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political Opinions.-Auguste and Amadée Thier- Wools.-Reflections on these changes. Repeal
ry.-Their opposite Principles.- Michaud-Ba of Laws against Emigration of Artisans, and Com-
rante-Salvandy.—Thiers : his Principles.-His binations among Workmen.--Disastrous Effects
Merits and Defects. His History of the Consul of the Change.- Argument in favor of the Repeal
ate and Empire.-Lacretelle-Capefigue-Mich of the Combination Laws. — Argument against
elet.-Military Histories and Memoirs.--Napole Combinations. - Reflections on this subject.-
on Bonaparte.-His Merits and Defects. His Dis. Causes of the Frequency of Strikes.-System
regard of Truth.-General Jomini.-General Ma which must be adopted on the subject.-Its Ad-
thieu Dumas.-General Pelet.-Count Segur. vantages.-Gloomy Aspect of Affairs in the West
Baron Fain. — The Memoirs of France during Indies and Ireland.-Lord Dudley's Picture of
the Revolution.-Bourrienne.-The Duchess of the Empire in the opening of 1825.- Picture of
Abrantes. - Chateaubriand and Lamartine as the Country from the Annual Register.-Picture
Writers of Memoirs.-Cousin-M. Lamenais of the Times from the Quarterly Review.-Sound
M. Villemain -- M. Ginguené. - M. de Tocque Condition of Trade and Manufactures to the end
ville : his great Merits-his Errors.-Cuvier. of 1824.-Which was owing to the extended Cur-
Humboldt.-His indefatigable Energy.-Poets rency.-Causes of Danger which were now im.
their Decline in France.-The Abbé Delille - Bé. pending. -- Excess of Imports over Exports. -
ranger-Paul Courier.-Decline of the Drama in Drain of Specie produced by the South Ameri-
France.-Causes of the Decline of the Drama in can Speculations.- The Chancellor of the Ex-
France. - Romance Writers. – Victor Hugo - chequer's Budget.-Reduction of Taxation intro-
Geo. Sand-Eugene Sue.- Periodical Literature duced, and public Accounts of the Year.- Mr.
of France since the Revolution.—Different Class Robinson's Argument in favor of the Reduction
of Writers in the daily Press in France and En of the Duty on Spirits. - Vast Increase of Crime
gland. ---Causes of this Difference: Destruction of which has arisen in consequence. - Reflections
the Influence of Property.-Owing also to Facili. on this subject. --Temperance Leagues. - Re-
ty of Revolution in France.-Danger of this state newed Measures in favor of Free Trade.-Great
of things. - The Stage in France : Talma. - and wise Change in the Laws regarding our colo-
Madlle. Georges-Madile. Mars-Madlle. Rachel. nial Shipping.---Reflections on this Decay.-AP-
-Architecture of Paris.-Modern French School proach of the monetary Crisis.-Dreadful Sever-
of Painting.-Le Gros-Vernet.-Conclusion. ity of the Crash. - Increased Circulation forced

upon the Government.-The Crush was not ow-
CHAPTER XIX.

ing to the Instability of the Banks, but to the mon-

etary Laws.--Conclusions to be drawn from this
DOMESTIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND, FROM THE DEATH
OF LORD LONDONDERRY IN 1822, TO THE MONE-

Catastrophe.
TARY CRISIS IN DECEMBER, 1825.

CHAPTER XX.
Paper either a Representative of Specie or a Substi-

IRELAND FROM 1822 TO THE MONETARY CRISIS OY
tute for it.--Light which Experience has thrown
on this subject.- Effect of the South American

DECEMBER, 1825.
Revolution on the Currency of Great Britain.--Mr. O'Connell's Account of the Irish Peasantry.-
Causes which augmented the Currency in 1823.

