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of their own. The more liberal the party has talents of that class, and qualifying them for been which was called to the helm, the greater the direction of affairs. Foreigners often exhas always been the number of the noblemen press surprise at the long-continued ascendeney in its Cabinet. The abolition of the corn laws, of the English aristocracy in the affairs of their and the imposition of the tax on landed succes- country, so different from the fate which has sion, and many other measures, prove that this overtaken that order in so many Continental has not been owing to the want of power in the states; but whoever is acquainted with the difpopular party, so far as votes are concerned. ferent strata of society in the British empire It has been entirely owing to the want of power will have no difficulty in discerning the reason. in debate and statesmanlike wisdom in its lead. They have kept the lead so long, because the ers in Parliament.
constitution had made them legislators, and The reason of this is apparent to any one thus trained them to its duties. Had they been
who considers the structure of En-, as politically nullified as the nobles of France 107.
the glish society, and the mental train and Spain were under the old régime, they Reason of the superiority in ing requisite for success in represen- would have been equally inefficient. If any general of the tative assemblies. The sons of the one will compare the capacity and conversation
cracy as hereditary aristocracy have proved of the landed proprietors, and still more of their statestnen.
· themselves superior to those of the wives and daughters, below the line of Parliamiddle or working class in the arena of Parliament and above it, the difference will appear exment, for the same reason that their ancestors treme. The moment we emerge from the class were superior in the tournament. It is their in which hunting, shooting, and fishing forin business to joust, and practice improves the nat. the great objects of life, and rise into that in ural powers not less in the tilts of the mind which political questions are the subject of than in those of the body. No amount of natu- thought and conversation, we feel as if in anral talent or of practice, or success in other pro other world. fessions, can supply the want of this essential Add to this, that it is of the last importance requisite. The common observation, that even that one branch at least of the Leg- 109. the most eminent lawyers seldom attain any islature should be for the most part Importance of great success in Parliament, is a proof that even composed of those whose position the interests or
the hereditathe profession, the habits of which are most is fixed-uho have not their fortune 10
ry peers being akin to those required in representative assem to make, whose interests are iden- identified with blies, does not afford the requisite training for tified with those of production, and those of protheir direction. No one supposes that a Cabi- / who have an inheritance to leave auction. net could be formed out of the Manchester to their descendants which might be endangerschool, or the mercantile representatives ofed by precipitate innovation. A fly-wheel is great towns; they are valuable, from their lo- required in the political not less than the me cal or peculiar information, in Parliament, but chanical machine. Without it the very force they are incapable of taking a lead in it. The of the generated power may in critical periods reason is, they have not been trained to its contear it in pieces. The great danger in an old, tests in their early years. Success in the other wealthy, and mixed community is, that the inwalks of life is not an earnest of eminence in habitants of towns will, from their superior Parliament, but a bar to it, because it has arisen wealth, concentration, and intelligence, get the from a long-continued bent of the mind in an- command of those of the country, and in conse other direction. It is as impossible for great quence pursue a series of measures, for their success at the bar, in the army, or in commerce, own immediate advantage, fatal in the end to to qualify a person, even of the greatest talents, the best interests of society, and ruinous to the to obtain the lead in Parliament, as it is for national independence. Without asserting that the lead in Parliament to qualify for a surgical the existence of a separate Legislature, comoperation, or the command of the Channel fleet, posed of a hereditary Legislature, is able enor the direction of the siege of Sebastopol. | tirely to obviate this danger, which seems inWhile this cause of lasting influence renders herent in the very structure of society, it may
108. the existence of a hereditary class at least safely be affirmed that it tends greatly Increased vig- of legislators the best security for to lessen it, and that if perpetually recruited, or and capac capacity in the direction of affairs, as the English aristocracy is, by accessions of ity this gives to the higher by training a body of men to that talent and energy from the middle classes of branches ofthe direction as their end and aim in society, it may long serve as a barrier alike aristocracy. life, it operates not less powerfully against the despotism of the executive and the in elevating the character and improving the madness of the people.
