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vantage. The foremost of the assailants advanced into the among the rest, who examined the monuments of Thebes, garden of the pacha's palace, where they were all cut down; Dendera, Etfou, &c. From their observations the splendid General Rambaud was killed, and Lannes carried away work on Egypt was afterwards compiled. wounded. On the 20th of May Bonaparte made a last effort, Towards the end of July Bonaparte being informed that in which General Bon and Colonel Veneux were killed, the Turkish fleet had landed 18,000 men at Aboukir, under with most of the storming party. General Caffarelli had Seid Mustapha Pacha, immediately assembled his army died before. The army now began to murmur: seven or to attack them. He had formed a cavalry, which was eight assaults had been made, the trenches and ditches commanded by Murat ; the Turks had none. The Turks were filled with the slain, which the fire of the besieged had entrenched themselves near the sea, and the French prevented them from burying; and disease, assisted by the attacked their advanced posts and drove them back upon heat of the climate, was spreading fast in their camp. After their entrenchments; but the Turkish guns checked their fifty-four days since the opening of the trenches, Bonaparte advance, and threw the foremost of the assailants into dissaw himself under the necessity of raising the siege. The order. The main body of the Turks then sallied out, but in people of Mount Lebanon, the Druses, and Mutualis, who the eagerness of their pursuit falling into complete disorder, were at one time disposed to join him against Djezzar, they were charged by the French, both infantry and cavalry, seeing his failure before Acre, altered their mind, and sent routed, and followed into their entrenchments, where they a deputation on board the Turkish and English feet. At fell into inextricable confusion. About 10,000 of them the same time Bonaparte learnt that the great Turkish arma- perished, either by the bayonet or in the sea, where they ment from Rhodes was about to set sail for Egypt: the threw themselves in hopes of regaining their ships. The sea Mamelukes had also assembled in considerable numbers appeared covered with their turbans. Six thousand men in Upper Egypt, and were threatening Cairo. Accordingly received quarter, together with the pacha, whom Bonaparte he resolved to return to Egypt.

condescended to praise for the courage he had displayed. This On the 21st of May the French army broke up from be- victory of Aboukir, fought on the 25th of July, 1794, closed fore Acre, and began its retreat. In the order of the day Bonaparte's Egyptian campaign. It was after this battle which he issued on that occasion, Bonaparte affected to treat that Bonaparte received intelligence of the state of France, with disdain the check he had met with, but he expressed through the newspapers, and also by letters from his brohimself very differently to Murat and his other confidants, thers and other personal friends. He learnt the disasters and we find him, towards the end of his life at St. Helena, of the French armies, the loss of Italy, the general dissatisreverting to the subject with expressions of disappointment faction prevailing in France against the Directory, and the and regret. • Possessed of Acre, the army would have gone intrigues and animosities among the directors themselves, to Damascus and the Euphrates; the Christians of Syria, and between them and the legislative councils. He deterthe Druses, the Armenians, would have joined us. The mined at once to return to France. He kept it however a provinces of the Ottoman Empire which speak Arabic were secret from the army, and ordered two frigates in the harready for a change, they were only waiting for a man. bour of Alexandria to be got ready for sea, and having With 100,000 men on the banks of the Euphrates, I might ordered his favourite officers, Murat, Lannes, Berthier, have gone to Constantinople or to India; I might have Marmont, and also MM. Monge, Denon, and Berthollet changed the face of the world. I should have founded an to meet him at Alexandria, he left Cairo on the 18th Au. empire in the East, and the destinies of France would have gust, and on arriving at Alexandria embarked secretly on run into a different course.' (Bonaparte's conversations board the frigate La Muiron on the 23rd. He took leave in Las Cases.) Whatever may be thought of the chances of Kleber, whom he left in command, only by letter. He of ultimate success, there is no doubt that Bonaparte, after left in Egypt 20,000 men, having lost about 9000 in his taking Acre, would have become master of all Syria. But campaigns. The English tleet had gone to Cyprus to get prohis position, and that of the countries around him, were visions, and Bonaparte was again fortunate enough to avoid very different from those of Alexander and the Persians. the English cruizers. He is said to have read during the

