plosion; and the French Revolution was tooed on intelligence being received of the events important an event not at once to induce it. in Brussels ; but they assumed the SA The train took fire first in the great commer- most formidable aspect in Leipsic, In Dresden,

cial and manufacturing towns, the Dresden, Brunswick, and Hesse-Cas- Leipsic, and 82. Disturbances

e centres, in all ages and countries, sel. In the first of these cities, ex- Brunswick. in Aix-la-Cha- of independent thought and united tensive mercantile transactions, a great spread pelle and Co- action. No sooner did the disturb- of knowledge, and the vast concourse of stranlogne.

ances, accordingly, break out in gers during the fair, had greatly strengthened August 30.

e Brussels, than they extended to the desire for popular institutions. In the secAix-la-Chapelle and Cologne, in both of which ond, in addition to the general desire for freecities the workmen assembled in tumultuous dom, there was united the discontent of a popucrowds, and began to pillage shops, break ma-lation generally Protestant at a royal family still chines, attack manufactories, and deliver prison- Catholic. In Leipsic, the disturbances, which ers from jail in order to swell the ranks of the originated with the students of the uni..

t. 7. disaffected. These disorders excited the utmost versity, were repressed without any seaların all along the Rhine, in all the principal rious consequences at the end of two days; but cities on which river symptoms of agitation ap- at Dresden the populace for a time gained the peared; and it was only by the general turning ascendant. The Hôtel de Ville and the Hôtel out and firm countenance of the burgher mili- de la Police were both burned, and the tia that they were prevented from breaking out King was obliged to fly from his capital,

Sept. 9. into open insurrection. Greatly alarmed, the and take refuge in the impregnable fortress of Prussian government in haste moved forward Königstein, so celebrated in the wars of Fredseveral veteran regiments of Old Prussia into the erick the Great and Napoleon. At Hesse-CasRhenish provinces; and Prince William of Prus- sel—where the people, in addition to the other sia, on September 9th, addressed a letter to the causes of German discontent, were irritated by authorities there, expressing his resolution not the absence of the Elector, who lived, apart froin to interfere with the internal affairs of France, the Electress, a scandalous life at his palace I Can or the form of its government, but to of Wilhelmshohe, in which his presence was 92, 93 ; An. defend the Prussian dominions from signalized only by arbitrary decrees or acts of Hist. xiii. attack, and maintain the provinces on oppression against his subjects—the disorders 629, 630. the Rhine to the last extremity.1* were not less serious, and were only put down From the banks of the Rhine the agitation by four thousand of the Burgher 1 Ann. Hist.

was communicated like an electric Guard and four hundred regular xiii. 634, 640 ; 83. Convulsions shock through all the cities of the troops.

Cap. iii. 96. in all the north of Germany, though the suc- Still more alarming were the disturbances in north of cess which attended the attempts | Brunswick. On the 6th the pop- 85. Germany.

at insurrection was very various, ulace rose, and, disregarding six- And in Brunsaccording to the vigilance and strength of the teen pieces of cannon placed around wick. Sept. 6. Government in different places, and the fideli- the palace of the reigning sovereign, but which ty which the troops evinced when brought into were never discharged, surrounded the ducal contact with the people. Enough, however, residence, which was soon committed to the appeared to indicate what the events of 1848 flames. The whole pictures and furniture were so fully confirmed that the stability of existing broken to pieces or thrown out of the windows, institutions in Germany rested entirely upon the and the superb pile reduced to ashes. The Duke strength and fidelity of the armed force; that fled in disguise during the darkness of the night, in the midst of feudal manners, institutions, and escaped to London, where he was coldly reand traditions, though repressed by an enormous ceived by the English government, which was military establishment, there existed a deep and aware of the indiscretions and faults on his part widespread spirit of discontent in the industri- which had occasioned so violent an explosion. ous and highly-educated middle classes; and Meanwhile, the Estates of the duchy conferred that, if the time should come when the regular the government, provisionally, on his brother troops were no longer, as in France, to be relied Prince William, in the character of regent, and on in a conflict with the people, or were open- as a matter of necessity he was recognized by

ly to espouse the popular side, so- the courts of London, Berlin, and Vienna. Even 2 Cap. iii. 93, ciety would be shaken to its cen- | the distant capital of Vienna felt the shock. 95; An. Hist. xiii. 626, 629

* tre, and the most dreadful conyul- Assemblages were formed in the streets which sions might be anticipated.

defied the whole power of the police, and were In all the cities where the Teutonic race was dispersed only by the appearance of 2 ann. Hist. predominant, even the military capital of Ba- the cuirassiers; and the dawn of xiii. 631, varia, and the distant metropolis of Denmark, that spirit already appeared, des- 6:34, 637 ;.