POLISH REVOLUTION AND WAR, FROM ITS COMMENCEMENT IN NOVEMBER, 1830, TO ITS TERMINATION IN
SURVIVING all the changes of time, of religion, day around us. It was the difference of char
of empire, and of dynasty, one great acter which rendered their seats different: the Terribia wars contest has in every age of the Asiatics remained at home, because they were which have world divided mankind. It is the submissive; the Europeans wandered abroad, ever prevailed war of Asia and Europe—the strife because they were turbulent Authority was between Eu- of
li of the descendants of Shem with as necessary to the one as it was distasteful to rope and Asia.
14 the sons of Japhet. All other con- the other. So essentially was this the distinctests sink into insignificance in comparison. The tive character of the two races, and the orignations of Europe and Asia have had many and inal cause of their separation, that it characbloody wars among each other, but they have terized the opposite sides in the very first ages been as nothing compared to those terrible of their existence. Priam governed the tribustrifes which in different ages have in a manner tary states of Troy with the authority of a sulprecipitated one hemisphere upon the other. tan; but the Grecian host elected the King of This enduring warfare has alternately pierced men to rule them. It was composed of many each hemisphere to the heart: it brought the different independent bodies; and the first epic arms of Alexander to Babylon, and those of En- in the world narrates the wrath of one of its gland to Cabool; it conducted the Saracens to chieftains, and the woes his insubordination Tours, and Attila to Chalons. In one age it brought upon the children of Hellas.* The induced the disasters of Julian, in another the first great strife recorded in anthentic history Moscow retreat; it led to the fall of Rome and was between the forces of the great king and Constantinople; it precipitated Europe upon the coalesced troops of the European republics; Asia during the Crusades, and Asia upon Eu- and the same character has distinguished the rope during the fervor of Mohammedan con opposite sides to this day. Athens and Lacequest. Cæsar was preparing an expedition demon were the prototypes of France and Enagainst the Parthians when he was assassin- gland; Thermopylæ of Inkermann, Cyrus of ated; Napoleon perished from attempting one Nicholas. So early did Nature affix one charagainst Russia. The Goths, who overturned acter upon the different races of men, and so the Roman empire, appeared first as suppliants indelible is the impress of her hand. on the Lower Danube, and they were them- From this original diversity in the character selves impelled by a human wave which rose of the two great dominant races on the frontiers of China. It is the East, not of men has arisen a difference not Opposite sourthe North, which in every age has threatened less remarkable in the sources of ces of their Europe; it is in the table-land of Tartary that their strength and the means of strength and the greatest conquerors of mankind have been their resistance. Unity renders
weakness, bred. The chief heroes whose exploits form Asia formidable; diversity has constituted the the theme of history or song, have in different strength of Europe. Multitudes of slaves, images signalized themselves in the immortal con- pelled by one impulse, obeying one direction, test against these ruthless barbarians. Achil- follow the standards of the Eastern sultan; les, Themistocles, Leonidas, Alexander, Pom crowds of freemen, actuated by opposite paspey, Marius, Belisarius, Constantine Paleologus, sions, often torn by discordant interests, form Charles Martel, Godfrey of Bouillon, Richard the phalanxes of Western liberty. The strength Ceur-de-Lion, John Hunniades, Scanderbeg, of Asia consists mainly in the unity of power John Sobieski, Don John of Austria, Prince Eu- and administration which, in the hands of an gene, Charles XII., Lord Clive, Lord Lake, Na- able and energetic monarch, can be perseverpoleon, have in successive ages carried it on. ingly directed to one object; that of Europe It has been sung in one age by Homer, in an- is found in the resources which the energy other by Tasso; it has awakened at one period of freemen furnishes to the state, and the cour. the powers of Herodotus, in another those of age with which, when danger arrives, it is reGibbon. It began with the siege of Troy, but pelled. The weakness of the despotic dynasit will not end with that of Sebastopol. |ties of Asia is to be found in their entire deIt is owing to the different characters of the pendence on the vigor and capacity of the rul
2 races of men who have peopled the ing sovereign, and the destruction of the naCauses of two continents that this strife has tional resources by the oppression or venalthis perpet- been so long-continued and terrible. ual strite. Though all profane history, not less * « Μηνιν άειδε, θεά, Πηληϊάδεω 'Αχιλλος than Holy Writ, teaches us that the human Ουλομένην, ή μυρί' 'Αχαιοίς άλγε έθηκε: race originally sprung from one family in the Πολλάς δ' ίφθίμους ψυχάς άϊδι προΐαψεν centre of the eastern continent, yet the descend Ηρώων, αυτούς δε ελώρια τεύχε κύνεσσιν ants of Adam who sojourned in Asia were es Οιωνοίσί τε πάσι-Διδς δ' ετελείετο βουλήsentially different from those who wandered to 'Εξ ού δη τα πρώτα διαστήτην ερίσαντε Europe. Nor was this surprising: we see dif 'Arpeidns Te, úvaš úvdpôv, kai dioc'Axudeus." ferences as great in the same household every
Iliad, i. 1-7.
