. Occasionally, | possibly be made shall be adopt- Parliament, though not frequently, he rises to the highested with the most unflinching sever- 1830, 9 ii. flights of eloquence.

310. Inconsistency is his great defect, and his rep- 'After a few routine measures had passed, Par

23. utation has suffered more from this liament adjourned to the 9th FebruHis ineon- peculiarity than that of Lord Palmer-ary. The interim was a state of great


Distracted sistencies. ston, who is also chargeable with it, alarm and anxiety in England. The state of Enbecause he has at different times taken more southern counties around London gland durdecided and contradictory views on the same were, as Lord Grey afterward said in ing the question. There is hardly a subject of import- Parliament, "in a state of open insur." ance discussed of late years on which there rection;" and midnight fires or predial outrages will not be found, in the parliamentary debates, seemed to have been imported into the peacean admirable refutation of a previous equally ful realm of England from the distracted and admirable argument on the opposite side, of this wasted fields of Ireland. The special commisskillful rhetorician. This, however, is the fault sion, however, which was opened in December, of the age and circumstances under which he had a salutary effect: the execution of some deslived, rather than of the individual man. Such peradoes, convicted of fire-raising, spread a uniis the mutability of general opinion in every versalterror among the peasantry, and the transpopular government, that the rulers of the State portation of great numbers of others, at length can only maintain their ascendency by chang- arrested the disorders which had attained so ing with it. The philosopher may be consist- alarming a height. But the excitement in the ent, because his aim is the discovery of truth, towns was not so easily appeased. Public meetwhich is ever the same; the historian, because ings were every where held, in many cases prehe traces the unchanging laws of the social or sided over by distinguished members of the der through all the mutations of fortune. But | Whig aristocracy, at which the most inflammathe statesman in a popular community, who tory language was used. Constant reference aims at the enjoyment of power, can attain it was made to the armed insurrection which had only by the suffrages of the multitude, and to overthrown the government in France and Belgain them he must often share its mutability. gium, and hints given that, if the English arisConsistency in such a case is a passport to ulti- I tocracy adopted a similar system of resistance mate fame, but it leads to present downfall. to the public voice, their fate might be the same. Such were the chiefs of the Liberal party, These threats were always received with the 24.

who now succeeded to power, and in most vociferous applause, insomuch that not Earl Grey's whose hands, with a few brief inter- merely the timid and temporizing, but even the announce missions, the government of the coun- firm and intrepid, began to think that a general ment of his

his try has since been constantly vested. | convulsion was at hand. Mr. O'Connell and the principles of govern- Earl Grey, immediately after his ac- other members of the Catholic Association were ment. cession to office, made the following in an especial manner laudatory of the revoluNov. 22. profession of the principles of his ad- tion at Brussels, which, as leading to a Ann. Reg. ministration, which diffused general satisfaction: | the overthrow of a government and 1831, 2, 3; “ Prominently, and in the foreground, I place the disruption of a kingdom by a Roebuck, ii.

2, 3; Mirror Reform in Parliament. I have, when out of of- rebellion fomented by the Romish of Parlia. fice, declared that that great question could be priesthood, was held up as a glorious ment, 1831, satisfactorily introduced by the Government object, worthy of general imitation.2* 1209. alone, and that the Government ought immedi. ' * The proceedings and language of Mr. O'Conately to propound some measure concerning it. nell,” says Mr. Roebuck, “became 2 What out of office I have professed, I am now every day more hostile and threat- Agitation and in office about to perform; and I promise that ening: he went about the country increased misa proposal for the reform of our representative making violent harangues, gather- ery in Ireland. system shall be introduced immediately for the ing together numerous assemblages of the peoconsideration of Parliament. It shall be a pro-ple, under color of meetings for the purposes posal not of any wild or unreasoning change, of petitioning, or of celebrating some feast or not of universal suffrage, not a mere theory of pretended accuracy and efficiency. I desire to

* Mr. Sheil, not the least violent or able of Mr. O'Con

nell's friends, said at this time : " If the Union is not restand as much as possible on the fixed and set

pealed within two years, I ain determined that I will neitled institutions of the country. What I seek iher pay rent, tithes, nor taxes. They may distress my to do is all that is necessary to secure to the peo

goods, but who'll buy, boys? -- that's the word -- who'll

buy? Mind, I don't tell any man to follow my advice; ple a due influence in the great Council of the

but so help me God, if I don't do it, you may call me nation, and to secure by that means confidence Sheil of the silk gown.'"-ROEBUCK, vol. ii. p. 13.