| Statistics of the Condition of the Irish Poor.
- The Change of Prices through Extension of Ruinous Effects of the Power of the Landlord.
Currency is not immediate, but gradual.—Effect Immense and redundant Population in the Coun-
of the Expansion of the Currency on Prices in try.-Munificent Grants of the English to Ire-
1823 and 1824.–Notice of the general Prosperity land.-Great simultaneous Increase of Industry
in the royal Speeches in 1823 and 1824.--Symp and Productions in Ireland. — Causes of the
toms of increased general Prosperity.--Mr. Wal. wretched Situation of Ireland. - Effects of ile
lace's Picture of the Country from 1815 to 1823. Roman Catholic Religion. - Splitting of Farn.s
-Budget of 1823.--Budget of 1824.-Conversion for political Purposes. -- Pernicious Effects of
of the Dead Weight. — Reduction of the 4 per the Potato.- Want of Poor-Laws. - Absentee
Cents to 31.--Simplifying of the National Debt Proprietors.-Ribbonmen and Secret Societies.
Accounts, and Provision for the permanent Re -Orange Lodges.-Irregularity and Uncertainty
duction of the National Debt.----Grants for new in the Administration of Justice.-Intimidation
Churches, Windsor Castle, and the National Gal of Juries and Witnesses.-Catholic Emancipa-
lery.- Prosperous State of the Country during tion the only Remedy proposed by English Lib-
the three Years it had an adequate Currency. erals and Irish Malcontents. - Effects of that
Ministerial Changes from 1822 to 1825.-Liberal measure. - Disturbed State of Ireland in 1823,
Measures of the Cabinet.-Character of Mr. Hug. and Prosecutions for the Riot in the Dublin
kisson.-Sketch of the Navigation Laws.-Re Theatre.- Disturbed State of the Country.-Re.
taliatory Measures of other Nations.-Mr. Wal newal of the Insurrection Act, and Composition
lace's five Free Trad. Bills in 1822.-Menaces for Tithes. - Debates on Irish Corruption and
of retaliatory Measures by Prussia.- Mr. Hus. Catholic Emancipation. - Improvement of the
kisson's Argument in favor of the Reciprocity Country in 1824. - Mr. North's Description of
System.-Answer by the Shin-owners. - Effect Irish Miseries.-Beneficial working of the Tithe-
of these Acts.-Effect of the Reciprocity Sys Composition Bill. - Rise of the Catholic As-
tem on British and foreign Shipping.-Effect of sociation. - Real Objects of the Association.-
the Reciprocity System on the Shipping of the Roman Catholic Question in reference to En-
Baltic Powers.-Great Increase of the colonial gland. - Parliamentary Reform, Alien Bill, and
Trade has compensated Reciprocity Decline. Reversal of Scottish Attainders.-Reflections on
Failure of the Reciprocity System to increase our the Alien Act.--Act for the Uniformity of Weights
Exports.-Cause of the Failure of the Reciproc and Measures.-Chancery Reform.--Bill to sup-
ity System in this respect.-Commencement of press the Catholic Association. — Argument of
the Free Trade System.--Argument in its favor Ministers against the Catholic Association.—Ar-
by the London Merchants.-Reflections on this gument in Support of the Association.--The Bill
Petition.--Indication this afforded of the Growth is carried, and immediately evaded. - Catholic
of the Commercial Class.- Argument of the Pro Question, and Majority in the Commons on it.-
tectionists.-Results of the System of Free Trade, Fate of the Bill in the House of Lords.-Duke
as proved by Experience, - State of the Silk of York's Declaration on the subject.-Impres-
Trade.-First Introduction of Free Trade in ref sion it produced over the Country. Mr. Brough-
erence to it. - Reduction of Duties on foreign am's Speech on the occasion.

CHAPTER XXI.

Corn-law Bill.-Bill for the Suppression of small

Notes. - Repeal of the Test and Corporation

BRITISH EMPIRE FROM THE MONETARY CRISIS OF

Acts.- Argument for the Repeal. - Answer of

DECEMBER, 1825, TO THE EMANCIPATION OF THE

Ministers.--The Bill is carried in both Houses.

CATHOLICS IN MARCH, 1829.

- Reflections on this subject.--Rapid Increase

Gloomy Prospects of the Nation in the beginning of Disturbances in Ireland. — Facilities which