ity of subordinate governors. The weakness of Muscovite strength or ambition, great as of the free states of Europe arises mainly from they were—the frontier powers of Europe conthe impossibility of giving habits of foresight curred in it; and Austria, in particular, which to the ruling multitudes, and their invinci- had been indebted to Polish valor for deliverble repugnance to present burdens in order to ance from the sabres of the Osmanlis, requited avert future disaster. If it were possible to her gallant deliverers by joining in their de give to the energy of Europe the foresight of struction, and receiving a share of their posAsia, or develop, under the despotism of the sessions as a reward of her ingratitude. To East, the energy of the West, the state enjoying say that this partition was a flagrant violation even for a brief period the effects of such a of the law of nations, a shameless instance of combination would obtain the empire of the national ingratitude, and unparalleled even in world. This accordingly is what happened to the annals of Christian atrocity, is to express Rome in ancient and British India in modern only what has since been the unanimous opintimes. But universal dominion, except under ion of mankind. It is of more importance to peculiar circumstances, and for a very brief observe what lasting political effects this great period, is not part of the system of Nature; and measure of spoliation has had on the subseto eschew it, the gifts of power are variously quent balance of power in Europe, and how distributed to its various offspring.
completely the justice of the Divine adminisTwo great sins—one of omission, and one of tration has been vindicated by the results, es
commission have been committed pecially to the partitioning powers, with which Disastrous ef: by the states of Europe in mod- it has been attended. fects of the ern times, and it is from their com- The partition of Poland first broke down the conquest of the bined effect that the extreme dif- northern barrier of Europe against 6. Byzantine Empire by the ficulty of the Eastern Question, and Asia, and brought the might of the Vast increase Turks, and of the perils with which it is now Orientals to the very heart of Eu- of the power
of Russia the partition environed, have arisen. The sin ropean civilization. What the con- from the par. of Poland.
10 of omission was allowing the By-quest of the Byzantine Empire bad tition of Po zantine Empire to be overrun by the Turks in done in the south, that fatal spoli- Jand. the fifteenth century—the sin of commission, ation effected in the north of Europe. Being the partition of Poland in the nineteenth. It the most powerful of the partitioning powers, is under the effects of both that we are now the Semiramis of the north obtained the lion's laboring; for they broke down the barrier of share to herself. By the successive partitions Europe against Asia, and converted the out-of 1772 and 1794, the whole of Poland was diworks of freedom against despotism into the vided between Russia, Prussia, and Austria; and outworks of despotism against freedom. It is Lithuania, Volhynia, and Podolia, which fell to historically certain, but not generally known, Russia, contained no less than nine millions of that the balance between the Christians and inhabitants. By the treaty of 1815, Russia obTurks hung even a few years before the taking tained in addition the grand-duchy of Warsaw, of Constantinople in 1454, and that a very slight containing four millions, which had been raised support from the Western powers would have up by the Treaty of Tilsit, and her frontiers enabled the former to drive the latter back into were brought to within one hundred and eighty Asia. In 1446, when John Hunniades, with his miles of both Berlin and Vienna. It may safenoble Hungarians on the Danube, and Scander- ly be asserted that by these acquisitions the beg in Epirus, with heroic constancy made head strength of Russia as against the states of conagainst the Osmanlis, Constantinople was still tinental Europe was more than doubled; for in the hands of the Greek emperors; all the not only was the barrier which had hitherto fortresses on the Danube had been wrested from restrained her advances swept away, but the the Turks; Macedonia and the western prov- strength, great in a military point of view, of inces were in arms for the Cross; and twenty the Sarmatian nation, was added to her arms. thousand auxiliary troops from France or En- Thenceforward she became irresistible in eastgland would have enabled Hunniades, in the ern