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and Character. His Views in regard to the Rev e rs, which is not adopted.-Victory of the Poles
olution. — Chlopicki's military Preparations. - 1 at Iganie.-Cholera breaks out in the Polish Ar-
Strange Conduct of Constantine.-Unsuccessful my, which is arrested in its Advance.-Bad Suc-
Negotiations with Nicholas.--Preparations and cess of Sierawiki on the right.-Defeat of Dwer-
Conference of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. – nicki in Volhynia, who is obliged to take Ref.
Secret Views of Austria and France at this junc uge in Gallicia.--Insurrection in Podolia and the
ture.-Great Britain declines to join France in Ukraine, and its final Discomfiture.-Operations
interfering in favor of Poland. - Chlopicki Re in the Centre.-Expedition of Chrzanowski into
signs the Dictatorship on the Meeting of the Diet, Volhynia, and its Defeat.—March of Skrzynecki
20th December, and is reappointed. — His first against the Russian Right. - Diebitch marches
Acts after his Appointment.-Menacing Procla against the Polish Rear.- Battle of Ostrolenka.
mation, and vast Preparations of the Czar.-Man -Repulse of the Poles.--Its Results.-Death of
ifesto of the Polish Diet.-Chlopicki's vain Efforts Diebitch and the Grand-duke Constantine --Sus.
to bring about an Accommodation.—The Czar is pension of Hostilities of the two Armies, and Ap-
dethroned by the Diet.-Slatistics of the Strength pointment of Paskiewitch to the Command.--In-
of Russia at this period.--Statistics of the King. surrection in Lithuania, and final Defeat of Giel.
dom of Poland.--Statistics of Austrian and Prus gud.-Battle of Wilna, and Defeat of the Poles.
sian Poland.--Statistics of Lithuania and Rus --Desperate State of the Poles, and Plan of Pas-
sian Poland. - Military Forces on the opposite kiewitch.---Paskiewitch's Plans and Forces, and
Sides.--Strategetical Advantages of the Poles.-| Preparations of the Poles.-Paskiewitch cross-
Advance of Diebitch toward Warsaw.-Position es the Vistula.-Fall of Skrzynecki, who is suc-
and Forces on the opposite Sides. – Battle of ceeded by Dembinski.-Massacres in Warsaw.-
Grochow. - Battle of Praga. - Desperate and Preparations and Forces on both sides for the
bloody Nature of the Conflict.--Results of these final Struggle.- Victory of Ramorino over Rosen
Battles.-Splendid Success of Dwernicki on the and Golowin. - Assault of Warsaw.–Vain At.
Polish right.-Parallel of Grochow and Sieroc tempt at Negotiation.-Fall of Warsaw. – The
zyn with Inkermann and Balaklava.-Operations Remainder of the Polish Troops take Refuge
of Dwernicki on the left Bank of the Vistula. in Austria and Prussia.-Results of the War to
Skrzynecki appointed Generalissimo by the Diet. both parties. - Conduct of Nicholas in Poland
-His Biography and Character.--Ineffectual At after the War, and in the Cholera.-Reflections
tempts at a Negotiation, and vigorous Prepara. on the Fall of Poland. - Excess of Democracy
tions of Skrzynecki.--Skrzynecki's Plan of Op in Poland ruined every thing.--Democracy has
erations.-Forces at his Disposal.-Skrzynecki's | doubled the Strength of Russia, and prevented
brilliant Success in the Centre. - Total Defeat the Restoration of Poland. - Unity of the East
of the Russians. - Great Success of the Poles is its Strength, Divisions of the West its Weak.
in the Pursuit. - Chances which now awaited ness.-Restoration of Poland essential to Inde-
Skrzynecki.-Opinion of Prondzynski and oth! pendence of Europe.

HISTORY OF EUROPE.

CHAPTER XIII.

ASIA MINOR AND GREECE: THEIR SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND STATISTICAL STATE-TURKEY.

