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RUSSIA AND TURKEY, FROM THE ACCESSION OF NICHOLAS IN 1825, TO THE PEACE OE ADRIANOPLE
It is a markworthy circumstance, that all | already mentioned, laid the foundation of that
the serious wars in Europe, between independence, was one of the most 1 Ann. Hist. 1. All the wars 1815 and 1830, occurred between the popular and agreeable acts of the ix. 358; Ante, of Europe, Christians and Mohammedans. The new reign.
c. xiv., $144. from 1815 to 19.to English attack on Algiers in 1816, incolish
The last treaty between Russia and Persia, 1830, were wars with the French capture of the same place concluded on 24th October, 1813, the Moham- in 1830, the Greek revolution and under the mediation of Great Brit. Advantages medans. its seven bloody campaigns, the war ain, had recognized the principle of gained by of 1826 between the Russians and the Persians, uti possedetis ; and so largely had Russia over that of 1828 between the Russians and Turks, Russia been a gainer by previous" all partook of this character. Even the distant hostilities that she acquired a very great accescontests of the English in India were at last of sion both of territory and influence on that oethe same description; the Mussulman soldiers casion. She had crossed the ridge of the Cauwere not the least formidable that the English casus, established herself in a solid way between had to encounter on the ramparts of Bhurtpore, the Caspian and the Black Sea, and spread her and on the plains of the Doab; and they never dominion far to the south in the vast province encountered such danger as when they ap- of Grandscha, better known under the name proached Ghuznee, the cradle of Mohammedan / of Georgia. The influence of Russia, however, power in Central Asia. It would seem that, by these acquisitions, was ere long felt by the when the social contests of Europe itself are Persian government to be too great for a lasthushed, the ancient and indelible hostility of ing pacification ; various disputed questions of the European to the barbarian breaks forth; territory still remained unadjusted; they had, and that, when all domestic grounds of dissen- under the terror of their new and formidable sion have been removed from civilized man, neighbor, drawn more closely their connection the inherent causes of discord, arising from dif- with the British government; and a considerference of race, religion, and physical circum- able number of English officers had communistances between him and more savage tribes, cated to the tumultuary array of Teheran, in a never fail to arm one part of the species against certain degree, the consistency of European orthe other.
ganization and discipline. Aware of these hosPlaced on the confines of Europe and Asia, tile preparations, the Emperor Nicholas, soon
the hereditary enemy, in every after his brother's death, dispatched Prince 2. Runtuwwith age, of the Mohammedan faith, it | Menschikoff unon a
Menschikoff upon a friendly mission, ostensibly the Mohamme- was impossible that Russia could to notify his accession to the throne, really to dan powers on long escape this general antago endeavor to effect an arrangement of the disthe accession nist movement of Islamism and puted points of territory. But this mission of Nicholas.
Christianity, which followed the proved' unavailing; the Prince Abbas Mirza closing the wars of the French Revolution. The was intoxicated with the thought of commandpacific habits of the Emperor Alexander, indeed, ing an army of fifty thousand men, armed and and the strong direction of his mind, in his later disciplined in the European method; and so years, to mystical objects, and the establish- strong did the war party become that hostili. ment of the reign of peace and benevolence ties were commenced, and a considerable part among mankind, long prevented the collision, of the territories occupied by the Russians to and averted the conflict of the Cross and the the south of the Caucasus wrested , Fon
Fonton, Crescent, under circumstances when it other from them, before any declaration of 164, 166: wise would have become unavoidable. But war had been made between the two Ann. Hist. with the accession of a new emperor this state countries.
