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CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

the Serri

CHAPTER XIII.

--Intervention of Peter the Great in the Affairs

of neighboring States. --- Establishment of the
ASIA MINOR AND GREECE: TJIEIR SOCIAL, POLIT.

Russians in the Caucasus and on the Caspian.
ICAL, AND STATISTICAL STATE-TURKEY.

--Acceptance of the Crown of Georgia by the
Wars of Rerolution in the West, and of Race in Emperor Alexander. - Wars with the Cauca-
the East. - Effect of these different Passions in sians, and fresh Rupture with Turkey and Per.
effecting the Dispersion of Mankind. They have sia. - Battle of Elizabethpol.-Glorious Peace
produced the greatest Wars recorded in History. with Persia.--- Affairs of Wallachia and Molda-
-Lasting Conquests of the East over the West. via.-Russian System of Intervention regarding
-Wars of Races in the East of Europe.-Strife them.-Repeated Insurrections of the Greeks.
of Races peculiarly vehement in the Turkish Mutual Exasperation of the Greeks and Turks.-
Empire.- Variety of Races in the Turkish Do Insurrection of Ali Pacha.--Statistics of Greece.
minions.-Division of the Christians and Mus -Defensible Nature of the Country.-Clarke's
sulmans.-Turkish System of Government.-Di Description of Greece.
rision of Races in Turkey renders Government
more easy. The military Strength of the Em-

CHAPTER XIV.
pire entirely derived from the Turks.-The whole
ciril Business of the Country is conducted by

GREEK REVOLUTION-BATTLE OF NAVARINO-ES-

TABLISHMENT OF GREEK INDEPENDENCE.
the Greeks. - Great and rapid Increase of the
Christians compared to the Turks.-- Picture of Elements remaining of Grecian Resurrection.-Re-

Servians by Lamartine.-General Decrease of cent favorable Circumstances in the Condition of
Population in Turkey.--Statistics of Turkey.-- Greece.--Recent Spread of Information, and Pas-
In wbat does Turkish Oppression consist?- The sion for Independence.-Formation of the Socie-
Lives and Property of all belong to the Sultan. ty of the Hetairists.--Different Gradations in the
Great extent of Land in Turkey held in Mort Hetairists.-Extraordinary Secrecy preserved re.
main.-Injury done to Turkey by Importation. garding the Affairs of the Society. Their Eyes
Universal Venality in the holders of Office.-Ru are all fixed on Russia. --Cession of Parga in
inous Weakness of the Executive.-Venality and 1819. - Consternation of the Pargiotes at their
Corruption of Justice.-Contrary Principles of Abandonment.--Heart-rending Scene at the Evac.
good in Turkey : Weakness of Power. - And uation of ihe Town.-Debates on this Subject in
Want of the Means of Communication.-Excel Parliament.--Effect of the Spanish Revolution
lent Qualities in the Turkish Character. - The on Turkey and Greece.--State of Turkey at this
Theory of the central Government is compar Period. - Its Weakness in a military point of
atively mild.-Institution of Ayams. — The Vila View.- Commencement of the Insurrection in
lage System.-Small Revenue derived from Tur Wallachia. - Ipsilanti's Insurrection in Molda-
key. Great Population of the Towns, and De via.—Ipsilanti's first Measures.-Reasons which
cline of the Country.--Multitude of idle Servants urged the Emperor Alexander to intervene in Tur-
in the Country:-Variable Strength of the Tur. key at this time.-Reasons which induced him to
kish Empire.-Great Vicissitudes in the History remain neutral. - Ethusiasm of the Turks, and
of Turkey-Independent Position of the larger Measures taken against Ipsilanti.-Commence-
Pachas, and consequent Weakness of the central ment of the Insurrection in Greece Proper and
Power.- Vast Influence of Constantinople on the the Islands.—The Insurrection spreads over all
Fortunes of Mankind. Its incomparable Situa Greece.-Violent Excitement at Constantinople,
tion.-Description of the City.- Description of and Murder of the Patriarch. — Succession of
the City, as seen from the Sea.-Defects of its In Murders by the Turks.–Vigorous Measures of
terior.- Population of Constantinople, and Equal. Sultan Mahmoud.-Atrocious Acts of Cruelty in
ity of the Sexes.--Maritime Forces of Turkey | Asia Minor.-Massacres in Cyprus.--Universal
and Greece.-The Janizaries.- Turkish Cavalry. Spread of the Insurrection in Greece.--Official
- The Advantages of the Turks in this respect Declaration of Russia against Ipsilanti.-Treach-
are now lost.-In what the Strength of the Turks ery and Death of Theodore.-Defeat of the Insur-
now consists.-Where are the Turks now stron-