In the stationary nations of Western Europe, the European race in the New. If we would

where the inhabitants have in a find a parallel to the vast swarms of Celts, Wars of Re- manner

Res manner taken root in the soil, and Scythians, Goths, Huns, Saxons, Arabs, and volution in the broad Atlantic alike forbids the Turks, who have successively invaded Euthe West, entrance, and for long precludes the rope and Africa from the eastward, and continand of Race in the East.

further migration of man, the con- ued their devastating advance till they were

tests of the species are chiefly social stopped by the waves of the Atlantic, we must or religious. It is difference of faith or of po- come down to the present day, when still greatlitical privileges which arms one part of the er hosts of civilized emigrants issue annually people against the other; and foreign wars, not from the harbors of Great Britain and Germany, less than internal discord, arise chiefly from the to seek in Transatlantic wilds or Australian efforts which one part of the nation makes to steppes the means of livelihood and the pleasalter the creed or shake off the institutions ures of independence, till they are stopped by which have been imposed upon it by the other. the waters of the Pacific. But the inroad of civ. But in the Eastern states, and where nations ilized is more fatal to the original inhabitants have been exposed in successive ages to the in than that of savage man; the fire-water of the roads of different tribes, issuing from that great Christian destroys the species more effectually nursery of migratory man, the table-land of than the cimeter of the Osmanli. The last Central Asia, the case is widely different. Ex spares some, and permits in the end a mingled ternal wars, not less than internal convulsions, race of victors and vanquished to spring up there arise, for the most part, from the violent together on the conquered lands; the first utsuperinduction of one race of men upon another terly extirpates the original race, and leaves -of a new horde upon the original settlers. only its remains, like those of the mammoth, The attempt to effect this induces, in the first to excite the wonder of future generations of instance, the most terrible wars of invasion; men. for what will men not do to prevent the inroad From these passions acting with equal force, of a barbarous invader into their lands, their and with the same consequences, 3. hearths, their temples 1-in the last, the not less upon distant lands in different stages They have frightful civil dissensions in the efforts which a of human existence, have arisen the produced

the greatest long course of oppression at length rouses the greatest and most renowned wars, the wars res subjected people to make, to throw off the yoke most melancholy devastations, the corded in of their oppressors.

greatest impulse to exertion, which history. « Proud of the yoke, and pliant to the rod,

| have formed the subject of poetry and history Why yet does Asia dread a monarch's nod,

from the earliest ages to the present time. While European freedom still withstands. The encroaching tide that drowns her lessening

From the time when the genius of Homer first lands!

sung the effort of Greece to repel the predatory And sees far off, with an indignant groan,

inroads of Asia, and Iphigenia offered herself a Her native plains and empires once her own."*

willing sacrifice, that the Grecian maidens The two great moving powers of mankind might sleep in peace, secure from the Eastern

are the unseen but constantly acting ravishers,* to these times, when, after a frightEffect of springs of all these changes. Provi- ful but glorious struggle, the classic land of these differ. dence, to carry out the work of hu- Hellas has been again liberated from its opent pas.. man progress and the dispersion of pressors, and the Athenian damsels are secure sions in ef. feeting the

the mankind, has impressed, in an equal. from the slavery of the Turkish harems, the dispersion ly indelible manner, upon the tribes greatest struggles of mankind have been beof man of Central Asia, the passion for mikind.

**Das ganze grosse Griechenland hat jetzt gration, and upon the inhabitants of

Die Augen auf mich Einzige gerichtet. Western Europe the lore of freedom. From Ich mache seine Flotte frei-durch mich the first bas arisen the peopling of Europe and

Wird Phrygien erobert. Wenn fortan

Kein griechisch Weib mehr zittern darf, gewaltsam
the dispersion of the Asiatic race through the Aus Hellas sel'gem Boden weggeschleppt
Old World; from the last, the civilization of Zu werden von Barbaren, die nunmehr
America and Australia, and the settlement of Für Paris Frevelthat so fürchterlich

Bezahlen müssen."
GRAY,

SCHILLER, Iphigenie in Aulis, Act, y. scene 5. Vol. IL-A

6.

tween the invading and conquering East and visage, it is transmitted unchanged from genthe defensive but indomitable West.

eration to generation; unlike the fleeting fervor Defeated at Salamis and Platæa, long kept at of cities, which is readily diverted by new ob

bay by the discipline of the Legions, l jects of pursuit, it slumbers undecayed in the Lasting con- pierced to the heart by the strength solitude of rural life, and, after the lapse of quests of the of the Empire, the East in the end centuries, bursts forth with undiminished fury, East over asserted its superiority over the when circumstances occur which fan the embers the West.

