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them appear part of the text of the original concordat. The of law proposed by the executive. As to the rest, the elecregulations were that no bull, brief, or decision from Rome lion of members to the legislature in both countries was should be acknowledged in France without the previous not made by the body of the people: in both, the executive approbation of the government; no nuncio or apostolic power had the exclusive right of proposing the laws; in commissioner to appear in France, and no council to be both the government was monarchical, under republican held without a similar consent; appeals against abuses of names, and tempered by constitutional forms. The presidiscipline to be laid before the council of state ; professors dent was for ten years, and re-eligible. He appointed to of seminaries to subscribe to the four articles of the Gallican all civil and military offices, transacted all diplomatic affairs, Church of 1682; no priest to be ordained unless he be &c. Bonaparte appointed Melzi d'Eril as vice president, twenty-five years of age, and have an income of at least 300 to reside at Milan in his absence. This choice was generally francs; and lastly, that the grand vicars of the respective approved of. Bonaparte gave also a new constitution to dioceses should exercise the episcopal authority after the the Ligurian or Genoese republic, similar to that of the demise of the bishop, and until the election of his successor, Italian republic: he did not assume the chief magistraey instead of vicars elected ad hoc by the respective chapters, himself, but placed a native doge at the head of the state. as prescribed by the Council of Trent. This last article on the 2nd August, 1802, Bonaparte was proclaimed con: grieved most the court of Rome, as it affected the spiritual sul for life by a decree of the senate, which was sanctioned jurisdiction of the church. The pope made remonstrances, by the votes of the people in the departments to the number to which Bonaparte turned a deaf ear. Regulations con of three millions and a half. A few days after, another cerning the discipline of the Protestant churches in France Senatus Consultum appeared, altering the formation of the were issued at the same time with those concerning the electoral bodies, reducing the tribunate to fifty menubers, Catholic church. The Protestant ministers were also paid and paving the way in fact for absolute power. The 1é. by the state.
moires sur le Consulat, by Thibaudeau, explain the in. On the occasion of the solemn promulgation of the con- trigues that took place at the time. cordat in the cathedral of Nôtre Dame the Archbishop of Switzerland was at this time distracted by civil war. The Aix officiated, and Bonaparte attended in full state. The French troops had evacuated the country after the peace of old generals of the republic had been invited by Berthier in Amiens, but the spirit of dissension among the differeot the morning to attend the levee of the first consul, who cantons remained. Bonaparte called to Paris deputations took them unawares with him to Nôtre Dame. Bonaparte from every part of Switzerland, and after listening to their said at St. Helena that he never repented having signed various claims, he told them that he would mediate among the concordat : that it was a great political measure; that them: he rejected the schemes of unity and unilormity, it gave him influence over the pope, and through him saying, that nature itself had made Switzerland for a federal over a great part of the world, and especially over Italy, and country; that the old forest cantons, the democracies of that he might one day have ended by directing the pope's the Alps, being the cradle of Helvetic liberty, still formed councils altogether. Had there been no pope,' he added, the chief claim of Switzerland to the sympathies of Europe. "one ought to have been made for the occasion.' (Gourgaud Destroy those free primitive commonwealths, the monuand Las Cases. See also a copy of the concordat in the ment of five centuries,' he added, “and you destroy your appendix to Montholon's Memoirs, vol. i.)
historical associations, you become a mere cominon people, Bunaparte established an order of knighthood both for liable to be swamped in the whirlpool of European politics.
' military men and civilians, which he called the Legion of The new Helvetic federation was formed of nineteen canHonour. This measure met with considerable opposition tons on the principle of equal rights between towns and in the tribunate. At the first renewal of one-fifth of the country, the respective constitutions varying however acmembers of that body, the senate contrived to eject the cording to localities. The general Dieis of the confederamost decided members of the opposition.