The French army retreated through Jaffa, burning every passage both the Bible and the Koran with great assiduity. thing behind them, harvest and all. • The whole country is On the 30th September the two frigates enrered the gulf on fire in our rear,' is Berthier's laconic expression in his of Ajaccio ; on the 7th October they sailed again, and report of that campaign. Before continuing their retreat passing unnoticed through the English squadron, they from Jaffa, Bonaparte ordered the hospitals to be cleared, anchored on the 9th in the gulf of Frejus, to the eastward and all those who could be removed to be forwarded to of Toulon. The usual forms of quarantine were dispensed Egypt by sea. There remained about twenty patients, with, and on his landing he was received with applause by chietly suffering from the plague, who were in a desperate the inhabitants of the various towns on his road to Paris, condition, and could not be removed. To leave them be- and especially at Lyons, which had suffered so much in the bind would have exposed them to the barbarity of the Turks. Revolution. People were tired of the Directory, which had Napoleon, some say another officer, asked Desgenettes, the shown both incapacity and corruption, and to which they chief physician, whether it would not be an act of humanity attributed all the late misfortunes of France. [Barras.] to administer opium to them. Desgenettes replied that On arriving at Paris Bonaparte found himself courted, as • his business was to cure and not to kill.' rear-guard he probably expected, by the various parties. The repubwas then left behind at Jaffa for the protection of these men, licans, with Generals Jourdan, Bernadotte, Augereau, and which remained there three days after the departure of the a majority in the council of 500, wished to restrain the army. When the rear-guard left, all the patients were power of the Directory, to turn out Barras, but to maintain dead except one or two, who fell into the hands of the the constitution of the year 111. Sieyes, one of the directors, English, and they, or some other of the sick who were sent with a majority of the Council of Elders, wished for a new by sea and were also taken, having heard something of the constitution, less democratic, of which he had sketched the suggestion about the opium, propagated the report that the outline. Barras strove to maintain the power of the Disick had been really poisoned, which was believed both in rectory, of which till then he had been the most influential France and in England for many years after. Such is the member. But his party was small and in bad odour with result of Las Cases investigation of this business, both from the people. Bonaparte decided on joining Sieyes, and Napoleon himself and from the chief persons who were at giving him his military support; the day for attempting Jaffa at the time.

the proposed change in the constitution was fixed between Bonaparte entered Cairo on the 14th of June. The Sy- them and their friends. rian campaign lasted little more than three months, and it The Council of Elders met at six o'clock in the morning cost the French about 4000 men, who were killed or died of of the 18th Brumaire (9th Oct. 1799) at the Tuileries ; but the plague. The history of that memorable campaign is several of the leading members of the republican party given in Berthier's official account, as chief of the staff, Sir were not summoned. Cornudet, Lebrun, and other memSidney Smith's dispatches, and Miot's ' Memoirs :' the last bers in the interest of Sieyes, spoke of dangers which appear to be rather exaggerated in some instances, but all threatened the Republic, of conspiracies of the Jacobins. agree in giving a sad picture of the condition and sufferings of a return of the reign of terror, &c. The majority of the of the French army.

council were either in the secret, or were really agitated by While Bonaparte was in Syria, Desaix had driven · the fear of the Jacobins. The uncil adopted a resolution, Mamelukes from Upper Egypt, and beyond the cataracts according to the powers given to it by the constitution, by of Assouan. The French had also occupied Cosseir. The which the two councils were appointed to meet at St. Cloud division of Desaix contained the French savants, and Denon the next day, in order to be safer from any attempts of the

mob of the capital. By another resolution General Bonaparte rity, said to him, “General, will you sweat to the constituwas appointed commander-in-chief of the military division of tion of the year 111?' Bonaparte then became animated : Paris, and charged with protecting the safe removal of the The Constitution !' he cried out, you violated it on the councils. A message signifying this appointment, and 18th Fructidor [AUGERE AU], you violated it on the 22nd Bummoning him to appear before the elders, was carried Floréal, you violated it on the 30th Prairial.

All parties to Bonaparte while he was in the midst of his military by turns have appealed to the Constitution, and all levee. He immediately mounted on horseback, and invited parties by turns have violated it. As we cannot preserve all the officers to follow him. The greater number did so; the Constitution, let us at least preserve liberty and equality. but Bernadotte and a few more declined the invitation. He then talked of conspiracies, of danger to the Republic, Bonaparte had been talking privately with Bernadotte, but &c. Several members insisted on the General revealing could not win him over to his side ; he found him as these conspiracies, explaining these dangers. Bonaparte, stubborn as a bar of iron.' (Bourienne.) Bonaparte having after some hesitation, named Moulins and Barras, who he given his orders to the adjutants of the various battalions said had proposed to him to take the lead in the conspiracy. of the national guards and to the commanding officers of This increased the vociferations among the members : The the regular troops which were formed in the Champs Elysées, General must explain himself, every thing must be told repaired to the Council of Elders, surrounded by a nume- before all France. But he had nothing to reveal. He rous retinue, among whom were Moreau, Berthier, Lannës, spoke of a party in the Council of Five Hundred which Murat, and Le Fèvre, who commanded the National Guards. wanted to re-establish the convention and the reign of terror. He told the council that they represented the wisdom of the His sentences became incoherent, he was confused, but at nation, that by their resolutions of thiat morning they had last he said, "If any orator, paid by foreigners, attempts to saved the Republic, that he and his brave companions put me out of the pale of the law, let him beware! I shall would support them, and he swore this in his and their appeal to my brave companions, whose caps I perceive at names. Coming out of the hall he read to the assembled the entrance of this hall." Bourienne and Berthier advised troops the resolutions of the elders, which were received by him now to withdraw, and they came out together, when the soldiers with bursts of applause.