· West, and resumed its place as the into a flame. The most animating and heartgreat aggressive and conquering power. Its stirring events which are recounted in the sucswarms, long pent up, at length burst forth; ceeding pages have arisen from the conflict of the Goths broke through the barriers of the races, which, as more wide-spread and lasting, Danube and the Rhine, and fixed their lasting have in a great degree superseded that of social abode in the decaying provinces of the Roman change. empire; the Arabs issued from their fiery des- Placed on the confines of Europe and Asia, erts with the Koran in one hand and the cim- the regions which formerly formed eter in the other, penetrated through Africa part of the Byzantine, and now Strife di races and Spain into the heart of France, and were compose the TURKISH EMPIRE, have peculiarly ve. only arrested by the enthusiasm of the Crusades in every age been the chief seat of hement in the on the shores of Palestine; the Huns and Scla- these frightful contests. The coasts 1

Turkish emvonians' spread over Eastern Europe, and set- of the Euxine, the isles of the Arch-P

mpire. tled themselves in the plains of Poland and ipelago, the shores of the Danube, the mountains Hungary; the Turks stormed Constantinople of Greece, have from the earliest times been the itself, and subdued the finest provinces of the battle-field between Europe and Asia. When Eastern Empire. Europe may boast its cour- the vast stream of the Crusaders poured across age, its freedom, its energy, and every quarter the Hellespont, they wound unconsciously of the globe attests its industry or its prowess; around the tombs of Achilles and Ajax; they but history tells a different tale, and points to trod the fields of the Scamander, they drank at Asia as the cradle of the lasting conquerors of the fountain at the Scæan gate. The environs mankind. It required the genius of Alexander of Jerusalem have been the theatre of the greatto advance his phalanx into the centre of Asia, est and most heart-stirring conflict which has the energy of England to urge her standards occurred since Titus drew his trenches round into the mountains of Cabul; but neither were the devoted city. The plains of Bessarabia, able to effect a permanent settlement in the re- broken only by the Scythian tumuli, are whitgions they had overrun; while, without mili-ened by the bones of those swarms of warriors tary genius, discipline, or warlike resources, whose names, as a Russian poet expresses it, the Eastern tribes have in every age settled “are known only to God;" the walls of Byzanthemselves as permanent conquerors in the tium, which for a thousand years singly sustainEuropean fields. Where will the traveler find, ed the fortunes of the Empire, yielded at length in the Asiatic realms, a trace of the European to the fierce assault of the Osmanlis; the island race-where, in the European, are the descend-of Rhodes has witnessed the most glorious conants of the Asiatic not to be found?

flict that ever occurred between the enthusiasm From this ceaseless pressure of the East on of the East and the heroism of the West; the

the West has arisen not merely wars straits of The, mopylæ have in our day been Wars of of invasion, but social conflicts, in signalized by second acts of devotion; the Ægeraces in the the east of Europe, entirely different an Sea has reddened with other conflagrations east of Eu- from those which have divided the than that of Salamis; the Russians and the rope.

Western nations. The barbarians Turks are now combating on the banks of the who, issuing from Asia, succeeded in establish-Danube, at the same spots where, fourteen huning themselves in Europe, formed permanent dred years ago, the hordes of the Goths broke settlements, appropriated the land in whole or into the decaying fields of Roman civilization. part to themselves, and transmitted it, as they From this peculiarity in their geographical hoped, in peace to their descendants. But they history has arisen the great variety were not permitted to remain in quiet posses- of different races who now inhabit Variety of sion of their new acquisitions; another swarm the vast provinces of the Turkish races in the followed in their footsteps, and they were empire, and the inextinguishable ha- Turkish do