gents at Galatz. Disasters of Ipsilanti. His to-
gest in War?-Turkish Fortifications, and Mode tal Defeat at Dragaschan.-Naval Successes of
of defending them.--Causes of the obstinate De the Greeks.--Bloody Action in Cydonia.-Suc-
sense of fortified Cities by the Turks.--Russian cesses of the Turks in the Morea.--Battle of Val.
Mode of fighting the Turks.-Triple Barrier which tezza.-Raising of the Siege of Athens, and De-
defends Constantinople.The Danube as a fron feat of the Turks in Thernopylæ.-Siege of Tri.
uer Stream - The Balkan.- Country between politza : its Description.- Progress of the Siege.
the Balkan and Constantinople.—The Command -Storm and Massacre of Tripolitza. — Import-
of the Sea, or the Support of Austria, is essential ance of the Conquest, and subsequent Measures
to the Success of Russia. < Schumla: its De. of the Greeks. - Fresh Massacre of the Chris-
scription. -- Asiatic Defense of Turkey: The tians in Smyrna.-Operations of Chourchid Pa-
Caucasus. - Its Value as a military Barrier. - cha before Janina. Fall and Recapture of Arta.
Description of the Passes through the Cauca. -Failure of the Greeks before Napoli di Roma-
sus.- Description of Asia Minor.-Military Re. nia and Patras.--Forcing of the Line of Cassan-
sources of Asia Minor.--Mountainous Nature of dra.-Operations in Crete.-Was with Persia.-
the Country, and Want of Roads. -The Cauca. Angry Negotiations with Russia.-Russian Ulti.
sian Tribes.-Russian Policy of Intervention. maluin, and its Refusal by the Divan.-Ultima.
Examples of the Application of this Principle. I tum of the Turks.-Efforts of Lord Strangford,

hip of the Line-

s Results of this c

the English Minister, to avert a Rupture. --Alarm-1 Despondence in Greece.-Deplorable Condition
ing State of Constantinople, and Efforts of the of Greece in the end of 1825 and opening of 1826.
Embassadors.- Formation of a Constitution, and -Commencement of the Negotiations for the In-
Proclamation of independence of Greece.-Ca dependence of Greece.-Conclusion of the first
pitulation of Ali Pacha.-Perfidious Seizure and Protocol in favor of the Greeks.-Its Provisions.
Death of Ali Pacha.-Sensation this produced at -Operations in Attica.--Deplorable Situation of
Constantinople.--Turkish Plan of the Campaign. Greece at this period.-Naval Operations.-Pro-
-Success of the Fleet, and Defeat of Chourchid gress of the Siege of Athens.-Unsuccessful At-
Pacha by the Souliotes.--Extension of the Insur tempts to raise the Siege of Athens, and its Fall.
rection to Chios.-Frightful Massacre in the Isl. -Treaty of 6th July.Its Provisions.-Counter
and by the Turks.-General Massacre in the Isl Manifesto of the Porte.-Strength of the allied
and. --Signal Retribution which befell the Turks. Squadron. — Preparations of the Porte. — Final
-Operations of the Greek Fleet against the Turks. Note of the Allies to the Porte.-Ibrahim's War
-Successful Attack on the Turkish Fleet.-De of Extermination in the Morea. — Plans of the
struction of the Admiral's Ship.--Renewed Massa Admirals in consequence.--Forces on both sides.
cre in Chios.-Unsuccessful Expedition of Mav. Commencement of the Battle. - The Battle,
rocordato into Epirus.-Insurrection, and its Sup. and Defeat of the Turks.-Results of the Action.
pression, in Macedonia.--Grand Invasion of the -Ibrahim's Proceedings after the Battle.-Final
Morea.- Dangerous Position of the Turks, and Rupture of the Turks with the allied Powers.-
able Measures of the Greeks.--Disastrous Retreat Universal Transports in Greece at the Battle.--
of the Turks.-Further Successes of the Greeks. Immense Sensation produced by the News over
--First Siege of Missolonghi.-Operations in Cy. Christendom.-Who was the Aggressor at Nava-
prus and Crete.-Fall of Napoli di Romania. rino ?- The Greek War was a Strife of Religion
Fresh naval Successes of the Greeks.-Destruc and Race, not Principles.-The great Error com-
tion of another Turkish Ship of the Line.-Glo mitted was, that the European Nations did not
s Results of this Campaign to the Greeks.-!