of 1826. — Acts of Rioting in various Places. the Forty-shilling Freeholders gave to their De-
King's Speech on the subject, and letting out signs.-The Catholic Association gets the com-
of bonded Grain.--Real Causes of the Distress, plete Command of the Forty-shilling Freehold-
and its Remedy.- Argument by Ministers in Sup ers. - Mr. O'Connell elected for the County
port of the Bill suppressing small Notes. - Ar. of Clare.--Immense Results of this Triumph. -
gument against the proposed measure.--The Bill Mr. Lawless's Progress to the North. - Mr.
is carried by a large Majority in both Houses. Sheil's Description of Ireland at this period.--
Vast Importance of this Decision.-Way in which The Catholic Association interferes to moderate
the Changes it induced were brought about. — the Transports. -- Proclamation of Government
Way in which Prices affect this Desire for polit. against the Meetings. -- Meeting on Penenden
ical Change.--Error in the Debates in Parliament Heath.—The King in vain urges more vigorous
on both sides of this question. – Vital Points Measures against the Catholics. - Difficulties
overlooked on both sides. - What should have with which the question was beset.—Commence-
been done with the Currency.-Measures of Re ment of yielding in the Cabinet,--Mr. Dawson's
lief proposed by the Government.--Banking Sys Speech at Londonderry.--Ambiguous Letter of
tem in Scotland and Ireland.-Sir Walter Scott the Duke of Wellington, and explicit one of the
prevents the Suppression of small Notes in Scot Lord-Lieutenant. - Increased Violence of the
land and Ireland.--Commencement of the Emi Catholic Leaders.-Difficulties which Ministers
gration Question.--Appointment of a Committee had with the King on the subject. - King's
on Emigration. - Debate on the subject in the Speech.-Immense Sensation which this Speech
House of Commons.-Reflections on this sub excited in the Country.--Argument of Mr. Peel
ject, and its vast Importance.-Prevailing Errors in favor of the Catholics.-Answer of the Anti-
on the subject.-Finances.-Motion for the Re. Catholics.-- Division on the question, and vjo.
peal of the Corn Laws.- Argument for the Re lent Resistance to the Bill in the Country -
peal of the Corn Laws.--Answer by Sir Francis Speech of the Duke of Wellington in the Lords
Burdett.-Division on the question, and Interim on the subject. --The Bill is carried in the Peers,
Admission of foreign Grain. -- Character of Sir and by a large Majority.-Great Reluctance of
Francis Burdett.-Excessive Heat and Drought the King to the Bill. — Bill for disfranchising
of Great Britain in 1826.—Dissolution of Parlia the Forty-shilling Freeholders.-Mr. O'Connell's
ment, and Elections.--General Interference of Claim for a Seat before the Bill is rejected. The
the Priests in the Irish Elections.--Opening of second Clare Election. — His violent language
the new Parliament.--Temporary Relaxation of and Ingratitude.-Character of Mr. O'Connell. -
the Corn Laws.-King's Message regarding Port Explanations of his Inconsistencies in the Catho.
ugal. - Hlow this had come to pass.--Mr. Can lic Faith.-His good Qualities.-Catholic Eman-
ning's Speech on the subject in the House of cipation a Victory gained by the highly-educated
Commons.--Vast Effect of this Speech, and the Classes over the People.--Aided by the Contrac-
Expedition sets out for Lisbon.-Reflections on tion of the Currency, and the Power of the Catho.
this point. - Improved State of the Country in lic Clergy. --Great Difference between the Re.
the beginning of 1827. — Death of the Duke of sults of Emancipation and what was predicted by
York.-His Character.--Illness and Retirement all Parties.-Emancipation was a wise and great
of Lord Liverpool.-His Character, and its Adapt Measure. - Religious Differences unavoidable,
ation to his 'T'imes.-Difficulty in the Choice of when Religion is thought of at all.-Unworthy
his Successor, and Mr. Canning's Appointment. Spirit in which Emancipation was received by
-What made his Tory Colleagues resign!-Com. the Roman Catholics.-How it was that Catholic

position of the new Cabinet. - Importance of Emancipation failed.--Its beneficial Effects on

These Events on England's future History. - the English Government.-Emancipation would

Manner in which the Changes were received in have equally failed if granted earlier, or if it had

Parliament.-Character of Lord Eldon, who now been more complete.--Emancipation has brought

retired from public Life.-His Character as a a righteous Retribution to both parties.-First El.

Statesman.--The Catholic Bill is rejected.—Mr. sect of Emancipation in inducing Reform.-Ef. ;

Peel's Speech against Catholic Emancipation. fects of Reform in inducing Free Trade.-Effects

Ministerial Measure on the Corn Laws. -Result of these Changes on the Population and Catho

of the Debate in the Commons and Lords. - lics of Ireland.-Beneficial Effect of these Chan.

Important and curious things occurring in the ges on the United Empire. -- Reaction against

course of the Debate.--Finances of 1826-1827-|| Catholicism in Great Britain and in America.

1828.--Other Proceedings in Parliament-Silk.

weavers, Ship-owners.--Penryn and East Ret.

CHAPTER XXII.

ford are convicted of Bribery : Commencement

of the Reform Question.-Proud Position of Mr. PONS

DOMESTIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND FROM THE PASS.