tion were re-established. The neutrality of Switzerland In January, 1802, Bonaparte convoked together at Lyons was recognized; no foreign troops were to touch its territory; the members of the provisional government of the Cisal- but the Swiss were to maintain a body of 16,000 men in pine republic, together with deputations of the bishops, of the service of France, as they formerly did under the old ihe courts of justice, of the universities and academies, of monarchy. Bonaparlé assumed the title of Mediator of the the several towns and departments, and the national guards, Helvetic Jeague. He retained however Geneva and the of the regular army, and of the chambers of commerce. bishoprick of Basle, which had been seized by the Directory, The number of deputies amounted to about 500, out of and he separated the Valais, which he afterwards aggrewhom a commission of thirty members was selected, which gated to France. To the end of his reign Bonaparte remade a report to the first consul of France on the actual spected the boundaries of Switzerland, as settled by the act state of the Cisalpine republic. The report stated, that of mediation ; that and little San Marino were the only Reowing to the heterogeneous parts of which that republic publics in Europe whose independence he maintained. was composed, there was a want of confidence among them ; Bonaparte had directed a commission of lawyers of the that the republic was in a state of infancy, which required first eminence under the presidency of Cambacères to for some time to come the tutelary support of France; frame or digest a code of civil laws for France. He himself and it ended by requesting that the first consul would frequently attended their meetings, and took great interest assume the chief direction of its affairs. Bonaparte then in the discussions. The result of their labours was the repaired to the hall of the deputies, and delivered a speech Civil Code, which has continued ever since to be the law of which was an echo of the report : he agreed with all its France. It was styled •Code civil des Français,' and it conclusions, and confirmed them in more positive language. was accompanied by a Code de procédure. A Code penal, He told them that they should still be protected by the accompanied likewise by a Code d'instruction criminelle, strong arm of the first nation in Europe, and that as he a commercial code (Azuni), and a military code, were found no one among them who had sufficient claims to the afterwards compiled and promulgated under Bonaparte's chief magistracy, he was willing to assume the direction administration. These several codes, which are very difof their affairs, with the title of President of the Italian Referent in their respective merits, and are often confusedly public, and to retain it as long as circumstances should re- designated by the name of Code Napoleon, will form the quire it. The new constitution of the Italian republic was subject of a separate article. (Code.) The Civil Code is then proclaimed: three electoral colleges-1. of proprietors ; considered by far the best, and constitutes perhaps the most 2. of the learned ; 3. of the merchants represented the na- useful bequest of Bonaparte's reign. tion, and appointed the members of the legislature and the The various branches of public instruction also attracted judges of the upper courts. The legislative body of seventy- Bonaparte's attention, though in very unequal proportions. five members voted without discussion on the projects of law The task of providing elementary education was thrown upon presented to it by the executive. There were two councils, the communes, but the communes being mostly very poor, under the names of Consulta of State and Legislative Coun- the establishment of primary schools met with many diffi. cil, which examined the projects of law proposed by the culties, and elementary educution remained in a længuishing president, the treaties with foreign states, &c. The prin- and precarious state during the whole of Napoleon's reign. cipal difference between this constitution and that of France Several reports delivered by the councillor of state, Fourcroy, was in the composition of the electoral colleges, they being to the legislative body under the consulate and the empire, selected in Italy by classes, and in France by communes show the wretched state of primary and secondary instrucand departments, without distinction of classes ; and also tion throughout France. The secondary instruction was that in Italy there was no tribunate to discuss the projects chietiy given in private establishments. Fourcroy stated