Bonaparte was received with acclamations by the military Meantime the three directors, Barras, Moulins, and assembled before the palace. Gohier, who remained at the Luxembourg, after Sieyes The Council of Five Hundred had also assembled. Its and Ducos had gone to the Tuileries, and given in their president Lucien Bonaparte, read aloud the resignation of resignation, became alarmed. They had no force at their Barras, which had been forwarded by the Council of Elders. disposal ; even their own personal guard had deserted them. Some of the leaders then proposed to repeat the oath of Barras sent his secretary Bottot to endeavour to negociate fidelity to the Constitution, which was carried by acclama. with Bonaparte. The general received him in public in tion. No dictator, no new Cromwell ! resounded through the midst of his officers, and assuming the tone of an angry the hall. Augereau, who was present, went out and told master upbraided the directors with their misconduct :- Bonaparte what was passing in the council. You have • What have you done with that France which I left to you placed yourself in a pretty situation.'—Augereau,' replied prosperous and glorious ? I left her at peace, and I ind Bonaparte, remember Arcole ; things appeared still worse her at war; I left her triumphant, and I find nothing but there at one time. Keep quiet, and in half an hour you will spoliations and misery. What have you done with a hun- see.' He then entered the Council of the Five Hundred, acdied thousand Frenchmen whom I left behind, my com-companied by four grenadiers. The soldiers remained at panions in aạns and in glory? They are no more.... the entrance, he advanced towards the middle of the hall, unHe then signified to Bottot in private his friendly senti- covered. He was received with loud and indignant vociferaments towards Barras, and assured him of his personal tions. We will have no dictator, no soldiers in the sancprotection if he immediately abdicated. Talleyrand had tuary of the laws. Let him be outlawed ! he is a traitor ! ineantime seen Barras, who, fearing perhaps to expose him. Bonaparte attempted to speak, but his voice was drowned self to an investigation of his official conduct, consented to in the general clamour. He was confused, and seemed unresign. He wrote a letter to the Council of Elders to that certain what to do. Several members crowded around him; effect, and then set off for his estate in the country under a cry of Let us save our General !' was heard coming from an escort which Bonaparte gave him. (BARRAS.] Gohier the door of the hall, and a party of grenadiers rushed in, and Moulins being thus left alone did not constitute the num- placed Bonaparte in the midst of them, and brought him ber required by the constitution in order to give to their tie- out of the hall. One of the grenadiers had his coat torn in liberations the authority of an executive council. Moreau was struggling with a deputy ; but the story of the daggers sent by Bonaparte to guard the palace of the Luxembourg, drawn against Bonaparte appears to be unfounded. In the and in fact to keep the two directors prisoners there. confusion of the moment Bonaparte may have fancied it.

The Council of Five Hundred having met at 10 o'clock Lucien, after the departure of his brother, attempted to on the same day, received a message from the elders, ad pacify the council, but the exasperation of the members journing the sitting to St. Cloud for the next day. They was too great. A motion was put to outlaw General Bonaseparated amidst cries of The Republic and the Constitu- parte. Lucien refused to put it to the vote, saying, 'I cantion for ever !

not outlaw my own brother,' and he deposited the insignia Fouché, the minister of police, Cambaceres, minister of of president, and left the chair. He then asked to be heard justice, Talleyrand, and other influential men, seconded the in his brother's defence, but he was not listened to. At views of Bonaparte and of Sieyes. The power of the di. this moment, a party of grenadiers sent by Napoleon enrectory was at an end. The question was, what form of tered the hall. Lucien put himself in the midst of them, government should be substituted for it. It was agreed at and they marched out. He found the military outside last that the council should adjourn themselves to the fol- already exasperated at the treatment their general had relowing year, after appointing a commission for the purpose ceived. Lucien mounted on horseback, and in a loud voice of framing a new constitution, and that meantime an exe- cried out to them, that factious men, armed with daygers, cutive should be formed consisting of three consuls, Sieyes, and in the pay of England, had interrupted by violence the Ducos, and Bonaparte. These measures it was known deliberations of the Council of Five Hundred, and that he, would obtain a majority in the Council of Elders, but would in his quality of president of that assembly, requested them meet with a determined opposition in that of the Five to employ force against the disturbers. *I proclaim that Hundred.

the assembly of the Five Hundred is dissolved. This On the 19th Brumaire (10th November) the councils address of Lucien decided the business. The soldiers felt assembled at St. Cloud. The republican minority in the no more scruples in obeying the orders of the president. Council of Elders complained loudly of the hasty and irre- Murat entered the hall of the Council