Canning.-- His susceptible Disposition and in-

ING OF THE CATHOLIC RELIEF BILL IN 1829, TO

creasing Illness.--His last Illness and Death.--|

THE FALL OF THE WELLINGTON ADMINISTRA-

Reflections on this Event. - Had he lived, he

TION IN 1830.

would have disappointed their Expectations. - The Interval between Emancipation and the pass.
Review of his last Acts. -- His Character as a ing of the Reform Bill was entirely occupied Iry
Statesman and Orator. - Lord Goderich made the Question of Reform.-Great Want of Rep-
Premier, and Reconstruction of the Cabinet

resentation for the commercial Towns. - The
Weakness of the new Cabinet, and its Cause. Interests of the Boroughs now at Variance with
Impolitic Reduction of the Yeomanry.-Disso. those of the Country.-Effects of the Contrac-
lution of the Goderich Cabinet, --The Duke of tion of the Currency on the desire for Reform.---
Wellington appointed Premier, and his Cabinet. Effect of Catholic Agitation, and its Success in
-Mr. Huskisson's Resignation on the East Ret. stimulating Reform. — Division among the To-
ford Question, and that of his Friends.--Recon. ries from the Effect of the Contraction of the
struction of the Cabinet by Wellington. — No. Currency.- Catholic Emancipation powerfully
tice of the Battle of Navarino in the King's aided the desire for Reform.--Great' Effect of
Speech. — Grant to Mr. Canning's Family. - the entire Suppression of small Notes in March,
Finance Committee and Catholic Question. - 1829.-Motion on the Distress of the Silk-Weav-

ers.-The Budget of 1829.-Statement of Mr. Att-/ -What had set these Causes in Motion.-What
wood as to the Causes of Irish Distress and Agi. made the Duke's Declaration against Reform so
tation. - Mr. Waithman's Exposition of the Ef. important. - The Difficulty in forming the new
fect of the monetary System on Manufactures. Ministry fixes Mr. Brougham's Claims. — Char-
Relations with Portugal, and Refusal of the En. acter of Earl Grey.--His Character as an Orator,
glish Government to interfere in its Concerns. and in private.--His Defects and Errors, but no-
The Expedition to Terceira; and is beat off by ble Use of Power when acquired.--He was mis-
the British Squadron.-Great Distress in Great led by others as to the Effect of the Reform Bill.
Britain and Ireland during the whole of 1829. -Character of Lord Brougham.-His Merits as
Serious Riots in many places; and in Ireland, a Judge.- His Character as a Statesman.-His
where the Agitation for the Repeal of the Union Style of Oratory-Lord Palmerston : his Euro-
commenced.-Serious Riots between Protestants pean Reputation. — His versatile Talents and
and Catholics in Ireland. -- Meeting of Parlia Character. His Character as a Diplomatist and
ment.-Interesting Debate on the public Distress Orator. --- His Errors. — Lord John Russell. —
in the House of Lords.-Duke of Wellington's His Intrepidity and Self-confidence.-Lord Mel-
Reply -Narrow Division, and declared Changes bourne.-Sir James Graham : his administrative
in Parliament.-Critical and painful Position of Powers.-His Inconsistencies.-Earl Grey's An-
the Duke of Wellington. -- Reflections on the nouncement of his Principles of Government.-
Duke's Explanation.—Sir James Graham's Mo Distracted State of England during the Winter.
tion for a Reduction of the Salaries of public -Agitation and increased Misery in Ireland.
Officers. - Mr. Hume's Motion for a Reduction Agitation for the Repeal of the Union, and Prose-
of the Army and Navy lost. — Mr. Thomson's cution of Mr. O'Connell, who is allowed to Es-
Motion for a Revision of the System of Taxation. cape.-The Budget, which is defeated.-Descrip-
-Ministers beat on a minor Question.-Motion tion of Taxes to be taken off and put on.--Com-
of Mr. Attwood on the Currency. - Financial mittee on the Reform Bill.-Feeling, and Peti-
Measures, and great Reductions of Government. tions of the Country. -- Introduction of the Re-

