be enabled to establish a republic, full, I have onded his amendment, and it was negatived no doubt, of energy-not wanting, I have no without a division. Posterity will probably doubt, in talent—but fatal, in my conscience I reverse the sentence, as it has already done believe, to our mixed form of government, and the unanimous vote of the National Assembly ultimately destructive of all those usages and finding Louis XVI. guilty, and come to regard

Den practices which have long insured to the contraction of the currency, and introducAnn. Reg. Pras 1832. 43. . us a large share of peace and prosper- tion of Free Trade, to which he referred the 44 ; Parl. ity, and which have made and pre- | whole existing distress, as the real Deb. xi. served this the proudest kingdom in cause of all the convulsions into

inte i Ann. Reg. 729, 780.

1832, 31. the annals of the world.”

| which the nation had been thrown.'' The third reading of the bill was carried, on But how insensible soever the House of Com230 March, in the Commons, after mons, during the heat of the reform

98. Third reading a very long discussion in commit- contest, might be to the real causes De carried in the tee, by a majority of 116, in a which had induced the general dis- state of the Commons by

House of 594, being less than the tress, and with it the desire for public rev. 116, and Lord J. Russell's majority on the second reading, change, its effects were soon brought enue. closing decla- but larger by 7 than the final di- to light in a form which could neither be overration. vision on the first bill. Lord John looked nor mistaken. The revenue exhibited March 23.

. Russell closed his arduous task a falling off to a most alarming extent. On with these remarkable words, which, without October 3d, the Chancellor of the Exchequer doubt, expressed in good faith the opinion of brought forward his second budget for the year, Government regarding the measure: “With re- the first having been abandoned, as a Ante. c. spect to the expectations of the Government, I already stated, and he was obliged xxii. 9 103, will say that, in proposing this measure, they to admit a very considerable defal- 104. have not acted lightly; but, after much con- cation in the principal articles of revenue. sideration, they were induced to think, a year The Customs, in the preceding quarter, had ago, that a measure of this kind was necessary, fallen £644,000 below the corresponding quarif they would stand between the abuses which ter in the preceding year, and the Excise, in the they wished to correct and the convulsions they same period, no less than £1,909,000. Upon desired to avoid. I am convinced that, if Par- the whole, the Chancellor of the Exchequer liament should refuse to entertain a measure estimated the revenue at £47,250,000, and the of this nature, they would place in collision expenditure at £46,756,000, leaving an apparthat party which, on the one hand, opposed ent excess of income of £500,000 a year. But all reform in the Commons House of Parlia. so far were these expectations from being realment, and that which, on the other, desired a ized, that the total income, deducting the cost reform extending to universal suffrage. The of collection from both sides, for the year end. consequence of this would be, that much blood ing 5th January, 1852, was only would be shed in the struggle between the con £46,424,000, and the total expendi- Ann

3 Ann. Reg. tending parties; and I am perfectly convinced ture £47,123,000, leaving a deficit 290, and for

that the British constitution would of £700,000 a year, which of course 1832, 229, 2 Parl. Deb. raDeb. perish in the conflict. I move, sir, more than extinguished the last 23

230; App. xi. 780.

to Chron. that this bill do now pass.”

remnants of the Sinking Fund. Before following the bill to its next stage, Ireland also, before the end of the year, ex

97. and recording the momentous conGeneral dis- flict between the Crown and the de- such difficulties by the withdrawing of, and narrowing the tress in the mocracy which ensued in the Upper

circulation, without a proportionate reduction of taxation, country, and

by which the incomes of all those classes but those who Mr. Hunt's House, it is necessary to mention lived upon the taxes are reduced one half in value, the motion re- two circumstances which occurred greatest distresses existed ; that these were aggravated garding it. at this period, which threw an im

by the baleful system called Free Trade, by which a com

petition of foreign silks, gloves, and other articles is perportant light both on the causes that had pro

mitted with our own manufactures ; that by these means duced the reform passion, and the effect its grat- the people have been driven to desperation and frenzy; ification was likely to have on the prosperity

and that to these causes are to be attributed those incen

diary proceedings going on in the country."- Ann. Reg., and welfare of the nation. Before the first half 1831, . 13.** of the year 1831 had passed, all branches of in * The income and expenditure for the year 1831, as actdustry in the country had come to be sensibly

intry had come to be sensibly | ually realized, stood as follows: affected by the consternation which generally


Customs .. prevailed, and the feeling of danger which ex

....£16,516,271 Excise.....