, at the head of a degular convocation of the preceding day. In the midst of tachment of grenadiers with fixed bayonets. He sumthe debate Bonaparte appeared at the bar, accompanied by moned the deputies to disperse, but was anstvered by loud Berthier and his secretary Bourienne, the latter of whom vociferations, execrations, and shouts of The Republic gives an account of the scene. He told the deputies that for ever ! The drums were then ordered to beat, and the they were treading upon a volcano, that he and his brethren soldiers to clear the hall. They levelled their muskets, and in arms came to offer their assistance, that his views were advanced to the charge. The deputies now fled, many disinterested, and yet,' he added, "I am calumniated, I jumped out of the windows, others went out quietly hy am compared to Cromwell, to Cæsar.' This was uttered the door. In a few minutes the hall was entirely cleared. in a rambling, broken manner. Linglet, one of the mino- In this affair the military were the instruments, and Lucien

the chief director. It is well here to quote the words of one-fifth of whom was to be renewed every year, and of a Lucien, who after a lapse of thirty-five years, filled with tribunate of 100 members, one-fifth to be renewed every year. strange vicissitudes, has lately reverted to the subject in a The consuls, or rather the first or chief consul (for the other pamphlet in answer to General Lamarque's Memoirs. We two were appointed by him and acted only as his advisers were convinced that the immense majority of the French and assistants, but could not oppose his decisions), proposed would approve our proceedings, but our audacity did not the laws, the tribunate discussed them in public, and either wait for the legal manifestation of the wishes of France, approved of or rejected them; if it approved, it made a reand for this we hesitated. . . . The conqueror of so many port accordingly to the legislative body, which voted by battles was for a moment confused, not as it has been ab- ballot on the project of law without discussing it. If the surdly asserted through weakness, but because he was going proposed law obtained a majority of votes, the senate reto usurp a right which he had not then,—the right of dis- gistered it, and the consuls, in their quality of executive, solving the legislature ; we hesitated because we had in promulgated it. The sittings of the senate were secret; view the scaffold and the stigma of traitors, which would those of the legislative body were dumb; the tribunate was have been our lot had we failed, without having time to therefore the only deliberative assembly in the state, but it take the votes of the nation upon our bold attempt. If Na- had not the power of originating laws; it could however poleon wavered a moment, he soon conquered his hesita- denounce the measures of the government by an address tion; we braved the scaffold, and all France gave us a bill to the senate. The members of the tribunate were apof indemnity by raising my brother to the consulate, and pointed by the senate out of lists of candidates made out afterwards (unluckily perhaps) to the empire. (Réponse de by the electoral colleges. The senate filled its own vacancies Lucien Bonaparte, Prince de Canino, aux Memoires du from a triple list of candidates,-one proposed by the chief General Lamarque, London, 1835). And in another place consul, one by the tribunate, and one by the legislative he says, that the appeal of the councils to the constitution body. As for the legislative body, the members were sewas an inconsistency, as that constitution had been already lected by the senate out of lists of candidates furnished by violated by themselves on the 18th Fructidor (1797). On the electoral colleges of the departments. The people therethat day the legality of the councils was lost; the invio- fore had no direct election of their representatives. This was lability of the Council of Five Hundred could only have the essential anomaly of Sieyes's plan of a constitution styled continued as long as that assembly kept within the pale of republican. With regard to the executive, Sieyes had dethe constitution. Beyond this there is no more legality for vised a curious plan, which however was not adopted by the any one of the branches of the legislature. One might go commission. He proposed a chief magistrate called Grand further back than the 18th Fructidor, and question the Elector, whose only prerogative was to appoint two consuls, legality of the 13th Vendemiaire, in which Bonaparte had one for the civil and the other for the military department. acted a conspicuous part. But to talk of legality in France, | The two consuls were to be independent of each other as after the overthrow of the constitutional monarchy in 1792, well as of the great elector, who was to enjoy his dignity as would be merely a waste of time.

a sinecure with a large salary of several millions of francs. On the night of the same day (19th Brumaire) the elders Bonaparte exclaimed against the whole scheme, ridiculed it, assembled again, and agreed that a provisional executive and treated it as an absurdity. The majority of the comof three consuls should be appointed. The initiative how- mission gave it up, and resorted to the plan already menever belonging to the other council, Lucien assembled a tioned of three consuls appointed for ten years and resmall minority, some say only thirty members, out of Five eligible, the first or chief one having the power of appointHundred, who on that night passed several resolutions, by ing to all public offices, and of proposing all public measures, one of which it was stated that there was no longer a direc- such as war or peace: he commanded the forces of every tory. By another, a list of the more ardent republican description, superintenrled both the internal and foreign members was drawn up, who were declared to have forfeited departments of the state, &c. The granting of these vast their seats in consequence of their violence and their crimes. powers met with some opposition in the commission, but By another, three provisional consuls were appointed, Sieyes, Bonaparte sternly overcame them by declaring that if they Ducos, and Bonaparte. At one o'clock in the morning, Bo- attempted to weaken the power of the executive, he would naparte took the oath before the council. At three o'clock have nothing more to do in the business, that he was already the two councils adjourned for three months, after appoint- first consul, and hinted that a civil war might be the result ing a commission to revise the constitution.