sooner interfere, and in behalf of the Greeks.-
Their Losses.-Dreadful Earthquakes in Asia Mi Difficulty of the Eastern Question.-The Divi-
nor.-Negotiations with Russia during the Year. sion of Race and Religion in Turkey is no Bar
-The Congress of Verona declines to recognize to the Establishment of a Christian Monarchy.-
the Greek State.-Revolution at Constantinople Prosperous Condition of Greece since its Inde-
in favor of the Janizaries.-Dreadful Fire at Con. pendence. --
stantinople in Spring 1823.- Preparations of the
Turks for the next Campaign. — Destruction of

CHAPTER XV.
Part of Drama-Ali's Corps by Niketas.-Divi-

RUSSIA AND TURKEY, FROM THE ACCESSION OF
sions among the Greeks, - Plan of the Campaign

NICHOLAS IN 1825, TO THE PEACE OF ADRIANO-
on the part of the Turks. -- Dispositions of the

PLE IN 1820.
Greeks.-Early Successes of the Greeks.-Vic-
tory of the Greeks on Mount Helicon.—Divi. All the Wars of Europe, from 1815 to 1830, were
sions among the Greeks in the Morea.---Revolt Wars with the Mohammedans. - Rupture with
of the Albanians, and Advance of the Pacha of the Mohammedan Powers on the Accession of
Scodra.-Nocturnal Surprise of the Turks, and Nicholas. -- Advantages gained by Russia over
Death of Mark Bozzaris.-Commencement of the Persia.-Repeated Defeats of the Persians by the
Siege of Anatolico.-Operations in Candia dur Russians.-Statistics of Russia at this period. -
ing 1823.-Naval Campaign of 1823.-Increased State of the Negotiations between Russia and
Dissensions in the Morea.-Increasing Interest Turkey. - Measures contemplated against the
in Greece abroad. Arrival of Lord Byron at Mis Janizaries.--New Statute regarding the Janiza-
solonghi.-Continued Divisions of the Greeks. ries.-Insurrection of the Janizaries.-Vigorous
Contraction of the Greek Loan. - Preparations Measures of Sultan Mahmoud. - Defeat of the
and Plan of the Campaign by the Turks.-Oper. Janizaries.--Cruel Executions in Constantino-
ations of the Turks in the Archipelago.-Attack ple.--Effect of this Revolution on the Negotia-
on Spezzia and lpsara.-Capture and Destruc tions with Russia.--Civil Reforms of the Sultan.
tion of Ipsara.-Glorious Resistance of the Psar - Conferences at Ackerman, and Demands of
riotes. - Immense Spoil made by the Turks in Russia.-The Russian Demands are acceded to
Ipsara. - Gallant Conduct of the Greeks after without Reservation. — Its Provisions. Their
this Disaster.-Defeat of the Turks in the Straits disastrous Consequences to Turkey. - Sultan
of Samos.—Junction of the Turkish and Egyp Mahmoud continues his Reforms.--Internal Re.
tian Fleets. – Naval Victories of the Greeks. forms of Nicholas in Russia.--Operations in Per-
Land Operations in Eastern Greece. — Results sia. - Battle of Djevan-Boulak. -- Battle of the
of the Campaign by Sea and Land.-Renewed Abbarane. - Fall of Sardarabad and Erivan.-
Dissensions in Greece.-Death of Odysseus. Capture of Tauris.--Peace with Persia.-Prepa.
Curious Statistics of Athens and Attica.-Favor. rations of Russia for a War with Turkey.-Fresh
able Prospects of Greece in the opening of 1825. Rupture with Persia, and Conclusion of the Peace
- Preparations of the Turks.-Landing of Ibra at Tourkmantchai.-Mutual Recriminations of
him Pacha at Modon.-Defeat of the Greeks by the Russians and Turks.-Forces of the Rus.
Ibrahim Pacha.- Capture of Sphacteria by Ibra sians. - Passage of the Pruth, and Commence-
him.-Capture of Navarino.-Naval Successes ment of the Campaign. - Preparations of the
of the Greeks.- Victory of Sakhtouri over the Turks. --Forces they had collected in Europe
Capitan Pacha.--Successes of Ibrahim, and gal and Asia.--Russian Plan of the Campaign, and
lant Resistance near Arcadia. Further Success its Dangers.—Which was mainly based on the
es of Ibrahim, and Capture of IT'ripolitza.-Fresh Command of the Sea.- Passage of the Danube
Defeat of the Greeks. - Commencement of the by the Russians. - First Operations : Fall of
second Siege of Missolonghi, and Description of Kustendji.--Siege of Brahilov : its Description.
the Place.-First Operations of the Siege.-Rais -Commencement of the Siege.-Bloody Repulse
ing of the Blockade of Missolonghi by Sea.--At. of the Assault.-Fall of the Place. --Further Suc.
lack on the Town by a Mound, and its Defeat. cesses of the Russians, and Turkish System of
A third Assault is repulsed.-Critical Position Defense.--Capture of Anapa by the Russians.-
of the Turks, and Preparations of the Sultan. Combat of Bazardjik.-Further Cavalry Actions.
Heroic Spirit of the Garrison.-Progress of the - General Cavalry Action before Schumla. -
Turks.-Noble final Resolution of the Garrison. Blockade of Schumla, and Plans of the Russians.
--Greek Plan of a general Sortie.-Commence. -Journey of the Emperor to Odessa, and Meas.
ment of the Sortie. - Issue of the Sortie.—Vastures adopted there.--Position of the Russians.--
Effects of the Siege of Missolonghi, and general Defensive Measures of the Turks.-Operations
before Schumla.-Surprise of a Russian Redoubt. I Words of the Emperor Nicholas on this Subject.
-Attack on Prince Eugene and Eski-Stamboul. -What of the alleged Regeneration of Turkey.
--Retreat of the Russians from the South of -Astute Policy of Russia in the Treaty of Adri.
Schumla.-Operations before Varna.-Attack on anople. - Difficulty of the Conquest of Turkey
Wittgenstein-Siege of Varna.--Advance of the evinced in this War.-Great Strength of Russia
Turks to raise the Siege.-Bloody Defeat of the in Force, and of Turkey in Situation.-Cause
Russians.- The Siege is not interrupted.-Fall of the Strength of Russia in defensive, and its
of Varna.-Reflections on this Surrender.---Op Weakness in offensive War. -- Dangers of the
erations before Widdin. — Abandonment of the Russian Position in regard to Turkey. - The final
Siege of Silistria, and Retreat of the Russians Triumph of Christianity in Turkey is secure.
beyond the Danube.--Disastrous Retreat of Witt-
genstein. - Commencement of the Campaign in