16,303,025 isted on the part of the holders of property Stamps.....

6,947,829 in regard to the security of their possessions. Taxes.......

4,864,343 Before the end of the year this feeling had be

Post-office ......

1,530,205 Lesser Payments...

262,757 come so strong that enterprise and specula

£46,424,430 tions of all sorts were paralyzed, expenditure

EXPENDITURE. was generally contracted, and industry of ev

Interest of Funded Debt ......

£24,372,894 ery kind in consequence became depressed to Terminable Annuities

3,318.688 a most alarming degree. Mr. Hunt, the Radi Interest of Unfunded Debt

649,633 Civil List, etc.

1,548,772 eal member for Preston, brought this under the


7,216,292 notice of the House of Commons, by an amend. Navy........

5,689,858 ment on the Address, which expressed the feel


1,472,944 Miscellaneous .....

2,854.013 ing of the democratic classes in regard to the remote causes of their distresses. * No one sec

£47,123,465 Deduct income, net.....

46,424.440 That by the present critical and alarming state of Excess of expenditure over income........£699,025 our country, when trade and manufactures are reduced to 1 Ann. Reg., 1832, p. 229, 230. App. to Chron.

hibited a most afflicting increase of predial | tility of the Peers to the bill was to be over

99 outrage and disorder. Then was seen come. The King had, in the outset of the disState of how utterly fallacious an idea it had cussions on the Reform Bill, distinctly declared Ireland. been that the exclusion of the Cath- to his Ministers that he would not dissolve the olics from the Legislature had been the real House of Commons if it should reject the bill, cause of the disturbances of the country, and nor create peers if the Upper House did the how little their admission into it had done to same. “He had been induced, however," says remove them. So far from it, their success on the Whig historian, “under the mixed inf\uthe former occasion had only made them more ence of vanity and alarm, to dissolve the inaudacious; and the agitators and priests over tractable Parliament of 1830; but he declared the whole country had now banded the people he never would consent to any coercion of the together in a general combination for resistance Peers by means of creation."i The

1 Roebuck, to tithes, which led to the most frightful trag- Cabinet, however, distinctly saw that

ii. 223. edies. The misery and crimes of the people matters had now come to such a point“were daily increasing, and never had this in- that such a measure was unavoidable, to avoid crease been so great as since emancipation had a rejection of the bill; and great division of passed. Murder, robbery, searching for arms, opinion existed in the Ministry on the subject were committed in open day, and by such large Lord Brougham and Lord Durham strenuously bodies as set resistance at defiance even by the supported the measure, which they represented armed police. In daylight they dug up the as unavoidable, and even urged a creation of sixpotatoes in the fields. Five were shot dead ty, to neutralize an anticipated majority to that while attacking a house in Tipperary; but amount. Lord Grey, on the other hand, manithis had no effect in deterring from similar fested the utmost repugnance, and declared that outrages. Nine persons were killed during a he could never bring himself to acquiesce in any conflict between the insurgents and police at such unconstitutional measure. Lord Durham Castle Pollard, in the county of Westmeath, on combated Earl Grey's objections in a written Mov 09 the 23d of May. Twelve were killed memoir, dated in January, 1832; and Sir James

and twenty wounded during an affray Graham recommended the creation of a small June 18. at Newton barry, in Wexford, origina-batch of peers in the first instance, to show ting in a sale for distraining of tithes. The cor-that Government were determined, and had oner's jury, after sitting nine days, could arrive the power to enforce their determination. The Lann. Reg, at no verdict, six Catholics being on discussions in the Cabinet were long and anx1831, 324, the one side, and six Protestants on ious; and when Parliament met, on 6th De326. the other."

cember, no decision was arrived at on the subAs winter approached, and the severities of ject. It was not till the first week of Janu