-Taxes remitted on Beer, Leather, and Cider. form Bill by Lord John Russell.--Argument of
Great Satisfaction at the Budget, and its entire the Ministers in favor of the Bill.- Ministerial
Failure to relieve the general Distress.-Mr. Bar Plan of Reform.-Qualification of Voters : The
ing's Speech on the Abandonment of the Sinking £10 Clause.- Plan as to Scotland and Ireland.
Fund. -Reflections on the Abandonment of the - Astonishment in the House at the Bill.-
Sinking Fund.- Which arose from the Repeal of Argument against the Bill. - Clear Division of
so many indirect Taxes.-Which was occasioned Conservatives and Reformers which ensued
by the Contraction of the Currency. - Which in the Country. - Agitation in the Country.-
also produced the cry for Reform.-Disinclina Courageous Petition from the Merchants and
tion of the Whigs generally to parliamentary Re Bankers of London against the Bill. — Second
form.-Various Motions on parliamentary Reform Reading of the Bill carried by a Majority of one.
made in Parliament during the Session of 1830. -General Gascoigne's Motion is carried against
-Rise of the political Unions, and their great Government by eight.-Dangers on both sides in
Influence.-Illness and Death of George IV. ulterior Measures. - Liberal Settlement on the
Character of George IV. variously given by op Royal Family.-Efforts made to win the King by
posite Parties.-Great Events of his Reign.- His his Vanity.-Means by which the King was in-
remarkable Talents.-His Failings and Vices. duced to dissolve Parliament.-How the King's
William IV.: his Character and Failings.-His Resistance is overcome.-Violent Scene in the
personal Character, and Queen. — Precarious House of Commons. - Scene in the House of
Condition of Ministers after the Accession of Peers when the King dissolved Parliament. –
William IV.-Debate on the question of a Re Violence at the Elections. — Dreadful Riots in
gency in the event of the King's Death.-Prose Scotland.-Results of the Election. - Prepara-
cution of the Press, and West India Question. tions for Insurrection by the political Unions.-
Prorogation and Dissolution of Parliament, and Universal Delusions which prevailed among the
French Revolution.-Result of the Elections fa. People. - Rare Examples of Resistance to the
vorable to the Liberals.—Distracted State of Ire general Cry.-King's Speech on opening Parlia-
land, and entire Failure of the Emancipation to ment. The Reform Bill is carried by a Majority
pacify it.-Successive Efforts of the Agitators, of 136. - Discussion on particular Boroughs -
and their Influence on the Elections.-Opening Appleby.--Motion to give Members to the Colo-
of the Manchester and Liverpool Railway, and nies negatived without a Division.-Marquis of
Death of Mr. Huskisson. — Reflections on the Chandos's Motion on £50 Tenants carried.-Bill
Railway System, and its rapid Growth.-Its vast read a third time, and passed.-Efforts to intim-
and lasting monetary Effects, and moral and po. idate the Peers. - Lord Grey's Speech in the
litical Effects.-Political Effects of the Railway House of Lords.-Bill thrown out by a Majority
System. — Its Evils and Dangers in the undue of forty-one.- Vote of Confidence in the Com-
sway of the Capital.--Its political Effects.-Mil-

mons carried by 131.--Disorders in London and
itary Results of the Railway System. - On the in the Country. - Great Meeting of political
whole, it augments the Means of defending Na | Unions at Birmingham. - Riots at Derby and
tions. -- Disturbances and Incendiarism in the Nottingham.--Commencement of Riots at Brig.
Southern Counties. — King's Speech. - Lord tol.-Frightful Disorders.--Immense Destruction
Grey's Declaration on Reform.-Duke of Wel. of Property.-The Riots are at once suppressed
lington's famous Speech against the Reform.-- when the Military are ordered to act.-Good Ef-
Immense Effect produced by this Declaration. fects of these dreadful Scenes.-Disturbances in
Mr. Brougham's Plan of Reform.-Postponement other Quarters.--Proclamation against political
of the King's Visit to the City.-General Con. Unions. The new Reform Bill introduced.--In-
sternation on the occasion. — Speech of Mr. creased democratic Character of the new Bill.-
Brougham on the occasion. - Division on the Division on the Bill, and Sir R. Peel's Speech
Civil List leaves Ministers in a Minority.

against it.-Third Reading carried in the Com.

mons by 116, and Lord J. Russell's closing Dec-
CHAPTER XXIII.

laration.-General Distress in the Country, and

Mr. Hunt's Motion regarding it. - Declining
DOMESTIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND FROM THE FALL

State of the public Revenue. - State of Ireland.
OF THE WELLINGTON ADMINISTRATION IN 1829,

-Dreadful Tithe outrages in Wexford and New-
TO THE PASSING OF THE REFORM BILL IN 1832.

tonberry. - Resolution of the Cabinet to create
Reflections on the Fall of the Wellington Ministry. Peers.-The King is violently agitated, and re-

-Causes which rendered the Change so decisive. luctantly consents. - Secret Negotiations with

the Waverers.-Revolutionary Meetings to coerce tended to limit Population in the later Stages of
the Peers.-Second Reading of the Bill carried Society.
by a Majority of nine.-Lord Lyndhurst's Amend-
ment carried by thirty-five.-Ministers resign, and

CHAPTER XXIV.
their Resignation is accepted.-The King sends

| FRANCE AND EUROPE FROM THE ACCESSION OF
for the Duke of Wellington to form a Ministry.-

LOUIS PHILIPPE IN 1830, TO THE OVERTHROW
Vehement Excitement in the Country.-- The Duke

OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS IN THE
fails in forming an Administration. - Lord Eb-