CHAPTER XVI.
Asia. — Description of the Theatre of War. -

FRANCE FROM THE DEATH OF LOUIS XVIII. TO THE
Siege of Kars, and its Description.-Its Fall.-

ACCESSION OF THE POLIGNAC ADMINISTRATION.
Appearance of the Plague in the Russian Army.
- Capture of Akhalzikb. — March upon Akhal-Great Advantages of Charles X. on his Accession
zikh. – Paskewitch's Plan of Attack, and its to the Throne.-Character of Charles X.-His
Chances. — Nocturnal Attack on the Turkish Defects. — The Duke d'Angoulême is declared
Camp.-Its perilous Chances.-Desperate Con Dauphin.-The Secret Camarilla of Ecclesias-
flict on the Heights.—Total Defeat of the Turks. tics. --Entry of the King into Paris.-Abolition
-Assault of the Town.-Frightful Assault of the of the Censorship of the Press.-Dangers of this
Town.- Reduction of Alskhur and Ardagan.-- Step.--Increase of the Jesuits' Influence at the
Operations on the Russian Flanks, and Results Court, and their Efforts in the Country.--Strength
of the Campaign.--Paskewitch's Plans, and For of the Jesuit Party in the Legislature and the
mation of Mohammedan Corps. — Vigorous de Administration.-Their Opponents in the Cham-
fensive Measures of the Porte in Asia during the bers and the Press. - General Prosperity in
Winter --Assassination of the Russian Minister France. -- Injudicious Measure regarding the
at Teheran, and Siege of Akhalzikh by the Turks. Army.-Opening of the Chambers : comparative
-Siege of the Fortress by the Turks.-Extreme Strength of Parties.-Flourishing State of the
Danger of the besieged. - Their Deliverance. Finances.-Restoration of the Estates of the Or.
Measures of Paskewitch against the Persians. leans Family --Law of Indemnity to the Sufferers
Opening of the Campaign with the Turks.De. by the Revolution. Argument of M. de Martig-
feat of Hadgi Hassan. - Paskewitch's Disposi nac in favor of the Measure.-Embarrassment of
tions, and Position of the Turks.-Paskewitch's