100. nature were added to the animosi- ary, 1832, that the repugnance of Lord Grey Dreadful ties of man, these outrages assumed a was overcome; and a majority of the Cabitithe out. still more sombre and alarming char- net had resolved to present the crea- ,, rages in

2 Roebuck, Wexford acter. Payment of tithe generally tions to the King as a Cabinet meas- is. 223. 224. and New- ceased; when it was recovered, it was ure. tonbarry. only by distraining, which gener- Meanwhile the King, who also foresaw that ally led to conflicts between the police and the matter would ultimately come

102. peasantry, ending in wounds and death, term- to his decision, was in a state of the The Ki inating in still more unseemly struggles for utmost anxiety and agitation, and violently agivengeance or impunity in the courts of justice. he repeatedly and vehemently de- tated, and reIn the end of November, five of the clared that he considered a crea

neo luctantly conNov

sents. nov. 23. peasantry were shot dead by the mili- tion of peers a revolutionary protary in a tithe riot, when the latter had been ceeding, and tending directly to the destruction assailed by a band of ruffians; but soon after of the House of Lords. It was on the 1st JanDo u the insurgents took a bloody revenge. uary, for the first time, that the majority of the

14. A strong party of police having gone Cabinet was brought round to the creation of to protect a legal officer employed to serve a peers, and on the 3d of the same month, after tithe notice, the peasantry assembled in multi- a long conference with Earl Grey, he was, with tudes on the road-sides, armed with pitchforks, great reluctance, induced to give his consent to bludgeons, and scythes, and having closed with the measure of peer-making," as he termed it, the procession of the police, the commanding if, on reflection, the Cabinet should remain of officer and twelve of his men were killed. Such opinion that it was absolutely unavoidable; but, was the ferocity of the mob, that they beat to be satisfied of that, he required all the memout the brains of five of the police, who lay on bers of the Cabinet to give him their opinion the ground weltering in their blood, and put in writing; adding, at the same time, that noto death the captain's son, a boy of ten years thing but the most stern necessity would in3 Ann. Reg. of age, who was with the proces- duce him to consent to so fatal a measure, and 1831, 324, sion, and the pony on which he that, if done at all, he would prefer doing it at 326, 328. rode!

once to proceeding by successive small creations. While these frightful scenes were going for- | He insisted, also, that the new peerages, with

101. ward, and the country, from one the exception of two, or at most three, should Resolution end to the other, was in a state of be in favor either of the eldest sons or heirs. of the Cabi- the most violent excitement, from presumptive of peers, and he expressed a bope net to create the dread of yet greater calamities that twenty-one might be sufficient. These con

impending over it, the Cabinet were ditions he said he considered essential to the anxiously engaged in the consideration of the preservation of the hereditary character of the all-important question, how the declared hos- peerage, and he expressed the utmost alarm at


the revolutionary spirit which was abroad in towns, meetings attended by thirty thousand or the country, and entreated his Ministers, in the forty thousand persons were held, at which the 1 Roebuck, most earnest manner, to do every most violent language was used, and the most ii. 226, 227, thing in their power to check and revolutionary ensigns were exhibited. Charles note. restrain it.?

X., from his windows in Holyrood, gazed on a In the mean time a negotiation was secretly scene in the King's Park of Edinburgh which

102 commenced, through Sir Herbert recalled the opening events of the French RevSecret negoti- Taylor, the King's private secreta-olution; and a speaker at Newcastle reminded ations with ry, between his Majesty and some the Sovereign that a “fairer head than that of the waverers. of the Opposition peers, particu- Adelaide had ere this rolled on the scaffold." larly Lord Wharncliffe and Lord Harrowby, The object of all these petitions and speeches the object of which was to induce them to vote was the samemto induce the Lords, by threats for the second reading of the bill as a matter of revolution, to pass the bill, and the King by of absolute necessity, and in the hope of effect similar threats to create peers sufficient to coing some important improvements upon it in erce them if they refused to do so. The Nacommittee. The fixed opinion of the King, tional Union, on 3d May, spoke the voice