festival. At all of these meetings he did his ut- this object, without incurring the penalties of most to excite his ignorant hearers, but always treason or sedition. The device usu- 27. ending his speeches by some earnest recommend ally adopted was to assemble the peo- Agitation ations to keep the peace, hoping thus to escape ple in such numbers as to intimidate for the te

peal of the the law."? Such was the alarm gen-Government by the display of phys- Union, and ! Roebuck, erally excited by these proceedings, ical strength, and at the same time proseee1. 18, 19. 0, " that the magistrates in the disturbed avoid an ostensible breach of the law tion of Mr.

O'Conneli, districts asked from the Lord-Lieutenant how by recommending peaceable conduct

who is a they should act in regard to them, not from any and obedience to the letter of the lowed to es difficulty in determining what was the law, but Lord-Lieutenant's proclamation. As cape. from uncertainty whether, or to what extent, the fast as one meeting was proclaimed down, anGovernment would enforce the law, or support other was convened under a different name, or the acts of the magistrates in carrying it into for a different avowed object; and in the interexecution. The answer of the Lord-Lieutenant val letters were invariably published by O'Copwas sufficiently clear, and such as every lawyer nell, recommending peaceable and ceaseless agiknows to be the law, and every man of sense tation, and promising a repeal of the Union is must see is an exposition of what is essential to two years if his advice was implicitly folloved.* the peace of the community.* But meanwhile At length Government, under the able and endistress, the usual accompaniment of agitation, ergetic advice of Mr. Stanley, wearied with this which distracts the minds of the peasantry, set interminable pacific warfare, determined on a in with extraordinary severity in Ireland. Po prosecution, and an indictment was accordingly tatoes in less than usual quantities had been executed against him and several of his 2280planted in Ireland, and such even then had ciates. The grand jury found true bills against suffered under the epidemic which afterward them; and although they threw every possible made such fatal ravages in the country. Two obstacle in the way of the proceedings, they hundred thousand persons were without food; were successfully carried through. Mr. O'Conand their sufferings were aggravated by great nell withdrew his demurrer, and actually plead. severity of weather, and want of clothing, food, ed guilty to some counts in the indictment. and fuel. The peasants crowded in thousands This was so unexpected a result that it natuinto the towns, where they introduced contagion rally created a suspicion of some secret underand death. When Parliament met in spring, standing or agreement with the Government one of their first measures was to vote £50,000 Mr. Stanley, however, the Irish Secretary, upon for the relief of the starving peasantry; but being questioned on the subject in the House of though this evinced a sympathy with their Commons, emphatically denied that there was

sufferings, it did no good except alle any such understanding, and declared in the 2 Ann. Reg. 1831" 302 viating immediate want, for it was most solemn way, “It is the unalterable determ303;' Roe- nearly all expended in forming use ination of the law-officers in Ireland to let the back, ii. 19, less roads, and making good roads law take its course against him." But in mak20. bad ones.a

ing that declaration that highly-gifted nobleman The declared object of all these movements was not yet aware of the degradation vhieh was to procure a repeal of the Union, and un sooner or later awaits all who, for political par wearied were the efforts, innumerable the shifts, poses, ally themselves with popular demagogoes of Mr. O'Connell to keep up the agitation for – Mr. O'Connell was never brought up for juda **The law recognizes the fair and legitimate exercise

ment! The Reform Bill was coming on in the of the right of petition, and protects them in the full exer