ix. 362, 363. of strained and unnatural pacification termin The intelligence of the commencement of ated. His character and feelings were essen- | these hostilities reached the Empertially national; the frightful civil war which or Nicholas during the festivities Rer
& Repeated dehad preceded his accession to the throne ren- of his coronation at Moscow, in Au- feats of the dered bim doubly anxious to direct the popular gust, 1826; but it related to too Persians by
the Russians. passion to external objects; and the warm sym- distant a province to occasion any the pathy of the entire nation, and in an especial interruption to that joyous event. Orders were manner the army, with the religious struggle sent to General Yermoloff, who commanded the of the Greeks, rendered it not doubtful in what troops beyond the Caucasus, to concentrate his manner this direction might most effectually be men, and attack the enemy; and these orders given. No one, therefore, entered more cor- were executed by that able general with dedially than the new Czar into the advances of cisive effect. On the 2 (14) September
Sept. 14. the British government toward effecting a set- he attacked Abbas Mirza, who was at tlement of the Eastern question, by securing the the head of eight thousand soldiers, and so envirtual independence of Greece; and the pro- tirely defeated him that nearly his whole army tocol of 4th April, 1826, signed by the Duke of dispersed. The victorious general, after this Wellington and Count Nesselrode, which, as success, advanced with his little army, consist
ing of six thousand infantry, three thousand ter, and required their unconditional acceptance cavalry, and twelve guns, against the main within six weeks, failing which, hostilities were Persian army, composed of twenty thousand to commence. These conditions were-1. The regular infantry, twelve thousand horse, eight immediate re-establishment of the two princithousand irregulars, and twenty-four guns, who palities and Servia in the condition in which
were posted at the distance of four they were prior to the commencement of the Sept. 21. miles from Elizabethpol, on the banks troubles of 1821; 2. The instant redress of all of the little river Djcham. Though the forces their grievances, conformable to the treaty of were so unequal, the contest was of very short Bucharest in 1812; 3. The evacuation of these duration, and it soon appeared, as had so often provinces by the Ottoman troops, and the libbeen proved in India, how little the Asiatics eration of the Servian deputies, whom they still have gained by the attempt to engraft European held in detention; and, 4. An entire satisfaction steadiness and discipline on their fiery squad to Russia for the insult offered to her by rons. They were totally defeated, with the loss the silence observed in regard to former May of twelve hundred prisoners, and double that notes. Contrary to all expectation, the Divan, number killed and wounded; while the loss of at the expiration of the prescribed period, gave the Russians was under three hundred men. In in their entire and unqualified i Ann. Hist. ix.
consequence of this check, the Persians adherence to the demands of the 374, 376; MiniNOX. 0. retreated across the Araxes; and the cabinet of St. Petersburg; the Ser- acki's Note, Nov. 6.
April 5, 1826, Russian army on the right having gained simi-vian deputies were immediately a
and Answer, ton lar advantages, the Russians again set at liberty, and orders dis- May 13; Ann. i Fonton, 173, 179 recovered and received the submis- / patched for the instant evacuation Hist. 94, 96 ;
Doc. Hist. Ann. Hist. sion of the whole provinces which of the principalities and Servia." is. 366, 368. they had occupied before the war. This sudden acquiescence in the demands of Some idea of the strength of the Russian em- Russia, and departure from the old
pire at this period may be formed procrastinating policy of the Turk- Measures conStatistics from the result of a general survey ish government, excited at the time templated of Russia at and enumeration of the inhabitants, general surprise in Europe; but it against the
Janizaries. this period. which took place in the course of this soon appeared that it was the reyear. From this it appeared that the entire sult of a deep-laid design, and formed part of a superficies of the empire in Europe, Asia, and change of policy long contemplated in Turkey, America, consisted of 375,154 square German and which its government now considered itmiles (sixteen to an English); the population to self strong enongh to carry into effect. The 69,534,000; the excess of births over deaths to janizaries had for ages been the terror of the 700,000; and the army to 1,039,000 men, of government at Constantinople, and more than whom, however, not more than 600,000 could be once they had prescribed their own terms to relied on as effective; and the revenue amounted the Sultan, and even imbrued their hands in his to 388,000,000 francs, or £11,500,000.* Various blood. Various projects had at different times important regulations were at the same time been formed for the breaking of their pride and made for the establishment of military colonies, the curtailing of their influence; but they all especially in the newly-acquired territories be- had hitherto proved abortive, from the want yond the Caucasus, which promised at length of any adequate armed force at hand to restrain
to give consistency to the Russian the hostility and coerce the excesses of these - An. Hist. dominion in those vast recent acqui unruly defenders. The present Sultan, whose II. 369. sitions.
predecessor, Selim, had been dethroned and The interminable negotiations between the murdered in his attempt to shake off the au
Russian and Turkish governments thority of these imperious masters, had been State of the ne
ane regarding the subjects of complaint obliged at the commencement of his reign to gotiations be- which the former had against the dissemble, and he had not only been forced to tween Russia latter for violating the clause in abolish the Nizam Djedib, or new troops, but and Turkey. favor of its Christian subjects. con- ' to swear to preserve all the privileges of the May 14.