May 3. which he expressed on all occasions, was, that of all the unions when it said that there mayo a large measure of reform had become indis- was reason to expect that, if the Lords denied or pensable, but that a creation of peers to effect it impaired the bill, “the payment of taxes would would give an irremediable wound to the con- cease, the other obligations of so

1 Martineau, il stitution, and that every possible effort should ciety would be disregarded, and 56, 57 : Ann. be made to avert so dire an alternative. The the ultimate consequence might be Reg. 1832, 170, influence of his Majesty, as well as the obvious the extinction of the privileged or- 171; Personal

knowledge. reason of the thing, had a decisive effect upon ders." a considerable number of peers, respectable Amidst this tumult and anarchy the second alike by their talents and their position, and reading of the bill came on in the 105. the result appeared in the vote which followed, House of Peers. The debate com- Second readthough it did not avert the catastrophe which menced on the 9th, and was not con- in

ing of the bill

carried by a was apprehended. Indeed, to any one who cluded till seven o'clock on the morn- majority of calmly considers the circumstances of the Briting of the 13th, when it was carried nine.. ish empire at this period, it must be evident by a majority of NINE. The solicita- April 13. that the view taken by the King and these peers tions of the King, the threats of the people, had was well founded, and that there was now no not been without their effects. Seventeen peers alternative between an extensive reform and rev. had changed their vote; twelve, who had forolution. The nation had been worked up to merly been absent, now appeared, and voted such a pitch by the long dependence of the ques- for the bill; ten, who had voted against it, tion and the efforts of the press, that it had be- were now absent. Among the twelve were the come altogether ungovernable, and it had de- Archbishop of York, and the Bishops of London, termined upon a change, which, for good or for St. David's, Worcester, and Chester. “It was evil, must be conceded. “A majority," says the bishops," says the Liberal historian, “ who Roebuck, “ of the wealthy, intelligent, and in- saved the bill this time, but this deed

Martincau, structed, as well as the poor and la- did not restore the credit they had : Murtineau,

ii. 57. ii. 56, 57;

au, borious millions, had now resolved lost in October.” It never does so: Ann.'Reg. to have the Reform Bill. They had concession to democracy never either satisfies 1832, 100, resolved to have it, if possible, by its desires or commands its esteem. . 102 ; Roeo peaceable means, but, if that were it is ascribed to fear, and that gen

3 Part. Deb. buck, ii.

to lear, and tha sen xii. 454. ve not possible, BY FORCE."

erates nothing but contempt.: Decisive proof of this ungovernable and rev. It soon appeared, however, that the object 104 olutionary spirit speedily appeared of this defection had been to meet

106. Revolution during the three weeks which imme- the wishes of the Sovereign, or avert Lord U. ary meetings diately preceded the second reading the wrath of the people, but by no hurst's to coerce the of the bill in the Upper House. The means to pass the bill entire in obe- amendment Peers.

political unions and Radicals turn-dience to the mandates of either. On fairies by ed the Easter recess to good account in the fur- May 7, when Parliament met after therance of agitation to overawe and coerce the recess, and when a meeting of not less than the House of Peers. The assembly of numbers one hundred thousand persons was held in Birmade, and violence of the speeches delivered at mingham, Lord Lyndhurst proposed in comthe meetings which they called in all the great mittee to defer the consideration of the distowns, much exceeded any thing witnessed even franchising clauses in the bill till the enfranduring the earlier stages of this disastrous con-chising clauses had been considered. “Begin," test. Every thing breathed approaching civil said he, “by enfranchising, by conferring rights war. Argument or persuasion was little thought and privileges, by granting boons and favors, of: threats, denunciations of vengeance, predic- and not by depriving a portion of the commutions of approaching and prepared rebellion, nity of the privileges which they at present enformed the staple of the harangues. The great joy.” “Should this amendment be carried," object was to make as imposing as possible a said Earl Grey, in reply, “it may be necessary display of numbers and physical strength, and for me to consider what course I shall take. I certainly the multitudes assembled did give fear. | dread the effect of the House of Lords opposing ful evidence of the extent to which the passions itself as an insurmountable barrier to what the of the people had at length come to be stirred. people think necessary for the good Part. Deb At Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Manches- I government of the country.". The xü. 717, ter, Leeds, Paisley, Sheffield, and all the great | House being in committee, proxies 715

could not be taken, and, after an angry debate, the leaders of political unions, but by some of the amendment was carried by a majority of the greatest and proudest magnates of the land. 35—the numbers being 151 to 116.