Cap. iii. 96 ; disturbances or symptoms of disorder appear- tined at no distant period to threat

Moniteur, *“Le roi m'a chargé de témoigner à ses sujets des pro- en with dissolution the whole Aus- Sept. 12, vinces Rhénanes combien il regrettait de ne pouvoir se trian monarchy.?

1830. rendre au milieu d'eux. Les évènemens survenus en

nl co Frunce nécessitent sa présence dans sa capitale. Cepen. dant le roi est fermement résolu de ne s'immiscer en rien

86. dans les affaires de ce pays, et de laisser le volcan se con

| Political consumer dans son intérieur. Mais si les Français attaquai

d testsin Switzent nos frontières, alors le roi rassemblerait toutes ses forces pour les combattre. Les travaux qui ont été exé tranquil, the burghers of its cities, namu. cutés à Coblentz et qui en font un boulevard puissant de la monarchie, prouvent l'importance que sa majesté attache à la possession des provinces Rhénanes, et sa ferıne résolution de les défendre à toute extrémité.-GUILLAUME.

in perfect tranquillity when the news arrived Coblentz, 9 Septembre, 1830."-Ann. Hist., xiii. 93, note. I of the revolution of July in Paris; and the ex

citement immediately became so violent that was succeeded by Cardinal Capellari, elected it was evident the demand for more popular to the pontifical chair on February 2d, who took institutions could no longer be withstood. Wise- the title of Gregory XVI. ly resolving to yield to a storm which they could But these events, important and startling as not resist, the cantons in which aristocratic in- they were, yielded in ultimate im

S8. stitutions still existed, themselves took the lead portance to an event which took place Chan

e Change in in making the changes which were demanded in this year in Spain, and proved the the order of

Zurich was the tirst which did so. On source of unnumbered calamities to succession Nov 4. the 27th November the local Legisla- both the kingdoms of the Peninsula. "

w in Spain. ture of that city passed a resolution fixing the This was the CHANGE IN THE ORDER OF SUCCESSION representation of the Council at 212 members, to the Spanish crown, as it had now been estab of whom a third were to be returned by the lished for a hundred and twenty years, with city, and two-thirds by the landward part of the concurrence of all the powers of Europe. the canton, fixing the qualification for repre. This order, which strictly excluded females sentatives at twenty-nine years of age, and a from the crown, was an innovation on the old fortune of 5000 francs (£200). This Council law of Spain, which admitted them; but it had was to appoint a smaller body, which was to been established by a decree or pragmatic saneform a constitution, the basis of which was to be tion on 10th September, 1713, on occasion of the popular sovereignty, and an equal division of accession of Philip V. to the throne, and subsethe public burdens. Similar organic changes, in quently ratified by all the powers of Europe, effect, like the Reform Bill in England, amount- and in particular by France and England, by ing to revolution, were brought about in Lu- the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714. It had ever cerne, Soleure, Argovia, St. Gall, and Turgovia, since regulated the succession to the Spanish not without, in some, serious popular disorders crown, and was regarded as a fundamental which disgraced the land and cause of freedom. point in the public law and fixed policy of EuBerne itself, the most aristocratic of all the can- rope. The object of it was not so much any tons, underwent its revolution. The petitions peculiar pecessity for the male succession in the praying for reform and an extension of popular Spanish monarchy beyond other states, but conrights, presented to its Council of State, were siderations of the highest moment for the genso numerous that at length they could no longer eral balance of power. The bequest of the be resisted, and in the beginning of December crown of “Spain and the Indies" to the Duke a meeting of the great Council, which consisted of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., in 1700, by of 217 members, was held, at which it was unan- the King of Spain, had lighted up the flames of imously resolved to put the whole militia of the the War of the Succession in Europe, which country on a war footing, and to appoint a com- burnt fiercely for thirteen years, and were very mittee of eleven to revise the constitution. So imperfectly laid by the Peace of Utrecht in great, however, was the public agitation, that 1714. This treaty was thought by the Tories these measures would not suffice, and the cen to have averted the danger of a union of the tral committee of government accordingly con- crowns of France and Spain on the same head, voked a general assembly of the representatives by entailing the crown of the latter kingdom of all the cantons to meet at Berne on the 23d on the male line. Bolingbroke and Harley, De 04 December. It decreed the levy of sixty who made that treaty, did not perceive, what