House of Commons; a general election night cise of that right; but it does not warrant any assemblies at no distant period be anticipated; the sup having a manifest and direct tendency to a violation of the port of the Catholic leaders in and out of Parlispublic peace, under whatever name, or for whatever professed object they are assembled. Therefore any assem

inent might be required by Government, and blies of persons, whether collected under pretense of pe- the haughty spirit of Earl Grey yielded to the titioning, or of public exhibitions of strength and skill, or necessities of his situation. Nothing was done under any other pretense whatever, if from their number,

against O'Connell: he openly braved and abused acts, place, or times of meeting, or other circumstances preceding or accompanying them, they excite in the minds of the Government, but he and his party support his Majesty's well-disposed subjects reasonable fears that the public peace will be thereby violated, and the lives and properties of the King's subjects thereby endangered ; or

i Pari. Des if they be so constituted or conducted as to induce reason | fifteen years longer their unchecked ii. 494 ; able and well-founded apprehensions that the motives and

nd Ann. Rre objects of the persons so assembling are not the fair and

1831, 317 legal exercise of constitutional rights and privileges, but the accomplishment of alterations in the laws and consti-' * "Let us be in no hurry. Events in England and a tution of the realm by means of intimidation, and by dem. the continent of Europe are working for us. Every sue onstration of physical force, or by any other than legal ceeding day weakens the supporters of despotism in every and constitutional means; all these, and such like assem clime and country ; each successive day strengthens the blies, however composed, or with whatever view collect-friends of cheap government and free institutions. Per ed, are illegal, and are by the law denominated unlawful tience, my dear countrymen, and Ireland will achieve one assemblies.' And it is the duty of all magistrates within more bloodless, stainless change. Since I was born sbe whose jurisdiction such assemblies are called together has achieved two such glorious political revolutions. The (being first satisfied of their illegal nature), by all lawful first was in 1782, when she conquered legislative BE means within their power to prevent such meetings, and pendence; the second in 1829, when she won for ter in to suppress and disperse them."--Ann. Reg., 1831, p. 301, tory freedom of conscience: the third and best remains 302. It is impossible to state the law more clearly than is behind-the restoration of a domestic and reformned Legis here done, and it was laid down in exactly the same terms lature by the repeal of the Union. This we will also by Lord Tenterden and the Court of King's Bench in Mr. achieve if we persevere in a legal, constitutional, and Hunt's case. They form a curious commentary on the peaceable course. Let my advice but be followed, and I meetings at Birmingham, Manchester, and Glasgow, by will venture to assert that the Union can not last twa which the Reform Bill was carried, and the monster meet- years longer."-ROEBUCK, vol. 11. p. 22, 23. ings by which for so many years the germs of improve. "The Crown has procured a verdict against Mr. ment in Ireland were crushed.

O'Connell, and it will undoubtedly call him up to receiro

in 11

On February 11, Lord Althorpe brought for difference of opinion. They consisted chiefly of.

98. ward the budget, which, although an increase in the duties on wine, colonial timThe budget, not of much moment in a financial ber, raw cottons, steamboat passengers, and which is de- point of view, as its leading provi- half a per cent. on the transfers of funded propfeated. sions were defeated in Parliament, erty.* These taxes were considerable in point was yet attended with very important results of amount, but they were far more so in point in a political, as that very defeat opened the of principle, for they indicated in an unmiseyes of Government to the necessity of concili- takable manner the new interests which were ating their Radical allies, and had no small in- rising to the government of the State, and the fluence in the construction of the Reform Bill, old ones whose influence was declining, and now under the consideration of the Cabinet. which were in consequence to be subjected to The preceding year had been one of unsparing taxation. For the first time in English history, and unflinching economy, which had brought a duty was to be imposed on funded property; a considerable and real excess of income over and by the equalization of the duties on Baltic expenditure. Lord Althorpe, basing his calcu- and Canadian timber, and on Cape and foreign lations on that year, estimated the national in- wines, the chief colonies of the empire would come in round numbers at £50,000,000, and the lose the benefit of protection on the staple arexpenditure at £46,850,000, leaving an antici- ticle of their industry. These projects might pated surplus of £3,150,000. Instead, however, be agreeable to some classes of the community, of reserving this surplus, as it should have been, but they were eminently distasteful to others; for the reduction of the national debt, it was re- and the latter were those who, by the possessolved to take off taxes to more than the whole sion of the close boroughs, had hitherto ruled amount, and in lieu thereof to impose other the State. From the very first, accordingly, a taxes, which it was thought would be less bur- violent clamor was raised against the proposed densome to the people. The taxes taken off he new taxes; and so vehement did it soon beestimated at £4,080,000, and the taxes to be come, that two days afterward the Chancellor imposed at £2,740,000, thereby reducing the of the Exchequer was obliged to declare in Paranticipated clear surplus to £1,800,000 a year! liament, that the proposed tax on funded transA woeful reduction, when it is recollected that, fers was abandoned, and that, in consequence, when the new system of finance began, and he could not remit the duties on tobacco and present popularity was looked for instead of glass. The proposed duty on steamboat pas

ultimate good, the Sinking Fund was sengers was also abandoned, and that of id. a ! Mirror of Parliament, I