of further opposition. The commission accordingly yielded Every thing was now quiet at St. Cloud, and Bonaparte to his views. In fact, most men were tired of revolutions, returned to Paris with Bourienne. After quieting the and they felt the necessity of a strong executive in order to anxiety of his wife, he told Bourienne that he thought he re-establish order and internal security. had spoken some nonsense while before the councils. “I Bonaparte being thus appointed, or rather confirmed, m had rather speak to soldiers than to lawyers. These fellows his office of first consul or chief magistrate, had the right of really put me out of countenance, I have not the habit of naming the other two; he offered Sieyes one of the places, speaking before large assemblies. But the habit will come but Sieyes declined the offer. He accepted the place of seby and bye.' On the evening of the following day, Bona- nator, with the yearly salary of 25,000 francs, and the doparte took up his residence in the Luxembourg, the palace main of Crosne, in the park of Versailles, belonging to the of the ex-directors.

state. Bonaparte appointed Cambacères and Lebrun second The fall of the Directorial Government, however irregu- and third consuls. They, together with Sieyes and Ducos, larly brought about, was certainly not a subject of regret late consuls, appointed the majority of the members of the for the great majority of the French people, who had neither senate, who themselves appointed the remainder. The senate respect for it nor any confidence in it. The profligacy and next named the 100 tribunes and the 300 members of the dishonesty of that government were notorious. [DIREC- legislative body, and thus the whole legislature was filled up TOIRE Executif.]

at once under the plea of urgency, as there was no time to wait At the first sitting of the three consuls Sieyes having for the lists of candidates to be named by the departments. said something about a president, Ducos immediately re- (Constitution of the Year Vill. in Appendix to Gourplied, “The General takes the chair of course.' Bonaparte gaud's Memoirs of Napoleon.) The constitution was subthen began to state his views on the various branches of the mitted to the acceptation of the people in every commune, and administration and on the policy to be pursued by the registers were opened for the purpose at the offices of the government, and supported them in a firm authoritative various local authorities : 3,012,569 voters were registered, tone. Ducos of course assented, and from that moment out of which number 1562 rejected, and 3,011,007 accepted Sieyes perceived that his own influence was at an end: he the new constitution, which was then solemnly proclaimed told his friends that they had given themselves a master, on the 24th December, 1799. Although the number of and that Bon aparte could and would manage every thing fayourable voters_did not constitute in fact anything like himself and in his own way. The three consuls, in con- one-half of the French citizens above twenty-one years of junction with the commission appointed by the councils, age, yet as all had had the option of registering their votes, framed a new constitution, which was called the constitution it was considered that those who did not choose to do so, of the year vini. The outline, with regard to the legis- either did not care about the matter, or tacitly approved of lative power, was taken from a plan of Sieyes. It consisted the new form of government. The number of favourable of three consuls, of a senate called conservative, and com- votes on this occasion was much greater than that in favour posed of eighty members appointed for life and enjoying a of the former constitutions of 1792 and of the year 11. considerable salary, of a legislative body of 300 members, Bonaparte did not altogether approve of Sieyes's constitu