tained in the treaties of Kainardji janizaries, and even to enrol himself in one of and Bucharest, appeared this year to have their regiments or ortas, for his service in which reached an extraordinary and unlooked-for he regularly drew pay. But his determination issue. The Ottoman Government, impatient to was not the less irrevocably taken; he was only bring the Greek war to a termination, and in-dissembling, to gain time for their destruction. tent on the prosecution of the siege of Misso. During the interval he was indefatigable in his longhi, resolved to dissemble, and avert the efforts to gain the confidence of the Oulemas, threatened invasion of a hundred thousand Rus or learned and legal bodies; and the long wars sians from Bessarabia by a temporary submis- with Ali Pacha and the Greeks had both affordsion.. M. Miniacki, the Russian charge-d'affaires, ed evidence of the necessity of putting the milhad on 5th April presented a note, in which he itary force on a new footing, and given time for recapitulated the demands of his imperial mas the formation of a very considerable body of
men, who might be relied on in the convulsion Square German
which was approaching. The preparations miles (sixteen Population. to an English).
were now so far advanced that, though the Russia in Europe......... 72,861 ... 44,116,600
janizaries saw their danger, they did not feel
2,293 .... 3,702,300 Russia in Asia......
276,000 ... 11,663,100
themselves in sufficient strength openly to take Bussia in America..... ... 24,000 .... 50,000 steps against it. Fourteen thousand topjees or
artillerymen had been distributed in the bar
375,154 59.534,000 -Rapport semi-official, Dec, 30, 1826. Annuaire Histo
racks in and around Constantinople; and as raque, ix. 369.
| they were the avowed rivals of the janizaries, Vol II.-F
and had been enrolled to coerce them, the ut- that they burst in a tumultuous manner from most pains had been taken to secure their fidel- their barracks, assailed the palace of the Grand ity by every possible means. The pacha who Vizier, the Capitan Pacha, their own Aga, and commanded them, as well as the Grand Vizier, the Pacha of Egypt's diplomatic agent, which Capitan Pacha, and their own aga or general, they plundered in the most shameful manner.
ist were all devoted to Sultan Mah- These exalted functionaries only saved them1 Ann. Hist. ix. 377, 379; moud, who had also secured the selves by a precipitate flight; and if the insurGordon, ii. support of the muftis, and the pow-gents had been conducted with more ability, 310, 311. erful body of the Oulema."
and marched in the first moment of alarm on In the end of May, after the differences with the Sultan's palace and the batteries, they
Russia had been adjusted, govern would in all probability have proved success 8. New statute ment took the first step in the pro-ful, and might without difficulty have imposed regarding the posed reform of the janizaries, by their own terms on the government. But being janizaries. the promulgation of a new plan of destitute of leaders, of prudence, or foresight, May 28,
organization, which, although cau they neglected these obvious and necessary tiously conceived, to avoid exciting their jeal measures; and instead of improving their vie ousy, was yet calculated, when carried into tory, when only half gained they thought of full effect, to give a fatal blow to their influ- enjoying its fruits. Accordingly, after the pilence. Their statutes and privileges were pre- | lage of the palaces they dispersed Gordon. ii. served entire, and all those who drew pay or among the wine-vaults in the neigh- 311, 312; emoluments allowed to continue them during borhood, and gave themselves up to Ann. Hist. their lives; but the existing holders of these the most revolting excesses.
ix. 381. immunities were not to be permitted to sell or The Sultan and his ministers turned to much alienate them, and at their demise they were better account the breathing-time 10. entirely to cease. From the ortas, or regiments, afforded by the intoxication of Vigorous measa hundred and ninety-six in number, fifty were their antagonists. The Grand ures of Sultan
* Mahmoud. to be selected to furnish a hundred and fifty Seignior hastened to Constanti- * men each, who were to be incorporated with nople from his beautiful palace of Benhicktash, the new troops, and clothed and disciplined on the shores of the Bosphorus, and put himself after the European fashion. This hatti-sheriff at the head of the topjees or artillerymen, and was sanctioned by the signature of the Sultan, faithful troops of every description, which were and of all the dignitaries of the state, and in- directed from all quarters upon the capital. A stantly proclaimed in all the mosques and places large park of artillery was brought from the of public resort in the capital and chief cities arsenal of Topkhana, the gunners of which were of the empire. The pay of the new troops was entirely at his devotion; and the Sultan, whose raised to thirty paras a day for private men, gallant bearing animated the courage of all his and to the officers in proportion." In addition adherents, soon found himself at the head of to this, they were to receive dress and arms the chief civil functionaries and principal milicomplete from the government—the latter con- tary authorities of the empire. By their advice sisting of a musket, sabre, and bayonet to each -indeed, by their express orders--the famous man; the former of a vest of red cloth, a pair Sandjak Sheriff, or sacred standard, said to be of pantaloons of blue, and a cap of green cloth, composed of part of the dress actually worn by edged with black sheepskin. Notwithstanding the Prophet, was brought forth from the sacred the magnitude of these changes, they had been treasury, where it had so long lain, shrouded 50 prepared, with the consent of the muftis, from the eyes of the faithful, and conveyed to oulemas, and several of the chiefs of the jani- the mosque of Sultan Achmet, with the whole zaries themselves, that no resistance was at solemnities practiced on such occasions, which first experienced; the decree was read in the is of the rarest occurrence, and only resorted mosques without opposition; Egyptian officers to on the most extreme danger. At the same 2 Gordon, ii.