Lord Milton, now Earl Fitzwilliam, desired the Ministers next day held a cabinet council, at tax-gatherer who called upon him at this time,

107. which it was resolved to resign un- to call again a week after, as "he was not cerMinisters less the King would give them power tain that circumstances might not arise which resign, and to create a number of peers sufficient would oblige him to resist the payment.” The nation is to give them such a working majori. Sovereign, so recently the object of the most accepted. ty as might be necessary to carry the fulsome flattery, could no longer show himself May 9. bill unimpaired in its leading provi. | in public without being insulted. * 1 Mirror of sions. The King refused to do so, and the The Queen, to whose influence the Parliament, Ministers immediately tendered their resigna- change was generally ascribed, was 1832, 2456. tions, which were accepted. Lord Althorpe the victim of general abuse, and the public made this announcement in the House of Com- meetings often ended with three groans for mons on the 9th, and Lord Grey did the same the Queen.”+ Then were seen the infernal plain the House of Lords. Matters had now come cards in the streets of London, “To stop the to the crisis which had long been foreseen on Duke, go for gold;" and with such success was both sides. The Crown and the House of Lords the suggestion adopted, that in three days no had taken their stand to resist the bill, the less than £1,800,000 was drawn out of the Bank

Dann Commons to force it upon them. of England in specie. In Manchester, placards xii. 787;

SED. When Charles I. planted his standard appeared in the windows, “Notice-No taxes Roebuck, at Nottingham the crisis was scarcely paid till the Reform Bill is passed;" and a peii. 281, 282; more violent, nor the dreadful altern-tition, signed by 25,000 persons, was speedily Martineau, ii. 59, 60.

10, ative of civil war to all appearance got up, calling on the Commons to stop the supmore imminent.'

plies till this was done. The Common Council In this extremity the King applied to his for- of London petitioned the House of Commons to

108. mer Chancellor, Lord Lyndhurst, who the same effect. Attempts were made to seduce The King advised his Majesty to send for the some privates of the Scots Greys, then stationsends for Duke of Wellington. The old soldier ed at Birmingham. In a word, Great Britain the Dukeof Wellington at once obeyed the perilous summons. was on the verge of a civil war; the leaders of to form a “I should have been ashamed," said the political unions were quite prepared to emministry. he, "to show my face in the streets, bark in it; and although it is not yet known if I had refused to assist my Sovereign in the dis- how far these frantic designs were countenanced tressing circumstances in which he was placed.” by persons in authority, it was proved at the The King frankly stated to the Duke of Wel- trial of Smith O'Brien, in 1848, that, 2 Roebuck. lington that, in his opinion, a large measure of at this period, questions of a very ii. 291, 292; reform was necessary; and the Duke, though sinister kind were put to a distin- Ma


ii. 65, 66; strongly of opinion that such a measure was guished officer at Manchester by a Ann. Res. unnecessary, consented to assist the King in person in the confidence of a late cabi. 1832, 172, forming an administration on this basis ; but he net minister. 24

173. declined the situation of Premier, or indeed any

* "At a quarter past twelve the royal carriage reached situation in the Cabinet, for himself. Sir R.

Hounslow, where a strong guard of honor of the 9th LanPeel, to whom the premiership was offered, at cers joined the royal carriage, in which were the King and once refused it, saying, that "no authority nor