” thousand men, to cause the external in the event ere long demonstrated, that it was not dependence of the confederation to be respect the union of the crowns, but the alliance of the ed; but wisely abstained from interfering with kingdoms, which was the real object of danger;

the internal constitutions of the can- that a “family compact" founded on family con1 Ann. Hist. xiii. 674,678.

tons, which were left to their sepa nection might prove as formidable as a union rate Legislatures.

of kingdoms; and that, if the English fleets were Italy also felt the shock, and, from the more outnumbered, and blockaded in their harbors, 87. ardent temperament of its inhabit as they often were in the course of the com

I See Life Convulsions ants, and the circumstance of their century, by those of France and Spain of Marlin Italy. having so long been unaccustomed together, it were of little moment boroughi,

the exercise of any of the rights of freemen, whether it was in virtue of a united c. 11. P with more violence than in the colder latitudes government or a family alliance. 1* of the Alps. In Lombardy and Piedmont the An opportunity now occurred which enabled extreme vigilance of the police, and the pres. the Liberals of Spain to lay the founence of an immense Austrian force, the fidelity dation for a revival of their hopes, Its motives of which could perfectly be relied on, prevented which had been so signally blasted and politieany open convulsions; but the impression was by the universal burst of indignational objetlS not the less decided, and the public passions, against their rule that appeared on the invalong and rigorously repressed, only acquired sion of the Duke d’Angoulême in 1823. The the greater strength from being brooded over King, now advanced in years, had married in in silence. The fermentation was extreme in Bologna and Modena, the two cities of the peni

* In every one of the wars of England against France,

in the course of the eighteenth century, subsequent to insulă most warmly attached to the new insti- | 1714. the

to the

474, 594

1714, the Spanish government took part with the French, tuti

and their united navies always considerably outnumbered Florence overawed by the influence of Austria.

the English. This was particularly the case in the Amer

ican War and the war of the Revolution, in the former of In Rome the effect was very great at first, but

which the French and Spanish tleets, numbering forty. it was ere long superseded by the election of a seven sail of the line, blockaded the English, of twenty

cum new Pope, in consequence of the one sail, in Plymouth ; while, at the outset of the latter, 2 Ann. Hist.

their combined fleets outnumbered those of Great Britain xiii. 684, 688. deato o rius VII1., which

by forty-four line-or-battle ships. -See Alison's lefe of place on the 30th November.' He Marlborough, vol. ii. p. 474, 3d edit.

ssed w

the close of the preceding year CHRISTINA, daugh-lowed this circumstance, what mournful trageter of the King of the Two Sicilies; and the dies it occasioned in all parts of the Peninsula, fêtes consequent on the marriage, which was and how completely, in the end, it has had the graced by the presence of the royal parents of effect of nullifying Spain in the the bride, had been of so magnificent a charac- general balance of power in Eu

rin ni Ann. Hist.

4. xiii. 690, 691. ter as to have recalled the pristine days of the rope. monarchy, and in some degree reconciled even Thus, within less than six months after the the Liberals to the sway of El Rey Assoluto." Revolution of 1830 broke out, and 1 In the spring of this year the Queen was dis-Charles X. had been dethroned, was Resumé of covered to be with child; and as the sex of the the whole face of affairs in Europe the influinfant was of course uncertain, and Don Carlos, changed. Disgust had every where Revolment

ence of the the King's immediate younger brother, was, succeeded to confidence, apprehen- in France failing male issue of the marriage, the heir-ap- sion to security, convulsion to stabil. over Euparent of the monarchy, and the avowed head ity. In vain had Louis Philippe as- rope. of the despotic party, the Liberals resolved sured the Continental sovereigns, and with sinupon a device, which was attended with en-cerity, that he was inclined to abide by existtire success, for altering the order of the sucing treaties, to check the spirit of revolution, to cession, and establishing it in favor of the King's stand between them and the plague. Events issue, whether male or female. By this means had proved that, whatever his intentions were, they hoped to ingraft a war of succession on a his power to carry them into effect was exwar of principles, and gain for themselves an tremely circumscribed. It was evident that ostensible and visible head-a matter of import- there were two governments in Paris, one in ance in all civil wars, but especially in one in the Tuileries and one in the clubs, and that the