the Government from other Claims.--Argument
Plan of Attack.-Subsequent Movements of Pas against the Project by the Liberals.-Beneficial
kewitch. - Advance upon Kainly, and Disposi Results of this Measure.--Distribution of the In-
tions of Attack.--Battle of Kainly.--Success of demnity: large Share which fell to the Duke of
the Russians in the Centre and on the left.-De Orleans and other Liberals.--Law against Sacri-
feat of the Seraskier.-Storming of the intrenched lege.-Law regarding religious Societies of Wo-
Camp at Milli-Duz.-Results of these Conflicts. men.-Measure of M. de Villele for the Reduc.
-Advance of Paskewitch against Hassan-Kale, tion of the Debt. -- Coronation of the King at
and its Fall.-Fall of Erzeroum. Further Move Rheims.-- Prosecutions against the Liberal Press.
ments.--Submission of the Pacha of Mush, and --Death and Character of General Foy.---Death
of Baibout.-Disaster before Khart.-Retreat of and Character of M. de Serres.--Recognition of
Paskewitch to Erzeroum.--Defeat of the Turks the Independence of St. Domingo.-Negotiations
in Guriel, and subsequent Checks of the Rus. for the Independence of the Spanish Colonies.--
sians.-Advance of Paskewitch against Baibout. Legislative Measures regarding St. Domingo.-
-Total Defeat of the Turks, and Termination of Law of Entail : its Necessity.- Argument against
the Campaign.-Conclusion of an Armistice, and the Law by M. Pasquier.-Answer of the Gov.
Summary of the Campaign.-Preparations of the ernment.-Result of the Debate.-Reflections on
Turks for the Campaign in Turkey in Europe. this Subject. --Statistics of Finances of 1826 and
Preparations of the Russians.-Operations dur 1827.--Measures of the Jesuits. -- Preceptor to
ing the Winter. — Retirement of Wittgenstein, the Duke of Bordeaux.--Denunciation of the Jes-
and Appointment of Diebitch to the Command-in uits by Count Montlouis.-Answer of the Jes.
Chief, --Naval Forces of the Russians and Turks. uits.-Law against the Liberty of the Press. Its
-Russian Plan of the Campaign, and Turkish, Provisions.-Universal Indignation which it ex.
and Repulse of the latter at Sizepolis.-Com cites.--Passing of the Law in a mitigated Form.
mencement of the Campaign on both Sides. - -Riot at the Funeral of the Duke de la Rouche-
Bloody Combats at Eski-Arnautlar.-Commence foucauld.--Review of the National Guard.-Dis.
ment of the Siege of Silistria, and its Descrip. banding of the National Guard.-Its immediate
tion.-First Operations of the Siege, and Red Success, and ultimate Effects.Reflections on
schid Pacha's Movement against Pravadi.-Die this Event.--Treaty of 6th July on Greece, and
bitch throws himself on the Turkish Communi Convention regarding the Slave-Trade.--Finan-
cations --Description of the Country, and Move cial Projects and Embarrassment of the Govern-
ments ofthe Armies.-Turkish Movements.-Bat. ment.-A Dissolution resolved on.--New Crea-
tle of Kouleftscha.-Fresh Dispositions of Die. tion of Peers, and Dissolution of the Chambers,
bitch.- Victory of the Russians.-Measures of Formation of the Parties, and Preparations for a
Diebitch after the Battle.- Progress of the Siege moral Struggle on both Sides.-Elections and
of Silistria, and its Fall. — Description of the Riots in Paris.--Mutual Recriminations of Min-
Passes of the Balkan.--Diebitch's Preparations isters and the Jesuits.-Dissolution of the Villèle
for passing the Balkan.-Passage of the Balkan. Administration.-Reproaches addressed to him
-Subsequent Movements of the Turks and Rus from both Parties.-Character of M. de Martig.
sians.--Successful Attack on the Turks at Sliw nac.-The new Ministry had not the Confidence
no.--Advance upon Adrianople and its Capture. of the King.-Answer of the King to the Address.
- Extended Positions of the Russians. -- Un -Legislative Measures of the Session.-It pass-
bounded Alarm at Constantinople, London, and es the Peers.--New Law regarding the Press.-
Vienna.--Treaty of Adrianople.-Convention re Law against the Jesuits. — Indignation excited
garding Wallachia and Moldavia.-Irruption of among the Jesuits ; but the Pope approves the
the Pacha of Scodra.- Affairs of Greece in 1828. Measure.---Preparations for a Change of Minis.
- Progress of the Greeks in 1829.-Convention try. -- Opening of the Chambers. - Remarkable
of March 22, 1829, regarding the Limits of Greece. Speech of Prince Polignac.--State of Parties in
-Reflections on this Convention.--Remarkable the Assembly.-Law for the departmental Munic.