Queen. The postillions passed on at a rapid rate, and on

entering the town of Brentford, the people, who had asexample of any man or number of men could

sembled in great numbers, began to groan, hiss, and make shake his determination not to accept office the most tremendous noises that can be imagined. The upon such conditions." Upon this determina escort kept behind and close to the carriage-windows, or

in all probability mischief would have ensued, as we were tion being reported to the King, the Duke, at

told a number of clots of dirt were hurled at the carriage. his request, immediately agreed to accept the Along the road to London the people expressed their feelperilous post of prime-minister. Mr. Manners ings in a similar manner; and when the carriage entered

the Park, the mob saluted their Majesties with yells and Sutton was to be leader of the House of Com

execrations of every description, which we refrain from 3 Mirror of mons; Mr. Baring, Chancellor of the

publishing."-Sun, May 12, 1832. Parliament, Exchequer; and Lord Lyndhurst, + " Mr. Hume told the multitude, that there were 150 1832, 2074 : Chancellor; and for the next five

peers against them, but he did not know how many woRoebuck, ii.

men, though he had heard there were some'-an allusion 285, 286; :. days the Duke was busily engaged i

which was immediately followed by three groans for the Parl. Deb.

Queen;' and her Majesty shortly after, while taking an xii. 997, 107. tration.

airing, was grossly insulted by the populace." - Ann.

Reg., 1832, p. 172. No sooner was the resignation of the Minis

The petition from Birmingham bore: “ Your petition100 . try known, and that the King had

ers find it declared, that the people of England may have Vehement sent for Lord Lyndhurst and the Duke arms for their defense suitable to their condition, and as excitement of Wellington, than a storm arose in

allowed by law; and your petitioners apprehend that this

right will be put in force generally, and that the whole of in the coun- the country more violent than any the people of England will think it necessary to have arms try.

which had been yet experienced, and for their defense, in order that they may be prepared for which demonstrated how well founded was the

any circumstances which may arise. Your petitioners,

therefore, pray your honorable House forthwith to present opinion of the King that an extensive measure

a petition to his Majesty not to allow the resignation of of reform had now become necessary. Meet-his Ministers, but instantly to create a sufficient number ings were called in all the great towns, at which of peers to insure the carrying of the bill of reform unim

paired into a law; and that your honorable House will the most violent language was used; and insur

instantly withhold all supplies, and adopt any other meas

ures whatever which may be necessary to carry the bill not instantly carried, and the late Ministry re- of reform, and to insure the safety and liberty of the counstored to office. Non-payment of taxes was uni

try.”-Birmingham Petition, May 12, 1832 ; Ann. Reg.,

| 1832, p. 172. versally recommended, and this not merely by I. "The political unions every where began to organize 184, 185.'


Great as were the difficulties in the way of they will be divided: in short, in taking office

the formation of a new administra- they will present a most uniserable example of 110.

ime tion, from this vehement excitement impotent ambition, and appear as if they wishThe Duke fails in of the public mind, it was not these ed to show to the world a melancholy example forming an which caused the attempt to fail. The of little men bringing a great empire i Parl. Deb. Adminis- insurmountable obstacles were found to destruction.” A curious proof of xii. 856, tration.

one in the division of opinion which pre-excitement, as Mr. Roebuck remarks, 857; Roevailed among those who would necessarily form when we recollect that among these 305: An the new Cabinet, on the subject of reform. The little men “the Duke of Wellington Reg. 1832, courage of the Duke was equal to the emergen- was numbered."1* cy, and he showed that he was willing to brave All was now accomplished. The King, at all the dangers, and incur all the obloquy con- the eleventh hour, had made an efsequent on accepting office, on condition of car- fort to assert the independence of The King rying through an extensive measure of reform, the Crown, and avert the degrada- submits, rather than desert his Sovereign on this crisis. tion of the House of Peers, but with- and gives Sir R. Peel, on the other hand, who was sensi-out success. A large majority of authority to tively alive to the danger of change of conduct, the House of Commons had support-wear

create peers. felt " that, if he was now to carry a measure to ed the Whigs in their attempt to force the two which he had on principle given a most decided other branches of the Legislature, and nothing opposition, and which he had declared to be remained to the Sovereign but submission. dangerous to the existence of our monarchical | The only resource competent to a constitutioninstitutions and to the peace of the country, he al monarch in such a crisis—that of appealing might obtain power at the moment, but he to the people—was sure to fail in this instance. would ruin himself in the estimation of the ju- In the excited state of the public mind, a still dicious, the honest, and the instructed portion larger majority in favor of the bill would inof his countrymen. He saw clearly, from the evitably be returned. The King saw the neexcitement which the retirement of Lord Grey cessity of his situation, and yielded, as by the created, that the Reform Bill must be carried; spirit of the constitution he was bound to do. and he was desirous, for many reasons, that it Earl Grey and his Cabinet were reinstated in should become law under the auspices of its office, on a permission given in writing our authors and original proposers." These were that they might create as many peers as say the sentiments of the great majority of his fol. might be necessary to secure a majority in the