tion, although he had greatly modified it by strengthening Franide was still at war with Austria, England, and the
the executive to a vast extent. Napoleon,' thus he spoke Porte. Bonaparte sent Duroc on a mission to Berlin, by
afterwards of himself at St. Helena, was convinced that which he confirmed Prussia in its neutrality. The Emperor
France could only exist as a monarchy: but the French Paul of Russia had withdrawn from the confederation after
people being more desirous of equality than of liberty, and the battle of Zürich, 25th September, 1799, in which Mas-
the very principle of the revolution being established in the sena gained a victory over the Russian army. Bonaparte now
equalization of all classes, there was of necessity a complete wrote a letter to the king of England, expressing a wish for
abolition of the aristocracy. If it was difficult to construct peace between the two nations. Lord Grenville, secretary of
a republic on a solid basis without an aristocracy, the diffi- state for foreign affairs, returned an evasive answer, express-
culty of establishing a monarchy was much greater. To ing doubts as to the stability of the present government of
form a constitution in a country without any kind of aris- France, an uncertainty which would affect the security of
tocracy would be as vain as to attempt to navigate in one the negotiations; 'but disclaiming at the same time any
element only. The French revolution undertook to solve a claim to prescribe to France what shall be the form of her
problem as difficult as the direction of a balloon. ... The government, or in whose hands she shall vest the authority
ideas of Napoleon were fixed, but the aid of time and events necessary for conducting the affairs of a great and powerful
were necessary for their realization. The organization of nation. His Majesty looks only to the security of his own
the consulate presented nothing in contradiction to them : dominions and those of his allies, and to the general safety
it taught unanimity, and that was the first step. This of Europe. Whenever he shall judge that such security
point gained, Napoleon was quite indifferent as to the forms can in any manner be attained, His Majesty will eagerly
and denominations of the several constituted bodies; he embrace the opportunity to concert with his allies the means
was a stranger to the revolution; it was natural that the of immediate and general pacification. Unhappily no such
will of those men who had followed it through all its security hitherto exists; no sufficient evidence of the prin-
phases should prevail in questions as difficult as they were ciples by which the new government of France will be di-
abstract. The wisest plan was to go on from day to day rected, no reasonable grounds by which to judge of its sta-
without deviating from one fixed point, the polar star by bility. This correspondence was the subject of animated
which Napoleon meant to guide the revolution to the haven debates in the British parliament. (Parliamentury Re-
he desired. (Memoirs of Napoleon, dictated to Gourgaud, gister for the year 1800.)
vol. i.) The above sentences furnish a clue to Bonaparte's Bona parte had made the overture in compliance with the
subsequent policy with regard to the internal administration general wish for peace, but he says himself that he was not
of France. Towards the end of January, 1800, Bonaparte sorry it was rejected, and that the answer from London
removed from the palace of the Luxembourg to the filled him with secret satisfaction, as war was necessary to
Tuileries. Of his public entrance into that royal residence maintain energy and union in the state, which was ill or-
amidst the acclamations of the multitude Madame de Stael ganized, as well as his own influence over the imaginations
has given a striking account.

of the people.' (Montholon, Memoirs of Napoleon, vol. i.
The finances were left by the Directory in a wretched note on Pitt's policy.) Bonaparte at the same time suc-
state: the treasury was empty; forced loans arbitrarily as- ceeded in putting an end to the civil war in La Vendée: he
sessed had been till then the chief resource of the govern- entered into negotiations with the principal Vendean chiefs,
ment. Gaudin, the new minister appointed by Bonaparte, offering a complete amnesty for the past, and at the same
repealed the odious system, for which he substituted 25 per time he sent troops to La Vendéc to put down any further
cent. additional upon all contributions direct or indirect. resistance. The royalist party had gained considerable
Confidence being thus restored, the merchants and bankers strength ; owing to the weak and immoral policy of the Di-
of Paris supplied a loan of twelve millions, the taxes were rectory, many officers of the republic, both civil and military,
paid without difficulty, the sales of national domains were re- had entered into correspondence with it, because, as they
sumed, and money was no longer wanting for the expenses confessed to Bonaparte, they preferred anything to anarchy,
of the state. Cambacères continued to be minister of justice. and the return of the reign of terror. But the temperate
The tyrannical law of hostages, by which nearly 200,000 and yet firm policy of the first consul effected a great al-
Frenchmen were placed out of the pale of the law because teration in public opinion. The Vendeans themselves were
they happened to be relatives of emigrants or of Vendeans, affected by it. The principal of them, Chatillon, D'Auti-
and were made answerable for the offences of the latter, was champ, thé Abbé Bernier, Bourmont, and others, made their
repealed. About 20,000 priests who had been banished or peace with the government by the treaty of Montluçon in
imprisoned were allowed to return, or were set at liberty on January, 1800. Georges capitulated to General Brune, and
taking the oath of fidelity to the established government. the Vendean war was at an end.
All persons arrested on mere suspicion, or for their opinions, Bonaparte now turned all his attention to the war against
were set free. 'Opinions,' said Bonaparte, "are not amenable Austria. He gave to Moreau the command of the army of
to the law; the right of the sovereign extends only to the the Rhine, and himself assumed the direction of that of
exaction of obedience to the laws.'