the began to drill the selected men; the time the public criers in every quarter pub311: Ann. clothing was served out; and as no lished a proclamation denouncing the janizaries Hist. ix. 379, new impost was imposed, the people as enemies to the Prophet and his , Ann. His 380; Ann. remained quiet, and seemed disposed holy religion, and calling on every ix. 382, 383; 1902. 1920, to acquiesce without opposition in true believer to rally without delay Gordon, i. the new order of things.?
around the standard of Mohammed.2 311, 312. This state of things continued for the first These decisive measures had an instantaneous
o fortnight, and it was hoped the dan- effect. The streets were immediate- 11. Insurrection ger had blown over; but it soon ly filled with a prodigious crowd of Defeat of the of the jani- appeared that these hopes were fal- Mussulmans, of all ages and descrip- janízaries. zaries.
lacious, and that a desperate conflict tions, fully armed, and inspired with the utmost June 14.
awaited the government in their at- zeal, who hastened to the various rallying-points tempt to introduce the new regulations. The assigned them, to swell the array of the folfurnishing of the hundred and fifty men from lowers of the Prophet. The regular force asthe selected ortas went on without difficulty in sembled amounted to ten thousand men; and the capital and neighboring towns; but when the preparations being deemed complete, the the recruits began to be drilled and marched rebels were three times summoned to lay down in the European fashion, the discontents at once their arms, and return to their allegiance to broke out. "On the evening of the 14th of June Mohammed and his vicegerent the Sultan. They the ill-humor of the troops assumed the form positively refused, until they had received the of open mutiny: the new regulations were stig-heads of the Grand Vizier, of their own Aga, matized as a violation of the law of the Prophet, of Hussein Pacha, and of Redschid-Effendi. and the men were worked up to such a pitch | These demands being of course refused, a decree Fas hastily passed declaring the abolition for the execution of the janizaries in every part of the janizaries, and ordering Hussein Pacha of the empire. It was calculated that, before to march against the rebels. They, on their the executions ceased by the exhaustion of their side, prepared for the most vigorous resistance; victims, above forty thousand had perished, bethe Atmeidan was filled with ferocious bands, sides an equal number driven into exile. In Those cheering was incessant; and the over- addition to this, the most severe measures were turning of all their camp-kettles, the well-known adopted against the whole body. Their name signal of determined revolt, told but too plainly was proscribed, their barracks demolished, their that they were resolved to sell their lives as camp-kettles, so often the signal of revolt, brodearly as possible. The combat, when the top. | ken to pieces, their standards destroyed, and jees approached, was brief but terrible. The their whole duties transferred to a new corps janizaries commenced an immediate discharge of regular troops, to whom the defense of the of small arms, which was kept up with great city and empire was intrusted. . The eighty rapidity, and resolutely withstood several gates of the capital, which it had been their rounds of grape-shot at point-blank range from privilege to guard, were intrusted to the topjees the artillery. At length, however, a large num- and bostandjis. The Sultan with his whole ber having been mowed down, the remainder court assumed the Egyptian military dress; the retired, but still in good order, and firing stead | old costumes were forbidden; the command ily on their pursuers, to their barracks, where of the entire new force given to Hussein Pathey had prepared the means of the most de cha, who established his head-quarters at the termined resistance. But an awful catastrophe, old Seraglio, which he fortified in the strongest almost unparalleled in civil warfare, there await manner; the beauties of the harem who formered them. Without attempting to force the gates, ly inhabited it were transferred to the new Sethe Turkish commanders contented themselves raglio; and on the 3d September, as the pacifivith incessantly throwing shells into the build cation was deemed complete, the 1 Ann. Hist. ix. ing, which was speedily set on fire, and firing sandjak-sheriff was with great 385, 390 ; Ann. grape on the gates by which alone egress could pomp carried back to its place of Reg. 1826, 192, be obtained. In these frightful circumstances sacred deposit, in the mosque of 1
f 196 ; Gordon, ii. the rebels offered to submit, but it was too late. Sultan Achmet.