ipalities, and its Defeat.-The King withdraws his and Marmont.---Abdication of Charles X.-Revo.

Measures.-State of the Legislature at the Close Jutionary Army which set out from Paris for Ram.

of the Session.-Conferences of the King and the bouillet.-Falsehoods told the King by Marshal

extreme Royalists. - Change of Ministry, and Maison.-Journey to Maintenon, and Farewell to

Prince Polignac Premier. — Importance of the the Guard.-Journey to Cherbourg. - Adieu to

Change.

the last of the Guard at Valognes.-Last Inter-

view of the King and Prince Polignac.-His Em

CHAPTER XVII.

barkation at Cherboug.-Reflections on the Fall

of the Restoration.-Charles's Error in the Con-

FRANCE FROM THE ACCESSION OF THE POLIGNAC

flict.-Difference between the Situation of France

MINISTRY TO THE FALL OF CHARLES X.

and England in this respect.--Secret Objects of

Prince Polignac: his Biography. His Character. the Liberal Opposition in France at this period.

-Character of M. de la Bourdonnaye.-M. de -Great Error in the King in the Ground he took

Bourmont.-M. de Montbel, M. de Courvoisin, for Resistance.--Extraordinary Want of Prepara-

and M. de Chabrol. - Extreme Violence of the tion on the part of the Government.--Great Fault

Liberal Press at the Ministry, and Preparations of Government in not at once arresting the Lead-

of the Liberals.-Lafayette's triumphant Journey ers of the Liberals. - Ruinous Effects of the

in the South.—Retreat of M. de la Bourdonnaye. Treachery of the Troops.---Ruinous Effects of

-M. Guizot: his Biography.- His Character this military Treachery on the Cause of Freedom

as a Writer and Statesman. -M. Berryer.-M. in France. -Great Error of the military Command-

Thiers.-Prince Polignac's Memoir.--Vast Influ ers on this Occasion.--Cause of this in the Com-

ence of the Press in France. - Vehement Hos position of the French Army.--Military Errors

tility of the Press to the Polignac Ministry. committed on the Occasion.-Mode of combating

Opening of the Chambers.-Votes on the Presi-1 an urban Insurrection.-Dangerous Influence of

dency, and Address of the Chambers. -Debate the Parti-prêtre on the Government. — Strange

on the Address.-M. Berryer's Argument against Vehemence of the Opposition which the Resto-

it. - Answer of M. Guizot and the Liberals. ration experienced in France.-Though the Con-

Vote on the Subject.-Measures of Ministers in stitution was then as popular as the Country could

consequence. - The King's Answer to the Ad bear. — Obloquy thrown on the Bourbons from

dress.-Prorogation of the Chambers, and gener their having succeeded after the national Disas-

al Agitation it excited.-Prosecutions against the ters. - Effect of the Continuance of Peace in

Press.--Report of the Finance Minister.--Its im France.-Which thwarted the strongest Passions

portant statistical Details.- Indirect Taxes and of the Revolution.-Which was the Reason why

general Revenue.- Public Debt.-General Pros the Expeditions to Spain and Algiers were un-

perity which prevailed in the Country.-General dertaken. — Political Reasons on which these