SAME YEAR.
rington's Motion in the House of Commons car-
ried by eighty.-The King submits, and gives Au. Objects to which great popular Movements have
thority to create Peers. The King's Circular to been directed.-The real Evils of Society are
the Opposition Peers to leave the House of Peers. not so certainly removed by these Convulsions.
-Reflections on this Event, and on the Act. -Prosperity of the Bourgeois Class.--The In-
The Bill passes both Houses, and receives the terests of the Bourgeoisie were adverse to those
royal Assent.--The Scotch and Irish Bills passed. of Labor. — Effect of the Spread of Machinery,
-Vast Effects of the Reform in Scotland and Ire Steam, and Railways. — Increased Strength of
land.-Its lasting and important Effects.-Gen the Government.--Dangers to which this led.-
eral Results of the Reform Bill on the Imperial The Republicans : their Chances of Success.
Parliament.-Reflections on this Change in the The Napoleonists: their Chances.—The Orleah-
Constitution of England as affecting our extern ists: their Chances.-The Duke of Orleans re-
al Relations, and as affecting our internal and mains in Retirement. — Important Conversation
social State. The vast Emigration is chiefly ow between the Baron de Glandevès and Lafitte.-
ing to the Changes produced by the Reform Bill. Arguments for and against the Duke's being called
- Principle of the old Constitution. Which is to the Crown. - Project of giving the Lieuten-
proved by the Acts of the House of Commons. ancy-General to the Duke of Orleans, and the
– Equal Distribution of the public Burdens. — Crown to the Duke of Bordeaux.-First Placards
Causes of the Difficulties of the representative in the Orleans interest.-Situation of the Duke
System.What first broke up the old Constitu of Orleans.--Interview between M. Thiers and
tion.--The Reform Bill was an Effect, in the first the Duchess of Orleans.-Irresolute Conduct of
instance, of the Increase of realized Wealth, and the Duke of Orleans.-Meetings of the Deputies
of the Fall of Prices occasioned by the Contrac and Peers.-Meeting at the Chamber of Peers.-
tion of the Currency.-How this fall engender Reunion of the Republicans at Lointier's.-Scene
ed the Passion for Reform.-Which explains the at the Hôtel de Ville.- Continued Indecision
universal Hostility at the close Boroughs.--- And at the Hôtel de Ville.—Easy Defeat of the Na.
which was only rendered worse by the Talent poleonists.-Panic of the Orleanists at Lafitte's.-
which got in by the close Boroughs.-Which ex Arrival of the Duke of Orleans at Paris, and his
plains the Changes of general Opinion during the Interview with M. de Mortemart.- The Duke
Reform Movement. The new Constituencies accepts the Lieutenancy-General of the King-
were some time of discovering their own Power. dom.-M. Guizot's Proclamation of the Princi-
-Great Mistake in the Estimate of the Effect of ples of the Government.--Visit of the Duke of
the Reform Bill. --- Command of the House of Orleans to the Hôtel de Ville.-His Reception
Commons gained by the Shop-keepers.-Errors there.-Reflections on this Interview.-Efforts of
on both sides during the Contest. — Great and the Orleanists to popularize the new Dynasty.-
early Fault of the Conservatives.- What they Conversation between the Duke of Orleans and
should have done. - Error of the Conservatives the Republicans.-Noble Speech of Chateaubri.
in throwing out the Duke of Wellington's Ad and.-Chateaubriand refuses the Port-folio of for-
ministration.- The Duke of Wellington's Decla. eign Affairs.-Acceptance of the Crown by Louis
ration against Reform.-Faults of the Liberals, Philippe.-Speeches on the Occasion of his ac-
first in forcing on Reform at all at this time. cepting the Constitution.-Changes in the Con-
Great Error in the uniform Representation in the stítution of the Revolution.-Peers who resigned,
Boroughs.-Mistake of the Whigs as to the In and Ministers who were appointed. -- Grievous
fluence in the Boroughs. Which led to the prac Distress in Paris.-Reception of the Revolution
tical Disfranchisement of the Colonies and ship at Lyons, Bordeaux, and in the Provinces.-Rec-
ping Interests.-And they were subjected to the ognition of Louis Philippe by the English Gov.
Government of adverse Interests. – The urban ernment.--Manner in which he is received by the
Constituencies have got for themselves an entire continental Sovereigns.-His Recognition by the
Exemption from direct Taxation. — Prospective