313, 314. Their petition was sternly refused, and the This great and sanguinary revolution, which shells continued to fall and the grape to be dis- produced such lasting effects upon
13. charged till the barracks were to the Ottoman empire, and was inti- Effect of this . ? Ann. Hist.
: tally consumed; and the whole in-mately interwoven with its whole revolution on İL 351, 383; Gordon, i.' surgents, four thousand in number, future destinies, produced an im- the negotiations
with Russia. 311, 312; had perished in the flames, or been mediate effect, very different from 1925, 188. 2. Reg. cut down in endeavoring to force what had been foreseen, on the negotiation betheir way out of them."
tween the Porte and Russia. Sultan Mahmoud The victory of the Sultan was complete, but had very magnificent ideas regarding the new 12.
the strength of the party of the jan- military force which he was to raise; and he Cruel execu- izaries, both in the capital and the already contemplated the formation of a regular tions in Con- provinces, was too well known, and standing army of two hundred and fifty thoustantinople. their innumerable deeds of violence sand men. But he soon found that it is easier too fresh in recollection, not to make the gov- to destroy one military force than raise up anernment determined to push its advantages to other, and that the destruction of so numerous, the utmost, and utterly exterminate the unruly ancient, and venerated a body as the janizaries, body which had now become as formidable to could not be effected without endangering the the throne as they had formerly been to its very existence of the empire. He received reeneinies. A summary court, composed of the peated warnings how deeply the public mind principal officers of state, was formed in the had been stirred on the occasion; a Atmeidan, before whom all the janizaries who dreadful fire broke out, in August, in At
in Aug. 31. could be hunted out were brought, and on being Constantinople, the work of incendiaries, which identified as belonging to the obnoxious body, in a few hours consumed six thousand houses. instantly sentenced to be executed. Above a On several occasions, when he appeared in pubthousand were put to death daily for several lic, he was received with unequivocal marks Weeks. When the Sultan went to return thanks of displeasure; and instead of two hundred and at the mosque of Sultan Achmet, it was ob- fifty thousand recruits, not fifteen thousand served that he was attended only by the top- were arrayed round the standard of the Projees, and that the janizaries were entirely dis- phet. The losses occasioned by the conflagracarded. It soon appeared not only that all tion were immense; they were estimated at those engaged in the revolt were to be sacri- 140,000,000 francs (£5,800,000). So great did ficed, but that the insurrection was to be made the public discontent become, that a proclaa pretext for the destruction of the entire body mation was at length issued, denouncing the throughout the whole empire. The sandjak- instant penalty, the men by being beheaded,
wie sheriff was carried with great pomp to the women by being sewn up in a sack and Jane
* 19. the Seraglio, where it was deposited in thrown into the sea, against whoever spread one of the inner courts, in token of the public reports or used expressions tending to disturb danger, and the Sultan and all his attendants the public peace; and these terrible denuncilived in the outer courts, encamped and in tents, ations were the very next day an
2 Ann. Hist. as in presence of the enemy. During three carried into execution in every 392, 393 : Ann. months they remained in that situation, con- quarter of the city with unrelent. Reg. 1826, 164, stantly engaged in examining spies and inform- | ing severity. ers, and taking depositions and issuing orders! Nowise deterred by these alarming proofs of
the public discontent, the Sultan pursued his | the receipt of these demands, which were ren
14. plans of reform and regeneration dered more peremptory from a requisition that Civil reforms with the utmost vigor. Inexorable a categorical answer should be returned by the of the Sultan. in the destruction of all such as 25th September, the Turkish commissioners were opposed his determination—terrible in the pun- so indignant that, in the first burst of indignaishments he inflicted on all such as were sus- tion, they threatened instantly to leave Ackerpected even of exciting the public mind against man. But the Russians, who desired nothing him, he rewarded generously such as adhered better than to commence hostilities when the to his fortunes, and distributed frequent lar- janizaries were destroyed, and no other miligesses among the troops, to reconcile them to tary force had been organized to supply their the new exercise and uniform. He was equally I place, having at once offered them an escort to vigorous in the prosecution of civil reforms, conduct them beyond the frontier, they deemed which he was well aware were, even more than it best to temporize, under pretense of sending military, essential to the restoration of the em- to Constantinople to obtain fresh instructions. pire; and two important decrees, introducing a They agreed, accordingly, to prolong the pevery different system of administration, date from riod for giving an answer to the 7th Octothis period. He first abolished the confisca- ber, receiving intimation, however, that if they tion of the movable estate, which had hitherto | were not then acceded to without,