Par). Deb. lowers, and the consequence was that House of Lords. The reluctance of the King xii. 1073, the negotiation failed; and on the was painfully manifest, but he had no alterna

74; Roe- 17th it was announced in the House tive, and the decisive paper was given to the buck, ii. 286 ; Anna

of Commons that the commission Lord-Chancellor, who, with Earl Greyt and Reg. 1832, granted to the Duke of Wellington Sir Herbert Taylor, were alone present at 175. had failed.

this memorable interview. All stood but the Meanwhile the Commons had not been idle. Sovereign the whole time—a thing.

2 Roebuck, ili. On the very night when Lord Al- unprecedented with that courteous

courteous ii. 331, 337. Lord Ebring. thorpe announced Earl Grey's res monarch.21 ton's motion ignation, Lord Ebrington moved for in the House

* The violence of the public press at this period was of Commons a call of the House, and an address

such as, in more calm and happier times, appears scarcely carried by to his Majesty on the present state credible. Take, for example, the Times of May 14, 1832: eighty. of public affairs. The motion was * But of the multitudinous feelings produced by this temresisted by the whole strength of the Tories,

porary overthrow of a nation's confidence, there is none

so active or so general as that of astonishment at the inand carried by a majority of 80 only-the

dividual who it is now notorious has tripped up the heels numbers being 288 to 208. This majority, of Lord Grey. What, the Duke of Wellington! The though sufficiently large to insure the creation

commander-in-chief of all the ultra anti-reformers in the

kingdom now offers himself as Minister-nay, has for of peers and the forcing through of the bill,

soine months been making fierce love to the office, with a full and undisguised resolution to bring in with his own hands a strong and satisfactory' reform bill! There

may be dexterity in such conduct-there may be generalreading of the last Reform Bill the majority

ship-there may be food for incontinent exultation and had been 139. This change, though mainly chuckling at Apsley House ; but it affords evidence also

of more ignoble faction, of a lust for office more sordid and execrable, of a meanness of inconsistency more humili

ating and more shameful, than we had even suspected the some alarm in the minds of the Reformers, Duke of Wellington of being capable of affixing to his own

political character. As for success in such a course of | imposture, it is, let us once for all warn his Grace, hope

less." It is curious to contrast this passage with the just cluding him from the next Parliament. The

e and splendid eulogium on the Duke in the columns of the debate was characterized by extreme violence same journal twenty years afterward, on occasion of his rather than great ability, and the passions on death.

It was in these terms: “The King grants permisboth sides were so strongly roused as to ex

sion to Earl Grey and to his Chancellor, Lord Broughclude the reason. Among the rest, Mr. Ma- am, to create such a number of peers as will be sufficient caulay said, “The new Ministry will go forth to insure the passing of the Reform Bill-first calling to the contest without arms, either offensive or

up peers' eldest sons. WILLIAM R. Windsor, May 17,

1832."-ROEBUCK, vol. ii. p. 331, note. defensive. If they have recourse to force, they **The excitement, anger, and hurt pride of the King will find it vain; if they attempt gagging bills, at this memorable interview were very evident, and mark

ed by unusual circumstances. The one was, that he their members for actual insurrection. Meetings in Lon- | kept Lord Grey and the Chancellor both standing the don were held by day and by night, at which the most vio- | whole time; the other, that Sir Herbert Taylor was kept lent language was employed, not by unknown or inferior in the room. The Chancellor's asking for a written persons, but by men of rank and substance."-ROEBUCK, promise Earl Grey deemed harsh and uncalled for! vol. il. p. 291 ; and Mirror of Parl., 1832, p. 245.

wonder,' said he, as soon as they of the presence, bow

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