Cabinet of Vienna, and by Prussia.--Charac
Abandonment of our colonial Empire.-Which is of Louis Philippe : opposite Views of it.-Ex-
defended by the Government and Free-Traders. planation of its seeming Contradictions.--Feat.
Labor was unrepresented.—Want of the Repre ures, good and bad, of his Character. - Vicissi-
sentation of Intelligence and Education.-Dan tudes of his Life, and Impress they had affixed to
gers arising from this circumstance.—Talent has his Character.--Extreme Difficulties with which
taken Refuge in the Press : its Danger.- Vast he had to contend.--Dissensions in the Council,
Increase of Corruption under the Reform Bill. and Violence of the National Guard Deputation.-
Which Evil would not be removed, but increased, Suspicious Death and Testament of the Duke de
by the Ballot and lowering the Suffrage.-Great Bourbon. — Injurious Reports spread abroad by
Fault of the Liberals in the Way the Reform Bill the Bequest of the Duke's Property to the Duke
was carried.—Danger of coercing the House of d'Aumale.-Attitude of M. de Lafayette, and its
Peers. — Wisdom of the Duke of Wellington's Dangers. – Disturbances in Paris. -First legis.
Advice to the Majority in the Peers to withdraw. lative Measures of the new Government.--Dis.
-Summary of the Faults on both sides.--The cussions on the Electoral Law.--First financial
producing Classes were still the Majority in Num Measures of the new Government.-Proceedings
ber and Value.--The Reform Bill has strength against the popular Societies. — Speech of the
ened Government by enlarging its Basis.-- Where Minister of the Interior on the subject.-Attempt
the Risk now lies.—Way in which the moneyed to revolutionize Spain from Paris. - Which is
Classes had got the Command of the producing. secretly favored by Louis Philippe and his Min-
- Enormous Sums spent by working Classes isters.-- The Enterprise is undertaken, and fails.
in Great Britain on Drink. - Is this the Result -State of Belgium and its Dispositions.-Causes
of a general Law of Nature ? - Great political of Discord among the Inhabitants.-Revolution-
Truth evolved by the Reform Bill. --- Its Ex ary Party in Belgium, and its great Increase by
emplification in France and England. - Great the Events in Paris in July.--Commencement of
Law of Nature on the subject. - Which is in the Revolution.-Progress of the Insurrection-

Negotiations of the Insurgents with the King.-1 King's Progresses into Normandy and Cham-
Demands of the Leaders of the Revolution. - pagne.-Unfavorable Issue of the Elections for
Speech of the King on opening the Chambers. the Crown.-King's Speech.-Defeat of the Gov.
The Army is directed by the King and Chambers ernment on the Choice of President and Vice-
on Brussels.-Prince Frederick attacks Brussels. President.-Affairs of Holland and Flanders.-
-The Dutch Troops are in the end defeated, and What the London Congress should have done.-
retire to Antwerp. - The Insurrection extends Views of Talleyrand and Lord Palmerston.-Rea.
generally, and the Separation of Belgium and sons which led them to support the Belgians.

Holland is pronounced by the Chamber.-State Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg elected King of Bel-

of political Feeling in Germany.-Disturbances gium.-Change which this Election made on the

in Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne. — Convulsions Views of Holland and Belgium.-Change in the

in all the North of Germany.-In Dresden, Leip Policy of Great Britain regarding Belgium. -

sic, and Brunswick.-Political Contests in Switz Change in the Language of England and France

erland. - Convulsions in Italy. - Change in the regarding Luxembourg. - Progress of the Nego-

Order of Succession in Spain.--Its Motives and tiation, and secret Treaty of France and England.

political Objects.--Promulgation of the Decree -The five Powers deviate from the Act of

-Resumé of the Influence of the Revolution in Separation, and the King of Holland declares

France over Europe.

War.--Commencement of Hostilities, and Posi.

tion and Forces on the two Sides. — Total De-

CHAPTER XXV.

feat of the Belgians.-Intervention of the French

Army in Flanders.-Armistice, and Withdrawal

YRANCE FROM THE OVERTHROW OF THE KINGDOM

of the French Troops.--Renewed Conferences,

OF THE NETHERLANDS IN OCTOBER, 1830, TO

and Reasons which made the Northern Powers

THE ABOLITION OF THE HEREDITARY PEERAGE

acquiesce in them.-Great Advantages gained by

IN SEPTEMBER, 1831.

Holland by this Irruption.-Forcible Intervention

Change in the Attitude of France in reference to the of the French at Lisbon.-The French compel

Continental Powers. - Cabinet Divisions, and the Submission of the Portuguese Government. -

Fall of the Ministry.-Commencement of the Tri Vehement Excitement in Paris from these Events.

al of the late Ministers.—Conduct of the accused - Argument of the Opposition on foreign Affairs.

before the Trial.-Disturbed State of Paris be -Answer of Ministers. - Violent Scene in the

fore this.-Commencement of the Trial.-Disso. Chamber on the Debate on Poland.---Vehement

lution of the Administration.-Formation of M. Excitement in Paris on the fall of Warsaw.-