1 Ann. Hist. invariably followed every execution by orders of reservation the Russian troops would in 1995,397 Porte, and forbade the officers of justice to in- cross the Pruth." terfere with the estate in the event of the heirs. Such was the situation of the Turkish empire being minors; the second enjoined on all the that, hard and even insulting as cadis and mollahs the most strict and rigorous these propositions were, the Divan mi
The Russian administration of justice, and recommended the had no alternative but submission. demands immediate prosecution of false witnesses, and The Greek insurrection, like a de- are acceded all disturbers of the right course of the law- vouring fire, was consuming the vi- to without
servation. all steps, and not unimportant ones, in the ame- tals of the state, and entirely ab-" lioration of the internal economy of the state, sorbed the resources of Egypt, the only part of but the success of which too soon demonstrated it which could be relied on for military aid. that more depends on national feelings and hab. The janizaries, who had for centuries formed its than on any regulations that can be made for the chief strength of the empire, were in part the direction of the people. And at the same destroyed, and the survivors were animated with time the Divan gave the strongest proof thatthey such an unextinguishable animosity against the had no inclination to abate by far the greatest government, that if armed they might be resocial evil-the distinction of races and religions garded as its most formidable enemies. Of the
on –which afflicted the empire; for, by a new levies, from which so much had been exSept. 30. 7
0. decree published in the end of Septem- pected, not fifteen thousand were as yet groupber, the whole population of the country othered round the Sultan's standard, and even they than the Mussulmans was enjoined to wear the were as yet imperfectly disciplined. The En1 Decree, Sept.
Sept. ancient dresses, both in form and glish and French embassadors had intimated the 30,1826; Ann. color, and not to venture on those intention of their respective courts to take an Hist. ix. 391, reserved for the followers of the active part in the intervention in faror of 393. Prophet.?
Greece, and throw into the scale in the conThe first effect of the destruction of the jani-flict with that power the weight of their arms
zaries appeared in the negotiations and the terror of their name. Pressed by so Conferences
s between Russia and the Porte, which, many dangers, the Ottoman government, though at Acker: as a humiliation to Ottoman pride, with no intention, as it ultimately appeared, of man, and the Emperor Nicholas had directed adhering to their engagements, resolved on subdemands of to be transferred to Ackerman, a mission; and, on the last day allowed, Russia. town of Bessarabia, in the Russian their plenipotentiaries signed the cele- Oct.
· Oct. 8. dominions. The conference began on the 1st of brated Convention of Ackerman, which has erer August. Great difficulty was experienced in the since occupied so prominent a place in the dioutset, as might have been expected, when the plomacy of the East. Some delay occurred in pride of the Osmanlis was compelled to yield to the ratification of the Sultan, but at
2 Ann. Hist. the stern necessity of the times, and the Russians length it too was adhibited, and the ix. 396, 397; made the most of the extraordinary advantages act became part of the international Ann. Reg. which circumstances had thrown in their way to law of the two empires.?
1826, 174. exact the most rigorous terms from their ancient By the treaty, which was reduced into the antagonists. The demands of Russia related form of two conventions, it was stip- 17. chiefly to three points : 1st, The immediate res- ulated-1. That the whole provisions Its provistitution of the whole six fortresses in Asia, which of the treaty of Bucharest, of 17th ions. the Turks were bound to cede to the Russians June, 1812, were ratified and confirmed in their by the last pacification, but of which they had fullest extent. 2. Certain stipulations favorable only given up two; 2d, The relations and legal | to Russia, in regard to two large islands in the privileges of the inhabitants of Wallacbia and mouth of the Danube, contained in a convenMoldavia, of which the emperor had been de- tion between the two powers on 22d August, clared the guardian by the treaties of Kainardji 1817, were ratified and renewed. 3. The Suband Bucharest; 3d, The political emancipation lime Porte solemnly engaged to observe all the of the Servians, whose present chief, Prince Mo-treaties, privileges, and acts, on every occasion, losch, had obtained his appointment contrary to in favor of the provinces of Moldavia and Walthe wishes of Russia, to the partisans of which lachia, contained in the treaty of Bucharest, as he had showed himself peculiarly hostile. At also the hatti-sheriff of 1802, which enumerated