Italy. Massena was shut up in Genoa, and the Austrians The subordinate situations under government were filled under General Melas occupied Piedmont and the Genoese with men from all parties, chosen for their fitness. •We are territory as far as the French frontiers. Bonaparte made a creating a new æra,' said Bonaparte ; ‘of the past we must demonstration of assembling an army of reserve at Dijon in remember only the good, and forget the evil. Times, habits Burgundy, which was composed of a few thousand men, of business and experience, have formed many able men chiefly conscripts or old invalids. The Austrians, lulled into and modified many characters.' Agreeably to this principle, security, continued their operations against Genoa and toFouché was retained as minister of police. Berthier was wards Nice, while Bonaparte secretly directed a number of made minister at war instead of Dubois Crance, the minister regiments from the interior of France to assemble in Switzerof the Directory, who could give no returns of the different land on the banks of the Lake of Geneva. He himself recorps, and who answered all questions by saying - We paired to Lausanne on the 13th of May, and marched, with neither pay, nor victual, nor clothe the army; it subsists about 36,000 men and forty pieces of cannon, up the Great and clothes itself by requisitions on the inhabitants.' St. Bernard, which had till then been considered imprac

The churches which had been closed by the Convention ticable for the passage of an army, and especially for artillery, were re-opened, and Christian worship was allowed to be The cannons were dismounted, put into hollow trunks of performed all over France. The Sabbath was again recog- trees, and dragged by the soldiers ; the carriages were taken nised as a day of rest, the law of the Decades was repealed, to pieces, and carried on mules. The French army descended and the computation by weeks resumed. The festival of to Aostá, turned the fort of Bard, and found itself in the plains the 21st January, being the anniversary of the death of of Lombardy, in the rear of Melas' Austrian army, which was Louis XVI., was discontinued. The oath of hatred to royalty south of the Po, and intercepting its communications with was suppressed as useless, now that the republic was firmly the Austrian States. Bonaparte entered Milan on the 2nd established and acknowledged by all, and as being an ob- of June, without meeting with any opposition, and was stacle to the good understanding between France and the there joined by other divisions which had passed by the other powers.

At the same time the tence of transport. Simplon and the St. Gothard. He now marched to meet ation passed on the 19th Brumaire, on fifty-nine members of Melas, who had hastily assembled his army near Alessandria. the former Council of Five Hundred, was changed into Passing the Po at Piacenza he drove back Melas' advanced their remaining at a distance from Paris, under the sur- guard at Casteggio near Voghera, and took a position in veillance of the police.

the plain of Marengo, on the right bank of the river Bore

nuida in front of Alessandria. On the 14th of June Melas | ists and republicans were dissatisfied with his dictatorship. crossed the Bormida in three columns, and attacked the Joseph Arena, a Corsican, and brother of Bartolomeo Arena French. The Austrians carried the village of Marengo, of the Council of Five Hundred, who had warmly opposed and drove the French back upon that of San Giuliano, Bonaparte on the 19th Brumaire, Ceracchi and Diana, which was attacked by a column of 5000 Hungarian grena- Italian refugees, and several other violent republicans, diers. At four o'clock in the afternoon the battle seemed formed a conspiracy against Bonaparte's life ; but they lost to the French, who were retiring on all points, and in were discovered and imprisoned. Soon after a fresh conconsiderable disorder, when Desaix arriving with a fresh spiracy of the royalists, some say of the royalists and Jacodivision attacked the advancing column, while the younger bins

united, was near terminating the life of the first consul. Kellerman with a body of heavy horse charged it in flank. As Bonaparte was passing in his carriage through the Rue The column was broken, and General Zach, the Austrian Nicaise on his way to the Opera, 24th December, 1800, a second in command, and his staff, were taken prisoners. tremendous explosion of several barrels of gunpowder in a The commander-in-chief, Melas, an old and gallant officer, waggon, that was drawn up on one side of the street, destroyed exhausted with fatigue, and thinking the battle won, several houses and killed many persons. Bonaparte's carriage had just left the field and returned to Alessandria. The had just passed, owing to the furious driving of the coachman, other French divisions now advanced in their turn, a panic who was half intoxicated, and who made his way through spread among the Austrians, who, after fighting hard all all obstacles that had been purposely placed on the road. day, had thought themselves sure of victory, and they fled The police discovered the conspirators, who were fanatical in confusion towards the Bormida, many being trampled royalists connected with the Chouans in the west of France. down by their own cavalry, which partook of the general They were tried and executed. At the same time Arena and disorder. The Austrian official report stated their loss in his republican friends, who had been already found guilty, killed, wounded, and prisoners at 9069 men, and 1423 although, it was said, upon evidence not quite conclusive, horses. The French stated their own loss at 4000 only, were brought out of their confinement and executed. By a and that of the Austrians at 12,000. But the loss of Senatus Consultum, for such the decrees of the Senate were the French must have been greater. Desaix was shot styled, 130 known leaders of the old Jacobin party, several through the breast in the charge; he fell from his horse, and of whom had participated in the atrocities of the reign of telling those around him not to say anything to his men, he terror, were ordered to be transported beyond the seas. Boexpired. He and Kellerman turned the fate of the battle. naparte expressed his determination to put down both An armistice was concluded on the 16th of June between Jacobins and Bourbonists. A law passed the legislative. the two armies, by which Melas was allowed to withdraw body empowering the executive to banish from Paris, and his troops to the line of Mantua and the Minció, the French even from France, persons who should express opinions keeping Lombardy as far as the river Oglio. Melas, on his inimical to the present government. By another law, which side, gave up Piedmont and the Genoese territory, with all passed the Tribunate by a majority of only eight, and was their fortresses, including Genoa and Alessandria, to the afterwards sanctioned by the legislative body, special crimiFrench.