Europe; nothing but a coalition of the decisive battle of Varna, to have forever ex- Western powers, the last hope of freedom, could pelled the ruthless invaders from the soil of arrest her advance. The great war of 1854 was Europe. But the Western powers, divided by the legacy bequeathed to Europe by the partiseparate interests, or incapable of just foresight, tion of 1794. did nothing: the Pope in vain endeavored to Yet, because the guilt of the partitioning form an efficient league of Christendom against powers was great, it is not to be the Mohammedans; the strength of Europe held supposed that the fault of the Poles Faults of the back, that of Asia was brought to the very themselves had been small, or that Poles which Lamar. front by the genius of Mohammed they are justified in raising the led to their
subjugation. tine, Hist. de II. ; Constantinople was taken, the cry of injured innocence among la Turquie, Greek empire overthrown, and a the other nations of Europe. On the contrary, iii. 90, 120;
i chasm made in the defenses of Eu- they fell mainly in consequence of their own
cha Von Hammer, Hist. de rope against Asia, which all the ef- misconduct; and every other nation which imiTurcs, v. forts of later times have been scarce- lates them will, to the end of the world, under124, 145. ly able to repair.
go the same punishment. The Sarmatia of the The sin of commission has been still greater, ancients, Poland, on the first settlement of the
5. for it was done from baser and northern nations after the fall of the Roman Sin of Europe more guilty motives, and it was empire, was the most extensive kingdom in in the partition obviously attended by a more for- Europe. Extending from the Baltic to the of Poland.
Mand. midable and lasting danger. The Sea, from Smolensko to Prague, it was the partition of Poland was not the work merely | most powerful state on the Continent, so far
as material resources went. Prussia, Bohemia, only a few regiments of mercenaries as a duMoravia, Silesia, the Ukraine, Podolia, Volhy- rable force, no fortified towns or arsenals, and nia, as well as Poland Proper and Lithuania, they trusted the national defense entirely to were comprised in its mighty domains. Its the pospolite, or armed convocation of the noforests, abounding with fir and oak, formed bles. The consequence was, that, in the last inexhaustible supplies for the construction of struggle under Kosciusko, they could not ophouses and ship-building; its soil, every where pose 25,000 men to the united armies of Russia, perfectly flat, and enriched in most places, like Austria, and Prussia. In a word, the Poles did, the American, by the perennial vegetable de during three hundred years, what Mr. Cobden cay of the forests, was admirably adapted for and the Peace Conference so strenuously urged grain crops, and has ever rendered its harbors the English government to do; and had their the granary of Europe for wheat; its great advice been equally implicitly followed, Enrivers supplied, ready-made by the hand of gland, like Poland, would beyond all question, Nature, as in the Valley of the Mississippi, the in the course of time, have been swept from immense advantages of a net-work of water among nations. communications penetrating every part of the A strange and mysterious connection has excountry; its inhabitants, intrepid and brave isted for a long period between the almost beyond any other in Europe, had al-cause of Poland and that of Euro- Mysterious ways been distinguished by a passionate love pean democracy. It is more than connection
between Poof freedom and attachment to their country; a mere ardent sympathy of the one land and the and they have been characterized, with truth, for the other; it is a linking togeth- cause of deby Napoleon, as the men in Europe who moster of fate, apparently by the decree mocracy. readily and quickly form soldiers. There must, of Supreme Power. As Poland was the fronttherefore, have been some great national fault, ier state of European civilization, so it seems some overpowering defects in constitution or to have been destined to stand as the advanced character, which neutralized all these advant-guard to warn the other nations by its fate of ages, and rendered the nation to which Nature the danger which awaited them if they listened had given the greatest means of power, and to the voice of the tempter within their own placed on the frontier of civilization to shield bosoms. Its long-continued misfortunes, deit from the barbarians, the weakest and most spite the valor of its sons, and ultimate subju. unfortunate.