1. £15,000,000, at which level it might pound on raw cottons reduced to gths of id. 1831, 169; ' have been retained but for the im- The timber duties also were given up, by not Ann. Reg. mense reduction of indirect taxes being pressed to a division. In a word, the pro1831, 12

25, forced on by the contraction of the posed budget was entirely abandoned, and the 129. currency.

defeat of Ministers was so obvious that they This was a sufficiently alarming state of finan- must have gone out had they not, 90

the 1 Ann. Reg. сes, with a view to the ultimate soly trusted to the sheet-anchor of the is

1831, 139, Description ency and resources of the country. | Reform Bill, which was essentially 140Parl. of taxes to But it was rendered doubly import- modified by this calamitous issue of Deb. ii. 526, be taken off

en off ant with reference to present inter- | their first financial measures. 530. and put on.

0h ests, by the description of taxes. Meanwhile a committee of the Cabinet was which were proposed to be removed, and those sitting, and actively engaged with the 30 which were to be imposed. The principal taxes formation of the projected Reform Committee which were to be taken off were those on to- Bill. The committee consisted of Lord on the Re

noform Bill. bacco, sea-borne coal, tallow candles, and print- Durham (Earl Grey's son-in-law, and form ed calicoes; and no one could deny that the who was perfectly acquainted with his views reduction of these duties would be a very con- on the subject), Lord Duncannon, Sir James siderable relief to the industrious classes of the Graham, and Lord John Russell. The instruccommunity. But with regard to the new taxes tions of the Cabinet to this committee were to be imposed, there was much more room for quite general, but they amounted to this, "that judgment on it." - Mirror of Parliament, 1831, p. 281. * The budget proposed stood as follows: Such were Mr. Stanley's words, in which he was un

Taken off doubtedly sincere, but he was overruled by the Cabinet.

Tobacco ....... The excuse put forward for this discreditable act-viz.,

...... £1,400,000 Newspapers .......

190,000 that the act under which O'Connell had been convicted ex

Sea-borne Coal.

830,000 pired before he could be brought up to receive judgmentis unfounded both in fact and in law. He pleaded guilty on

Tallow Candles...

420,000 Printed Calicoes...

500,000+ Feb. 5, and the Parliament was dissolved on April 22, and

Glass .............

600,000 every lawyer knows that though an Act of Parliament may

Auctions ...

60,000 be temporary in its duration, the punishment of a crime

Miscellaneous .....

80,000 committed while it was in force may be inflicted or continue long after. In truth, the whole affair was a mere

£4,080,000 compromise of justice for expedience, or rather party am

Laid on bition : and it was discussed as such in the cabinet of

Cape Wines ......

£240,000 Dublin, and produced an estrangement between Lord Clon

Colonial Timber....

600,000 curry and Mr. O'Connell, and such a violent altercation

Raw Cotton ........

500,000 between the former and the Attorney-General (Mr. Black

Coals exported ..

100,000 burn), who insisted for punishment, that the Lord-Lieu

Steamboat Passengers

100,000 tenant was obliged to take a pledge from both it should

Transfers in funds .......

1,200,000 go no further. "I strongly urged upon Lord Anglesea,"

£2,740.000 says Lord Cloncurry, the prudence of allowing Mr.O'Con- | -- Ann. Reg., 128, 129; Parl. Deb. (new series), ii. 411, nell to escape, as the infliction of a nominal punishment, 414. which could only have endured a few weeks, would only

+ Though this tax produced only £500,000 a year, it was stated by have the appearance of impotent malice."-LORD CLON the Chancellor of the Exchequer that the loss it inflicted on the coniCURRY's Recollections, quoted in ROEBUCK, Vol. il. p. 60. inunity was £2,500,000.-Parl. Deb., ii. 414.

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