nal" courts were established to try all persons accused of Bonaparte having established provisional governments at treason against the state. The secret police was now orMilan, Turin, and Genoa, returned to Paris, where he ar- ganised with the utmost skill by Fouché, and numerous rived on the 3rd of July, and was received with the greatest informers from all classes were taken into its pay. . Besides enthusiasm. The battle of Marengo had wonderfully con- the general police, there was a military police, and another solidated his power, and increased his influence on the opinion police establishment under Bonaparte himself, in his own of the French. Negotiations for peace took place between household. Austria and France; Austria however refused to treat without In April, 1801, a general amnesty was granted to all England, and Bonaparte demanded an armistice by sea as a emigrants who chose to return to France and take the oath preliminary to the negotiations with England. Malta and of fidelity to the government within a certain period. From Egypt were then on the point of surrenacring to the Eng- this amnesty about 500 were excepted, including those who lish, and Bonaparte wished to send reinforcements to those had been at the head of armed bodies of royalists, those who countries during the naval armistice. This was refused by belonged to the household of the Bourbon princes, those England, and hostilities were resumed by sea and by land. French officers who had been guilty of treason, and those Moreau defeated the Austrians commanded by the Arch- who had held rank in foreign armies against France. The duke John, in the great battle of Hohenlinden, and ad property of the returned emigrants which had not been vanced towards Vienna. The French in Italy drove the sold was restored to them. Another conciliatory measure Austrians beyond the Adige and the Brenta. (For all this was the concordat concluded between Joseph Bonaparte war of 1800 see Précis des Evenemens Militaires, par Ma- and Cardinal Consalvi, which was signed by Pius VII. in thieu Dumas.)

September, 1801. The pope made several concessions selAustria was now obliged to make a separate peace. The dom if ever granted by his predecessors. He suppressed treaty of Luneville, 9th February, 1801, arranged by the two many bishoprics, he sanctioned the sale of church property plenipotentiaries, Count Cobentzel and Joseph Bonaparte, which had taken place, he superseded all bishops who had was mainly grounded on that of Campoformio. Austria re- refused the oath to the republic, and he agreed that the tained the Venetian territories, but Tuscany was taken away first consul should appoint the bishops, subject to the approfrom the Grand Duke Ferdinand, and bestowed upon Louis, bation of the pontiff, who was to bestow upon them the son of the Duke of Parma, who had married a princess of canonical institution. The bishops, in concert with the Spain. Through the mediation of the Emperor Paul of government, were to make a new distribution of the parishes Russia, with whom Bonaparte was now on very friendly of their respective dioceses, and the incumbents appointed terms, the king of Naples also obtained peace. The new pope, by them were to be approved by the civil authorities. The Pius VII., was likewise acknowledged by Bonaparte, and left bishops, as well as the incumbents, were to take the oath of in full possession of his territories, except the legations which fidelity to the government, with the clause of revealing any had been annexed to the Cisalpine republic. In the course plots they might hear of against the state. With these conof the same year negotiations were begun with England, ditions it was proclaimed, on the part of the French governwhere Mr. Addington had succeeded Mr. Pitt as prime ment, that the Catholic religion was that of the majority of minister. Egypt and Malta having surrendered to the Frenchmen; that its worship should be free, public, and English, the chief obstacles to peace were removed. The protected by the authorities, but under such regulations as preliminaries of peace were signed at Paris on the 10th of the civil power should think proper to prescribe for the sake October, 1801, and the definitive treaty was signed at of public tranquillity; that its clergy should be provided Amiens, 27th of March, 1802. The principal conditions for by the state ; that the cathedrals and parish churches were, that Malta should be restored to the Knights of St. should be restored to them. The total abolition of convents John, and the forts be occupied by a Neapolitan garrison. was also confirmed. This concordat was not agreed to by The independence of the Cisalpine, Batavian, Helvetic, and the pope without some scruples, nor without much opLigurian republics was guaranteed. Egypt was restored to position from several of the theologians and canonists of the sultan, the Cape of Good Hope to Holland, and the the court of Rome. (Compendio Storico Pio VII., French West India Islands to France. England retained Milan, 1824 ; and also Botta, Storia d'Italia del 1789 al the island of Ceylon.

1814.) On Easter Sunday, 1802, the concordat was pubBonaparte had shown at this period an earnest desire for lished at Paris, together with a decree of regulations upon peace, which France stood greatly iu need of. Both royal-' matters of discipline, which were so worded as to make

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