gation, was beyond all doubt owing to the viIt is not difficult to see what it was which olence of the passion of equality in its inhab
brought this about. The “ignorant | itants, which led them to retain an elective
impatience of taxation" did the whole. government when they should have exchanged It was the impatience Poland being a country in which, it for a hereditary, and neglect all provision of taxation probably from homogeneity of orig- for defense when their neighbors were daily which ruin- inal race, and the absence of any of augmenting their means of attack. When the
"de the distinctions of rank consequent volcano broke out in France, and Polish nationon foreign conquest, equality was really and ality was extinguished, the same connection practically, not nominally, established, the pres- continued. It was the anxiety of the partitionervation of their equal rights became the ruling powers to provide for the division of Poing passion of the people, to which every other land in 1792, 1793, and 1794, which led them consideration, how pressing soever, was sacri- to starve the war with France, and permit its ficed. Among these rights the most important insane demagogues to precipitate the French and the most valued was that of being free nation into the frightful career of the Revolufrom taxation. In all countries where the peo- tion, when they miglrt, by uniting their forces, ple have really got the power of government with ease have captured Paris, and restored a into their own hands, and where they are not constitutional monarchy in a single campaign. ruled, as in ancient Rome, by a hereditary sen. With the crushing of the revolutionary spirit ate, or in modern France, by a despotic Com- in France in 1814, and the capture of Paris, mittee of Public Safety, this is a favorite ob- Poland again emerged from its ashes; it ob
ject; and accordingly, in America, no states- tained from the efforts of Lord Castlereagh at man has ever ventured to hint even at any di- the Congress of Vienna the shadow at least of rect taxes. So strong was this feeling in Po- nationality, and the progress it made during land that it amounted to a perfect passion. No the next fifteen years, and the strength it disdanger, however great-no calamities, however played during the contest with Russia in 1831, threatening—no perils, however overwhelming, proved that the division and weakness of decould induce them to submit to the smallest mocracy had hitherto been the cause of its ruin. present burden to ward off future disaster. In With the triumph of the barricades, the dark Sidney Smith's words, “they preferred any load cloud again came over the fortunes of Poland; of infamy, however great, to any burden of tax- her nationality was destroyed, and a long peation, however light.” They constantly trust-riod of humiliation, of suffering, again presented to their own valor and warlike spirit to ed the lesson to Europe of the national punishavert any dangers with which their countryment of democratic institutions. might be threatened; but although their heroic Though far from enjoying the blessings of qualities often extricated the republic from per- real freedom, the small portion of
10. ils which seerned insurmountable, it could not Poland which was erected in 1815 Prosperity or supply the want of a regular army, or the prep- into a separate state, with the Em- Poland under aration in peace of the means of effective de- peror of Russia on its throne, en- the Russian fense in war. When all the adjoining states joyed a degree of prosperity, and
rule from 1815
ee of prosperity, and to 1830. were putting on foot powerful standing armies made an amount of progress, far" and constructing strong fortresses, they had | beyond any that it had ever experienced under the weak government of its elected kings, or spirit became universal, from the frequent exthe blind rule of its stormy Diets. The statis- hibitions of its most attractive spectacles; patical facts already given place this beyond a triotic ardor wide-spread, from the progressive
... doubt.1 The army was thirty revival of its hopes. The officers of the Polish I Ante, c. 09, 10.