Spain, where the people were much latter was more powerful for evil than the for1 Ann. Hist.. xiii. 688, 690.

ti more inclined to attach themselves mer was for good. The spirit of propagandism, · to persons than to things.

nursed in France, and quadrupled in strength By the united influence of the young Queen by its victory there, was now spreading over

90. and the old father-confessor, the King the adjoining states, and had already achieved Promulga- was won over in his old age to this in the most signal triumphs in foreign nations. tion of the trigue, and the decree accordingly ap- The Conservative administration had been overdecree.

peared calling females as well as males turned in England, and a party installed in March 29, to the succession of the throne. To power, based on popular support, and pledged 1830.

render the device the more plausible, to organic changes, with a democratic tendency it was stated in the decree that it was no new or- in the constitution; the Kingdom of the Nethder of succession which was thereby established, erlands had been revolutionized, the King debut that it was a mere transcript of a former de throned at Brussels, and Belgium to all appearcree made by the late king, Charles IV., in 1789, 1 ance irrevocably severed from Holland; the on the requisition of the Cortes. Neither the al barrier of Europe against France had been conleged old decree, however, nor the requisition verted into the outwork of France against Euof the Cortes, were ever produced to give au- rope; Germany had been convulsed, and a thority to the innovation, and it was done with reigning sovereign dethroned; Switzerland subout the privity or concurrence of any of the jected to democratic change, and brought unpowers in Europe which had been parties to der the influence of the clubs in Paris; and in the Treaty of Utrecht, by which the crown Spain the order of succession changed, and a had been entailed on the male line. This, how, visible head given to the democratic party in ever, soon came to be of little moment; for in the Peninsula, in the person of the heiress to due time the Queen gave birth to a daughter, the throne! A conflict of three days' duration ISABELLA, the present sovereign of Spain; and in the streets of Paris had obliterated the whole although the irregularities of the mother's con effect of the victories of Marlborough and Welduct gave rise to serious doubts as to the in- lington, overturned the barrier in Flanders to fant's legitimacy, yet she was immediately adopt-revolutionary power, and annihilated in Spain ed as the head of the Liberals, and the depend the last remnant of security against French inants of the crown united with the partisans of fuence becoming predominant in the Peninsula! free institutions in making THE QUEEN the war-To all appearance the prophecy of Lafayette, cry of their united party. It will appear in forty years before, was about to be realized; the the sequel what important consequences fol- | tricolor flag was to make the tour of the globe.





The events which have been recounted in the derwent the fate of all administrations formed

1. end of the last chapter entirely al- by a combination of interests, not a union of Change in the tered the position of France and principles. Dissensions of the most violent kind attitude of Louis Philippe with reference to speedily appeared; the debates and recriminaFrance in reference to the the European powers, and had an tions were as tumultuous at the council-board Continental important effect, both externally as at the tribune; and it soon became evident powers and internally, on its future histo- that the differences of opinion were so great ry. The Government of July was now placed that every thing like united action was imposin a state of antagonism with Europe. The sible. In truth, each of these sections of the cordial feelings with which the envoys of Louis Cabinet was the representative of a party in Philippe had been received by the northern the State, the passions or apprehensions of powers on his first accession to the throne, as a which had become so violent that they could fortunate necessity and valuable barrier against no longer be restrained. The Republicans in evil, had given place to an alarming anxiety and the clubs, the press, and the streets, loudly proentire distrust. Without doubting the sinceri- claimed the necessity of instantly establishing ty of his professions of an ardent desire to co- the sovereignty of the people, installing the citerce revolution and restrain propagandism, they izens in possession of real power by a great rehad seen enough to have the most serious appre- duction of the suffrage qualification, receiving hensions of his ability to do either the one or with open arms the friends of freedom in other the other. The English government evinced, countries, and regaining the frontier of the not without reason, great disquietude at the Rhine, and all that had been lost by the treaty events in Flanders, and the extension of revo- of Vienna, by accepting the proffered amalgamlutionary influence to the mouth of the Scheldt. ation of Belgium with France. The burghers, The speech from the throne at the opening of whose strength, always great, had been doub