the number of pupils under ten years of age in the primary | French republic, and dividing it into six departments, and secondary schools at only 75,000, and this in a popu- | Po, Dora, Sesia, Stura, Marengo, and Tanare.' England lation of thirty-two millions. Classical and literary instruc- on her side refused to deliver up Malta, as a Neapolitan tion was afforded by the Lycea to about 4000 pupils, whose garrison would have been a poor security against a sudden expenses were defrayed by the State, besides boarders kept visit of the French. Lord' Whitworth' had a long and at the charge of their parents. The discipline of these esta- stormy conference with Bonaparte at the Tuileries on this blishments was altogether military. Latin, mathematics, subject. The English minister having represented to him and military maneuvres were the chief objects of instruc- that the state of things which the treaty of Amiens had tion at the Lycea. Scientific education was given in the contemplated was completely altered by his enormous acspecial schools in the chief towns of France, such as the cession of power in Italy, Bonaparte peremptorily rejected schools of law and of medicine, the college of France, and England's claim to interfere in his arrangements concern. the polytechnic school at Paris, the military school at Fon- ing other states ; he insisted upon Malta being delivered tainebleau, the school of artillery and engineers at Mainz, up to some neutral power; and at the same time did not that of bridges and highways, or civil engineers, the schools even disguise his further views upon Egypt. He comfor the mines, &o. Speculative, philosophical, or political plained of the attacks of the English press upon him (ree studies inet with little encouragement under Bonaparte's Mackintosh on Peltier's trial), talked of conspiracies hatched administration. He sneered at all such stu lies as ideology, in England against him, which he assumed that the English and censured them as an idle and dangerous occupation. government was privy to, although Charles Fox himself,
The provincial administration rance was now organ- who was in opposition to the English minister of the day, ized upon one uniform plan, and was made entirely de- had once during his visit to Paris told him with honest pendent on the central power or executive. Each depart- bluntness to drive that nonsense out of his head; he comment had a prefect, who had the chief civil authority; he plained that every wind that blew from England was fraught was generally a stranger to the department, received a large with mischief for him ; and at last, after an hour and a half of salary, and was removed or dismissed at the will of Bona- almost incessant talking, he dismissed the English minister parte. The mayors of the towns of 5000 inhabitants and to prepare for the renewal of hostilities. (See the instrucupwards were appointed by Bonaparte; those of the com tions given by Bonaparte in his own handwriting to Talley. mu nes under 5000 inhabitants, as well as all the members rand concerning the manner in which he was to receive of the municipal councils, were appointed by the respective Lord Whitworth at the last conference between them, in prefects. Thus all remains of municipal or communal No. IV. Appendix to Sir W. Scott's Life of Nupoleon. liberty and popular election were quietly abrogater in See also in the Mémoires sur le Consulat by Thibaudeau, France. I was a dictator,' says Napoleon, called to that the real opinion of Bonaparte concerning the peace of office by the force of circumstances. "It was necessary that Amiens, expressed by him confidentially soon after the the strings of the government, which extended all over the ratification :- It was but a truce; his government stood in state, should be in harmony with the key-note which was to need of fresh victories to consolidate itself; it must be either influence them. The organization which I had extended the first government in Europe, or it must fall.") On the all over the empire required to be maintained wřih a high 25th of March, 1803, a Senatus Consultum placed at the degree of pressure, and to possess a prosligious force of elas disposal of the first consul 120,000 conscripts. England on ticity, &c.' (Las Cases, vol. iv.) His power in fact was much her side was making active preparations. On the 18th May greater than that of the kings of the old monarchy, as his England declared war againsē France, and laid an emprefects were not men distinguished by rank and fortune bargo upon all French vessels in her ports. In retaliation and connexions, as the former governors and lieutenant for this, a decree of the 22d May ordered that all the generals; they owed their whole power to their immediate English of whatever condition found on the territory of commissions; they had no personal influence on opinion, France should be detained as prisoners of war, under and no force except the impulse they received from the pretence that many of them belonged to the militia. General chief of the state.