minions. themselves overwhelmed by the waves of con- tred with which they are animated" quest. Thence succeeded the fiercest and most against each other. The Persians, the Romans, enduring conflicts which have ever divided the Goths, the Russians, the Arabs, the Vandals, mankind - those where different conquering the Franks, the Venetians, the Christians, the races settled in the same territories, and con- Mohammedans, have at different times contendtended with each other for its government, its ed, and alternately obtained the mastery in its lands, its revenues, its women. The strife of vast dominion. They have all left their chilRaces is more lasting, their enmity more invet-dren in the land. Besides the descendants of erate, their hostility more persevering, than the original Greeks, whom the King of Men that of parties. The animosity of the Magyar ruled at the siege of Troy, or Alexander led to against the German, of the Pole against the the conquest of Asia, there are now to be found Russian, of the Italian against the German, of in it the bold Wallachian, who has fearlessly the Celt against the Anglo-Saxon, of the Greek settled in the land which has been desolated against the Turk, is more fierce and indelible by the wars of three thousand years; the free than that of the democrat against the aristo- and independent Servian, who has never ceased crat, or the republican against the royalist. to contend, even amidst Turkish bonds, for the Like the color of the hair or the tint of the freedom of his native steppe; the patient and

5.

7.

mans.

industrious Bulgarian, who has often found pro- and conquering mankind to pacify and bless tection and happiness in the recesses of the Bal- them, like the legions which followed the eakan; the fierce and indomitable Albanian, who, gles of Rome to the extremities of the earth. sinee the days of Scanderbeg, has maintained a ľt is more akin to the establishment and sysdesultory warfare with his oppressors in his tem of government of the Normans in England, Dative mountains; the effeminate Syrian, who where the people were not only conquered, but bows his neck, as in ancient days, to every in- retained in subjection by force, and sixty thouvader; the unchanging Israelite, who has pre- sand horsemen annually assembled at Winchesserved his faith and usages inviolate since the ter to overawe and intimidate the subject realm. days of Abraham; the wandering Arab, whose Their number is small compared to the entire hand is still against every man, and every man's population of the country. "Three millions of against him; the passive and laborious Egyp- Osmanlis in Europe are thinly scattered over a tian, who toils a slave on the banks of the Nile, territory containing twelve or thirteen millions from whence his ancestors, under Sesostris, is- of Christian subjects; but they are all armed, sued to conquer the world. And over all are and ready to become soldiers; they are in posplaced as rulers the brave and haughty Osman- session of the whole fortresses, harbors, and fis, who govern, but do not cultivate the land, strongholds of the kingdom; they have the and who, in Europe, not more than three millcommand of the government, the treasury, the ions in number, maintain their sway over four capital, and the great cities: the Christians are times that number of impatient and suffering scattered over the country, and depressed by subjects.

centuries of servitude; the Turks are concen. To govern dominions so vast, and inhabited trated in towns, and rendered confident by the

by so great a variety of different long exercise of power. Division of and hostile nations, must, under What renders the government of the Christhe Christians any circumstances, have been a tians, though so superior in number, 10. and Mussul- matter of difficulty; but in addi- by the Mohammedans more easy in Division tion to this there was superadded, Turkey, is the variety of tribes and of races in

Turkey ren. in the case of Turkey, a still more fatal and in- races of which the subjected popu- de

ders govern delible source of discord, which was the differ- lation is composed, their separation ment more ence of Religion. Turkey, even in Asia, is not, from each other by mountains, seas, easy. properly speaking, a Mohammedan country. and entire want of roads, and the complete uniThe Seven Churches were established in Asia ty of action and identity of purpose in the domMinor in the days of the Apostles; the Empire inant race. The Greeks are not only a different of the East had embraced the faith of the Ĝos- race, but speak a different language from the pel four centuries before Christianity had spread Bulgarians: the Servians are a separate tribe in Western Europe. We are accustomed, from from the Wallachians, the Albanians from both. its ruling power, and its position in the map, to The Greek of the Fanar* has nothing in common consider Turkey as a Mohammedan state, for- with the peasant of Roumelia; the Armenian getting that Christianity had been established with the Syrian; the Egyptian with the Capover its whole extent a thousand years before padocian; the Jew with the Albanian. These Constantinople yielded to the assault of Moham- different nations and tribes have separate feel. med, and that the transference to the creed of ings, descent, and interests; they are severed Mohammed was as violent a change as if it were from each other by recollections, habits, instinow to be imposed by foreign conquest on France tutions; vast ranges of mountains, in Greece, or England. Even at this time, after four centu- Macedonia, and Asia Minor, part them; roads, ries of Mohammedan rule, Christianity is still or even bridges, there are none, to enable the the faith of three-fourths of the whole Turkish different inhabitants of this varied realm to empire in Europe, and one-fourth in Asia. Cast communicate with each other, ascertain their down, reviled, persecuted, the followers of Je- common wrongs, or enter into any common desus, from generation to generation, have ad- signs for their liberation. On the other hand, hered to the faith of their fathers: it still forms the Turks, in possession of the incomparable the distinguishing mark between them and their harbor and central capital of Constantinople, oppressors: more even than difference of race it with the Euxine and the Black Sea for their inhas severed the two great families of mankind; terior line of communication, are a homogeneand when the Greek revolution broke out, the ous race, speaking one language, professing one cry was not “Independence to Greece," but religion, animated by one spirit, swayed by one * Vietory to the Cross.”