Parliament openly expressed that feels led by their forming the greater proportion of Ante... ing. The Prussian cabinet was equal the National Guard, both in the metropolis and

ly alarmed at the revolutionary move the provincial towns, were mainly set on the ments in Northern Germany, and the obvious maintenance of order and the preservation of danger to which their Rhenish provinces were general peace, and dreaded alike any foreign exposed, from the vicinity of the Flemish states demonstration which might revive the hostile in which the government had been overthrown. alliance of 1815, and any domestic innovation The cabinet of Vienna, under the cautious guid- which might restore the internal sway of the ance of Prince Metternich, was still more ap- Jacobins in the State. And the Doetrinaires, prehensive at the democratic fervor in Switz- to whose enlarged and philosophic ideas the erland and the excitement in Northern Italy, sagacious and experienced mind of the soverwhich their huge army and vigilant police had eign was most inclined, earnestly inculcated the the utmost difficulty in repressing. Even the principles that the government, to be stable, distant court of St. Petersburg took the alarm, must be one of progress and of order; that and, well aware of the sympathy of feeling be- measures must be taken to coerce the extrarstween Paris and Warsaw, began to direct forces, gance and restrain the influence of the clubs; to be prepared for any event, in great numbers, and that the only lasting security Canin, 735. to the banks of the Vistula. The Prussians sent for internal freedom was to be 341; Louis troops as rapidly as possible to their Rhenish found in the maintenance of ex- Blanc, ii. 15, provinces, and Austria did the same to North- ternal peace. ern Italy. Every where on the Continent were With such discordant opinions agitating both to be seen armaments and heard the sound of the Cabinet, the Chamber, and the marching men. England alone, secure in her people, it was impossible that the co

Carmence sen-girt isle, and entirely engrossed with do Government could long hold togeth- ment of the mestic questions, made no warlike prepara-er; but an event which strongly trial of the

late Ministions, and regarded the distant din on the Con- roused and agitated the nation, in

ters. ... tinent as the precursor of a conflict duced its dissolution even earlier a Cap. iii. with 275, 279.

ht. with which she had no immediate con- than might have been anticipated. This was


the trial of Prince Polignac and the other minThis great change of necessity induced a cor- isters of Charles X., who, by the officious zeal

responding alteration in the French of inferior functionaries rather than the real Cabinet divi- cabinet. The original government, wishes of the Government, had been arrested sions, and fall formed by a coalition of the three in various places and brought to Vincennes, of the Minis

nis- parties—the Doctrinaires, headed where they awaited the determination of the

by the Duke de Broglie and M. cabinet and Legislature on their fate. Had it Guizot; the burgher interest, by Count Molé been practicable, Louis Philippe and the major and M. Casimir Périer; and the Republicans,ity of his cabinet would gladly have aroided so represented by M. Dupont de l'Eure-soon un-Tembarrassing a proceeding as the trial of these



state prisoners; but their alleged delinquence | lieved that the acknowledged irresponsibility and real infraction of the laws had been too of the King must, by a legal fiction, be extended recent, the passions of the people too strongly to his Ministers. When am I to be set at libexcited, the risk of any thing like a compromise erty?" he often said to the commissioners. to the new Government too great, to admit of During the progress of these examinations, such a course being thought of. Reluctantly, however, the state of Paris became therefore, they were compelled to authorize the such as dreadfully alarmed the court, Disturbed institution of proceedings against them. On and fearfully endangered the accused. state of Come on September 23d the Chamber of Depu- The Republicans were indefatigable in Paris be*** ties, after long debates on the form to their endeavors to excite the people,

fore this. be adopted in the prosecution, had invested and awaken the savage thirst for blood which three commissioners with the power of con- had forever disgraced France during the Reign ducting it on the part of the popular branch of of Terror. The continued and increasing disthe Legislature, and the trial was to take place tress which existed among the working classes, before the Chamber of Peers. That body forth- and which the agitators contrived to imputé

with held an extraordinary meeting to solely to the acts of the late ministers, which

* commence the cognizance of the affair; originated the convulsion, added immensely to and according to the form of the French law, the success with which their efforts were atwhen the court takes so large a share in the tended. On the 18th October, in parpreliminary steps of the trial, three peers were ticular, an émeute of so serious a kind oct.