m. thousand strong, and in the very regiments, composed entirely of the nobles, in
highest state of discipline and whom the passion for independence burned most equipment; while the growing information and strongly, mutually encouraged each other in intelligence of the people, owing to the great these sentiments; the young men at the military extension of the means of education among schools and the university of Warsaw, all drawn them, and the vast increase of their material from the same class, embraced them with still comforts, had augmented in a surprising degree more inconsiderate and generous ardor. Out the resources of the country. Many grievan of the rising prosperity of Poland, and the gradces, indeed, were still complained of, and some ual removal of its grievances, sprung very natexisted. It is scarcely to be expected they | urally a consciousness of national strength, and should at once disappear under the sceptre of a desire for the restoration of national independthe Czar. Though fond of Poland, to a native ence. It is a mistake to suppose that the most of whom he was married, and proud beyond serious insurrections arise from the extremity measure of its troops, Constantine, its viceroy, of suffering; it breaks rather than excites the was by nature capricious and passionate. Sev- spirit. It is true, as Lord Bacon says, that eral acts of tyranny occurred during his govern- the worst rebellions come from the stomach; ment, and it was too evident that the attempt but it is not when it is most sorely pinched to ingraft the constitutional freedom of Europe that they arise. It is when the pinching is comupon the traditional despotism of Asia was of ing on, or going off, that they are most to be all human undertakings the most difficult. The dreaded. sittings of the Chambers, which never lasted Ever since the year 1825, when the great remore than a few weeks, had been discontinued bellion broke out in the Russian 19
1990 for five years before 1830, when they army, which was repressed, as al- Secret socieJune
. were held for a month by the Em-ready recounted, by the vigor and ties in Poland. peror Nicholas. The debates were not made intrepidity of Nicholas,' and even 1 Ante, chap. public, and the most rigorous censorship of the before that time, an immense secret viii. 9 129. press shut out the communication of independ society had existed in Poland, having for its prinent thought throughout the community. But cipal object to restore the national independwith all these restraints and evils, which were ence. It was not so much directed, like the Carfar from imaginary, the condition of Poland had bonari of Italy, the Red Republicans of France, marvelously improved, from the mere effect of or the Ribbonmen of Ireland, to objects of social a steady rule, since it fell under the govern- change or disorder, as to the grand object of rement of Russia. The proof of this is decisive. placing Poland in its ancient place in the EuroStrong as Russia was, and immensely as her re. pean family. Accordingly, it embraced a greatsources had augmented since the last partition er number of classes, was actuated by more genin 1794, the strength of Poland had grown in erous sentiments, and was less likely to be staina still greater proportion. Skrzynecki made a ed by crime. It was a fixed principle in these very different stand from Kosciusko, and a quar- societies, that nothing should ever be committed ter of its old territory and population main- to writing, but every thing trusted to the fidel2 Cap. iv. La
tained, for the first time, in 1831, an ity and honor of the affiliated. And so worthy 40, 46.
. equal contest with the forces of the did they prove of the trust, that the existence of
the gigantic organization, which had its ramiBut this very circumstance of the increased fications not only in the kingdom of Poland,
strength and improved condition of but in Gallicia and the grand-duchy of Posen, 11. This prosper
rosper. the people only rendered more in the portions which had fallen to Austria and ity increased tense the desire for independence, Prussia on the final partition, was not even susthe passion and more galling the sense of subju- pected when its designs were approaching mafor independ- gation. The sight ofthe Polish arms turity. There is no example recorded in bistoence.
over the public edifices, of the Po- ry of so great a conspiracy, embracing so many lish uniform on the soldiers, of the Polish stand-thousand individuals, having been ,
2 Roman Solards over their ranks, perpetually recalled the so long and faithfully kept secret ivk. Polome days of their independence; while the sense of -a decisive, proof of the ardent et la Revoluthe growing prosperity and resources of the spirit and sentiments of honor by tion en 1830,
24, 27. country inspired the hope of at length succeed which its members were actuated. ing in re-establishing it. The reviews of Con- | The French Revolution of 1830, as might stantine's guards and the garrison of Warsaw, naturally be supposed, excited the 13. often twenty thousand strong; the magnificent warmest sympathy, and produced Different squadrons of the cavalry, the steady ranks of the most unbounded enthusiasm in plans of the the infantry, the splendid trains of the artillery, Poland; and the subsequent dem- conspirators. all in the Polish uniform, composed of national ocratic movements in Switzerland, Italy, and troops, and in the finest possible state of disci- Germany, still farther fanned the flame. The pline and equipment, inspired them with an effervescence soon became such that it was oboverweening idea of their own strength. No vious it could not be restrained; and the chiefs force on earth seemed capable, to their fond of the conspiracy, accordingly, held several and ardent imaginations, of resisting the gal- meetings at Warsaw, in the end of Sep- Sant og lant arrays of armed men, equal to the elite of tember, at which the plan of operations the French or Russian Guards, which were con- was discussed and agreed on. Two different stantly passing before their eyes. The military projects were laid before the meeting, and their