interest, and enabled, by means of the governThe system of government by which the Turks ment couriers, whose speed compensates the 9.

for four centuries have maintained difficulty of transit, to communicate one com

10 Turkish sys- themselves in their immense do- mon impulse to all parts of their vast domintem of govern- minions, and kept the command of ions. The example of the English in India is ment.

so many and such various races of sufficient to show how long the possession of men, is very simple, and more suited to Orient- these advantages is capable of enabling an inal than European ideas. It is neither the sys- considerable body of strangers to subdue and tem which distance and the extreme paucity of keep in subjection a divided multitude of nathe ruling nation has rendered a matter of ne- tions, a thousand times more numerous. cessity to the English in India--that of concil-! The military strength of the Turks, which iating the great body of the rural cultivators, was long so formidable to Europe, and more and drawing from them disciplined battalions than once put Christendom within a hair'swhich might establish their dominion over their breadth of destruction, is derived entirely from former oppressors-nor that of penetrating the

* The quarter of Constantinople where the richest and wilds of nature with the light of civilization, most intelligent of the Greeks reside.

13.

the Osmanlis. It is a fundamental maxim of as Gibbon observes, to overrun an empire than

11. their government, that the Mussul- to cross a strait. The military mans alone are to be armed, or call- As the Turks are thus the indolent, luxurious, strength of ed on to combat either foreign or do-dominant race, and the Greeks, Arthe empire

Te mestic enemies; the Christians are to menians, and other Christians the Gre entirely de

Great and raprived from be made to contribute to the expense laborious, hard - working, servant id increase or the Turks. of armaments, and uphold by their race, they have respectively un- the Christians industry the strength of the empire, but by no dergone the usual fate of mankind to

compared to

the Turks. means to be intrusted with the duty of defend-in such positions in society. The ing it in the field. The former is the generous masters have diminished, the slaves have mulwar-horse, which, sedulously trained to mili- tiplied. The lazy rulers, with their sabres, their tary exercises, is released from all toil till the horses, their harems, their coffee-houses, their glorious dangers of war commence; the latter life of repose and enjoyment, are unable to is the humble beast of burden, which is worn maintain their own numbers; the despised and out in the meaner occupations of peace, and insulted subjects, with their plows, their shutfollows at a distance his proud compeer to the tles, their oars, their single wives and cottages, field, to bear his burdens and provide for his have overspread the land with their descendsubsistence. As the military strength of the ants. They have increased in some places as empire thus depends solely on the Osmanlis, it fast, and from the same cause, as the reviled is drawn from a comparatively limited body, Catholic Celt under Protestant and Orange domand depends entirely on their spirit and cour ination did in Ireland. In the level country, age. Yet is this difference between the Turks indeed, where the horsemen of the Osmanlis and other homogeneous nations greater in ap have found it easy to extend their ravages, and pearance than reality. Except in periods of the pachas their oppression, the human race extraordinary excitement, when the whole na- has in many places wholly disappeared, and the tion, under the influence of an ungovernable mournful traveler, after traversing for days toimpulse, runs to arms, the military strength of gether the richest plains, studded with the ruins every people is derived from a portion only of of ancient cities, now left without a single inits inhabitants. The military caste is seldom habitant, has repeatedly expressed a dread of more than a third or a fourth of the whole the entire extirpation of the human species in number; and if, as in Turkey, that proportion the very garden of nature, the places in the is all trained to arms as a profession, and en-world best adapted for its reception. * But this gages in no other, it is fully as much as the la- is sometimes the result rather of a migration bor of the remainder of the people can main-than an absolute diminution of inhabitants. In tain in idleness, ever ready for the toils of war. the mountains where the janizaries have not Asthe Turks are the military caste upon whom been able to penetrate, or the regions where the