| Oct. 18. appointed, and conjoined with the commission- took place in the Faubourg St. Antoine, that it ers of the Deputies to conduct it. The judicial assumed almost the character of an insurrection. examinations commenced, and were conducted A furious band then surrounded Vincennes, and with great strictness and ability, though in an were making preparations for storming the cas

Hist equitable spirit, by the government tle, in order to execute justice on the state pris1 Ann. Hist. xiii. 325, 359. commissioners; and the result was oners with their own hands. They were only 423 ; Louis communicated to the Chamber of repelled by General Daumenil, the governor, Blanc, ii. 119, Peers in a detailed and very impar-threatening, if they did not desist, to blow up 120, 121.

1. tial report on the 29th November. the building. Repulsed from thence, the waves The conduct of the accused during the pro- of insurrection rolled to the westward, and

& longed interrogations was calm and broke on the Palais Royal, where it was only Conduct of dignified, but at the same time strong averted by the firm countenance of the National the accused ly characterized by that political in- Guard. The King and his Ministers were all before the fatuation and insensibility to the real- assembled. “Hark!” said Odillon Barrot, “I trial.

ities of their situation by which their hear the cry · Vive Barrot !'” “And I," said conduct when in power had been distinguished. the King, have heard the cry · Vive Petion!'” When they approached the gloomy towers of Groups of disorderly persons singing the MarVincennes, there was enough to quell the most seillaise, and exclaiming “Mort aux Ministres !” undaunted spirit. In its fosse the Duke d’En- crowded the streets leading to Vincennes, and ghien had fallen a victim to the jealousy and in the evening they were generally swelled to anger of Napoleon; within its walls Prince several thousand persons. The apprehensions Polignac had undergone the weary hours of of the Government were extreme: it was thus a nine years' captivity, for having conspired that the massacres in the prisons on 20 Sepagainst that sovereign power which he was now tember, 1792, had commenced. The garrison of accused of having abused. The carriage which Vincennes was greatly strengthened, the guards bore them to the gloomy fortress was surround- doubled, the draw-bridge kept up, and the guns ed by an immense crowd, which never ceased loaded, as in a state of siege, with grape-shot. to exclaim, “ La mort, la mort ! la mort aux Mi- Thanks to these wise precautions, the revolunistres !” So savage was their demeanor, so tionists were deterred from an attack upon the fierce and unrelenting their cries for vengeance, fortress, and the agitators confined themselves that the prisoners were relieved, and felt as if to incessant efforts at the clubs and ,

1 Ann. Hist. the worst of their dangers were over, when the in the press to excite the public ll. 420.430; draw-bridge was passed, the gates entered, and mind, and keep it in that state of Cap. iii. 392, the doors of the fortress closed upon their pur- feverish anxiety when the most des- 394 ; Louis

Blanc, ii. suers. During the examinations, the prisoners, perate resolutions are most likely to

ons are most nikely to 120, 128. who were kept apart and in close confinement, meet with a favorable reception. exhibited a very different demeanor. M. de At length, on the 15th of December, the trial Chantelauze, on seeing the commissioners, with commenced in the hall of the Peers, some of whom he had formerly been intimate, in the palace of the Luxembourg. Commenceenter his apartment, burst into tears; M. de Every thing had been done which ment of the Peyronnet evinced more resolution, admitted could give dignity and solemnity to trial.

Dec. 15. his accession to the ordinances, and justified the august spectacle. Seats were them by the necessities of his situation, and the provided for all the foreign embassadors and kindness of the King toward him. M. Guernon their families, as well as the principal dignitade Ranville was equally resolute. But although ries of the kingdom; and a guard of two thou-. the pale countenance, prominent forehead, and sand men, with several guns, was provided for emaciated figure of Prince Polignac evinced the daily service around the hall, besides powerful 2 Louis Blanc,

me wearing influence of anxiety and reserves in all the barracks of the capital, ready ii. 120, 121: meditation, yet the smile on his lips to turn out at a moment's notice. No less than Cap. iii. 388, and the serenity of his manner re | one hundred and sixty-three of the Peers an389; An. Hist, vealed a mind at ease with itself swered to their names when the roll was callxiii. 425, 428.

· and the world.” He constantly be- led; twenty sent excuses, which were sustained.

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