Lafitte's Ministry.-M. Lafitte's Statement of the Bloody Law against the Bourbons.-Speech of

Principles of his Ministry.-Progress of the Tri M. Pagès against the Law.-Striking Speech of

al of the Ex-ministers.- Arguments of M. Sauzel M. de Martignac, which causes the Rejection of

for the accused.-Condemnation and Punishment the Clause.- Question of the Abolition of the he-

of the accused. — The accused are safely con reditary Peerage.- Argument for the Abolition.-

Teyed to Vincennes, and thence to Ham. -Dis Answer of the Defenders of the Peerage.-The

affection of the National Guard, and the Misery Lower House pass the Bill by a great Majority.

of the Capital. — Demands of Lafayette. — Dis -Creation of Peers to force it through the Upper

missal of M. de Lafayette from the Command of House, where it passes. — Reflections on this

the National Guard - Changes in the Cabinet. Event.-Previous Degradation of the hereditary

Favorable Accounts from Algiers. — Great addi Peerage.-Experience of Great Britain in regard

tional Expenditure for the Army and its Forces. to a hereditary Peerage.--Reason of the Superi.

- Competition for the Crown of Belgium, and its ority in general of the Aristocracy as Statesmen.

final Separation from Holland.-Crown of Bel. -Increased Vigor and Capacity this gives to the

gium offered to Duke de Nemours. - Protocol, higher Branches of the Aristocracy.-Importance

Jan. 20, 1831, fixing Limits of Holland and Bel. of the Interests of the hereditary Peers being

gium.–Views in London and Paris on Louis Phi identified with those of Production.

lippe's Refusal.-Weak and distracted State of

Belgium.-Perilous State of Italy.-Insurrections

CHAPTER XXVI.

in Bologna, Modena, Reggio, and Parma.-Inter-

POLISH REVOLUTION AND WAR, FROM ITS COM-

vention of Austria in Italy.-Entry of the Aus.

trians into Bologna, and Suppression of the Insur-

MENCEMENT IN NOVEMBER, 1830, TO ITS TERM-

INATION IN SEPTEMBER, 1831.

rection.- Affairs of Germany, and precautionary
Measures there. — Defensive Measures in Aus Terrible Wars which have ever prevailed between
tria.-State of Feeling in Prussia.-Great Fer Europe and Asia. -Causes of this perpetual
mentation in the lesser States of Germany. - Strife.-Opposite Sources of their Strength and
Troubles in Saxony and Hesse-Cassel. — Insur Weakness.--Disastrous Effects of the Conquest
rection in Hanover. - Violence of Parties, and of the Byzantine Empire by the Turks, and of

ery in Paris. — Alarming Budget of 1831, and the Partition of Poland.-Sin of Europe in the
its Effects.-Universal Indignation it excited. Partition of Poland.—Vast Increase of the Pow.
Deplorable Situation of Commerce and Credit. er of Russia from the Partition of Poland.-Faults
General Indignation of the Democrats.-Extrav of the Poles which led to their Subjugation.-It
agant Ideas generally afloat in Society at this was the Impatience of Taxation which ruined
time,- State of Corruption into which the Sys Poland. - Mysterious Connection between Po.
tem of Centralization had sunk France.-Moral land and the Cause of Democracy:-Prosperity
Statistics of Paris at this period.-Tumult in the of Poland under the Russian rule from 1815 to
Charch of St. Germain l'Auxerrois.--Sack of the 1830.—This Prosperity increased the Passion for
Church.-Sack of Archbishop's Palace at Nôtre. Independence. - Secret Societies in Poland. -
Dame.- Attacks on Individuals, and deplorable Different Plans of the Conspirators. - Original
Weakness of Government.-Fall of Lafitte, and Plan, which proved abortive. — Supineness of
Appointment of Casimir Périer in his stead. — Constantine, and Progress of the Conspiracy.-
Views of Parties on this Change of Ministry.-- Insurrection of 29th November at Warsaw. -
Change in the Electoral Law.-Proscription of Rapid Progress of the Insurrection, and Retreat
the elder Branch of the Bourbons.-Violent Op. of Constantine from Warsaw.--Appointment of
position of the Liberal Journals to Casimir Pé a provisional Government.--First Act of the new
rier, and Formation of the National Association. Government, and Negotiation with Constantine.
-Casimir Périer's Speech on the Principles of -Constantine sends back the Polish Troops, and
his Government.-Continued in reference to for retreats into Russia.-Enthusiasm on the Arrival
eign Affairs.--Louis Philippe's Efforts to concil of the Polish Troops in Warsaw.-Chlopicki seiz-
iate the Electors.--Disturbances in Paris.--The es the Dictatorship.-Chlopicki: his Biography

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