12. the whole strength in war of the Otto tyranny of the pachas has been exchanged for The whole man empire depends, so the Christians a fixed tribute-in Servia, Bosnia, Bulgaria, civil busi- are the industrious class upon whom the fastnesses of Albania, the Taurus, and Lebness of the

of the its whole riches and material pros-anon—the human race is increasing with great country is conducted perity rest. The natural and inevit-

* "En général, pour les productions, le paysan en Tur. by the

quie ne demande à la terre que ce dont il a rigoureusement Greeks. of intelligence over strength, never | besoin pour sa subsistanc

besoin pour sa subsistance, et le reste est livré à l'abanappeared more strongly than in the destinies of con. La parte

don. La partie qui avoisine les côtes, jusqu'à une dis

tance de quinze à vingt lieues, est plus généralement la the Greek people. Still, as in ancient times, 1 mieux cultivée ; mais au-delà l'on marche souvent, pen

dant plusieurs heures, à travers de vastes espaces en querors; if the sword of the Osmanlis, as of the

friche, remplis de broussailles et de mauvaises herbes.

dont la vigueur de végétation atteste la fécondité et la Romans, has subdued their bodies, their minds

richesse productive du sol. A voir ce délaissement de have again reasserted the ascendency over their l'agriculture dans la Roumélie, on serait tenté de croire à oppressors. The Greeks at Constantinople seem la réalite de ce dicton, beaucoup plus commun parmi nous rather the allies than the subjects of the Turks.

qu'en Turquie, que les Turcs ne se considèrent que com

me campes en Europe, et qu'ils détachent, peu à peu, The same is the case in most of the other great

leurs pensées des provinces qu'ils sentent leur échapper

pour les rapporter de préférence sur cette terre d'Asie, pensable, their superiority still more manifest, in

qui fut le berceau de leur nation. Cependant, si nous por

tons nos regards de l'autre côté des détroits, l'aspect ne the divans of all the pachas. The Turks, who

change pas : même fertilité partout, et méme désolation. long, above all things, after repose, and know Si l'on excepte quelques riches plaines de l'Asie Mineure, no excitement but love and war, leave the whole vous n'apercevez presque nullepart quelque trace de cul

ture. De vastes solitudes, coupées à de lointains intermanagement of affairs to the Greeks: civil ad

valles par quelques tentes de tribus Kurds ou Turcomans, min

des forêts de pins et de chênes, que le gouvernement livre letters, the arts, commerce, manufactures, in- | à la discrétion de quiconque veut les exploiter, sur la ré

serve de trois pour cent, sur la vente du bois ; le désert dustry, navigation, all are in their hands. The

presque à la sortie des villes, de loin en loin échelonnés Turks command, and are alone intrusted with

parfois à des distances de neuf ou dix heures de marche : military power; but the Greeks direct the com des villages, dont le misérable aspect contraste péniblemander, often in military, always in civil affairs.

ment avec la richesse de la végétation qui les entoure.

Voilà ce qui s'offre à la vue du voyageur sur cette terre, The seamen of the Archipelago, skillful now as qui portait indis tant de villes fame

qui portait jadis tant de villes fameuses-Pergame, Sardis, when they rolled back the tide of Persian in-| Troie, Nicomédie, et toutes les autres dont le nom seul a vas

survécu. M. de 'Tchitchatchef mentionne une plaine qui

s'étend sur un surface de 600 milles géographiques carrés, commerce of the empire in their hands; for al- | et qui offre à peine 50 milles cultivés. La production anthough the Turks are admirable horsemen and nuelle de céréales en Asie Mineure évaluée à 705,100,000

... most formidable soldiers by land, kilogrammes, ou 9,263,000 hectolitres (5,500,000 quarI Lam. vil. they have a superstitious aversion

ters), et représentant une valeur de 75,000,000 francs 325, 326.

2.000.0005, atteindrait aisément le quintuple, et meme to the sea,' and often find it easier, le décuple."--UBICINI, 366, 307.

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