Prosperity and Discontent. - Expedition of Al. Projects were founded.-Ruinous Effects of the

giers.-Grounds of the Quarrel with Algiers, and Destruction of the Aristocracy in France.-Gen-

Negotiations with Englandon the Subject.-Mag. eral Absence of the Restraint of Religion in the

nitude of the Expedition, and its Departure. Towns. — Number of natural Children in the

Landing at Sidi-Feruch, near Algiers.--Battle of great Towns.--Effect of this in a political Point

Sidi-Feruch.-Second Victory of the French. of View.-It produced 80,000 bastard Combat-

Commencement of the Attack on Algiers, and ants in Paris. — Curious Circumstance which

Fall of the Emperor's Fort.-Fall of Algiers. mitigated these Evils.-Decline in the material

Statistics of Algiers. - Secret Agreement with Comforts of the working Classes.-Causes of this

Russia for extending the French Frontier to the miserable State of the working Classes.-Way in

Rhine.--Dissolution of the Chambers. - Result | which the Division of Land affected the Industry

of the Elections. -Resolution of the Cabinet. of the Country.--Immense Burdens on the Land

Resolution of the Cabinet on a Coup-d'état.--Re in France.-Crowding of the Inhabitants of Towns

port on the Ordonnance by M. de Chantelauze, from these Causes.-Effect of the Destruction

Lamartine on this Report.- The Ordonnances. of commercial Capital during the Revolution.-

Signing of the Ordonnances.-Reflections on the Excessive general Competition, and wretched

Ordonnances.—Total Want of Preparation for the State of the working Classes.- Want of any

Coup-d'état on the part of Ministers.--First Ef. Representation of the working Classes.- Were

fect of the Ordonnances. Commencement of the the Ordonnances illegal ? - Previous Instances

Insurrection : Signing of the Protest.--The first of royal Ordonnances not objected to.-Reasons

Disturbance.--Attitude and extraordinary Secu why Coups d'état are necessary in France.-Con-

rity of the Court.-Rapid Progress of the Insur- | duct of the King.

rection.-Meeting of the Liberal Chiefs at Casi-

mir Perier's. — Marmont's Plan of Operations,

CHAPTER XVIII.

and Commencement of the Conflict.- Vehement
Contest on the 28th.-Measures of the Govern-

LITERATURE OF FRANCE DURING AND AFTER THE

ment and Marshal Marmont.--Marmont's offens.

RESTORATION.

jve Measures, and their temporary Success. - Great Effect of the Revolution on the Literature
Operations of the second Column-Disaster of of France.--Its distinguishing Features. - Vio-
the third Column.Proceedings of the Liberal Jent Antagonism between the opposite Schools.
Chiefs.--State of Affairs at St. Cloud, and firm -Character of the romantic School.- Pernicious
ness of the King.-Feelings of the Combatants Character of their Works of Imagination.-Cor-
during the Night.-Forces on the opposite Sides rupt Character of their Drama.-Chateaubriand.
on the morning of the 29th.-Mission of M. Ara -Sketch of his Life.-His Character as a Writ.
go to Marmont.-Decisive Resolution of the Dep er.-His Beauties.-His Influence in reviving
uties at M. Lafitte's.--Interview with M. de Se. the Spirit of Christianity. - Peculiarity of his
monville and M. d'Argout.--The Louvre is car Style on religious Subjects, and its Apology.-
ried by the Insurgents.-Decisive Effects of this His Defects.-Madame de Stael as a political
Success.-Marmont's first Interview with Charles Writer. - Her Character as a Novelist. - Her
X. at St. Cloud.-Deliberation in the Council. - 1 Merits as a Critic.-Her Merits as a Philoso-
The King submits, dismisses his Ministers, and pher. - Guizot: his early Rise. - His peculiar
sends for M. de Montemart-Ineffectual Attempt Style of Thought.-His Style of Writing.-His
to make a Ministry under M. de Montemart. Mode of reviewing human Affairs.--His chief
Completion of the Revolution at Paris. -- Last Publications. - Lamartine. - His Defects as a
Attempt at a Negotiation. The Duke of Orleans Historian.-His Defects. His Want of Authori.
refuses the Lieutenancy-General of the Kingdom. ties in his Writings, and personal Vanity.-Sis.
-Violent Scene between the Duke d'Angoulême mondi. - His social and political Essays.His

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