Mortier was sent to occupy the Electorate of Hanover beAfter the peace with England, Bonaparte sent a fleet longing to the king of Great Britain. and an army under his brother-in-law, General Leclerc, to In the following September a decree of the consuls, in St. Domingo, to reduce the blacks, who had revolted. A order,' as it stated, to secure the liberty of the press,' fordreadful war ensued, which was marked by atrocities on bade any bookseller to publish any work until he had subboth sides, and ended in the destruction of the French force, mitted a copy of it to the commission of revision. Journals and the total emancipation of the blacks. At the same had already been placed under still greater restrictions. time he re-established the slavery of the blacks in Guada In February, 1804, the police discovered that a number loupe and Martinique, and authorized afresh the slave trade. of emigrants and Vendeans were concealed at Paris; that By a treaty with Spain, that country gave up Louisiana to General Pichegru, who, after his escape from Guiana, had France, which France afterwards sold to the United States openly espoused the cause of the Bourbons, was with them, for fifteen millions of dollars. By another treaty with Por- and that he had had some interviews with General Moreau. tugal, France acquired Portuguese Guiana. In Italy, Georges Cadoudal, the Chouan chief, who had once before France took possession of the duchy of Parma, at the death submitted to the first consul, was likewise lurking about of the duke Ferdinand, in October, 1802. She likewise took | Paris. Piehegru, Moreau, and Georges were arrested. The possession of the island of Elba, by an agreement with real purpose of the conspirators has never been clearly Naples and Tuscany. The annexation of Piedmont to known. "Georges, it seems, proposed to take away the life France next filled up the measure of alarm of the other of the first consul, but it was not proved that the rest aspowers at Bonaparte's encroachments. Since the victory of sented to this. (See Bourienne.)" It was also reported to Marengo, Piedmont had been provisionally occupied by the Bonaparte that the young Duke of Enghien, son of the French, and Bonaparte had given out hopes that he would Duke of Bourbon, and grandson of the Prince of Condé, restore it to the old king, for whom Paul of Russia evinced who was living at Ettenheim in the grand duchy of Baden, a personal interest. He was then still at war with England, was in correspondence with some of the Paris conspirators, and he had formed a scheme of an offensive alliance with and that he was to enter France as soon as the intended Russia at the expense of Turkey, with a view to march a insurrection should break out. Bonaparte, worried with recombined army to India. The violent death of Paul having ports of plots and conspiracies against him, gave orders to put an end to this scheme, he immediately procured a arrest the duke, although on a neutral territory, On the decree of the senate constituting Piedmont into a military 14th of March a party of gendarmes fiim Strasburg crossed division of the Freni h empire, under a council of adminis- the Rhine, entered the Baden territory, surrounded the tration, with General Menou at the head. Still the ultimate château of Ettenheim, seized the duke and his attendants, fate of Piedmont remained in suspense, as it was under- and took him to the citadel of Strasburg. On the morning stood that the emperor Alexander interested himself for the of the 18th the duke was put into a carriage, and taken king of Sardinia. But after the assumption of the presi- | under an escort to the castle of Vincennes, near Paris, dency of the Italian republic, and the annexation of Parma where he arrived in the evening of the 20th, A military and Elba, and other stretches of power on the side of Hol- court of seven members was ordered by the first consul to land and the Rhine, at which Alexander openly expressed assemble at Vincennes that very night. The members were his displeasure, Bonaparte having no further reason to appointed by General Murat, commandant of Paris. General humour him, a Senatus Consultum appeared in Septem- Hulin was president. The captain rapporteur, D'Autanber, 1802, definitively incorporating Piedmont with the court, interrogated the duke. (See copy of the interrogatory
and of the duke's answers in Bourienne's Memoirs, vol. v.) | Bourienne, who, when he was French agent at Hambung, The charges laid before the coure against the prisoner were: kidnapped a spy, a really bad character, and sent him to that he had borne arms against the French republic; that Paris, 'where,' he says, "Fouché no doubt took good care he had offered his services to the English government; that of him.' These are ominous words. See Montholon's Mehe was at the head of a party of emigrants assembled near moirs, vol. i., where Napoleon speaks of the arbitrary tvthe frontiers of France, and had treasonable correspondence ranny which the minister of police and his agents exorcised with the neighbouring departments; and lastly, that he until by his decree on state prisons, 13th March, 1810, he was an accomplice in the conspiracy formed at Paris against stripped them of that terrible power of committing any the life of the first consul. This last charge the duke in- individual at their own pleasure and keeping him in their dignantly denied, and there is not the least evidence that own hands, without the tribunals taking any cognizance of he was implicated in it, nor that he had corresponded the case. This abuse had existed from the time of the with either Pichegru or Georges. (Bourienne.) He was convention. however found guilty of all the charges. The duke ex The trial of Moreau, Georges, and the others, did not take pressed a desire to have an interview with the first consul. place for several months after Pichegru's death. MeanThis however was overruled by Savary, who was present at time a motion was made in the Tribunate, by one Curée, to the trial, though not one of the members, and who abruptly bestow upon Napoleon Bonaparte the title of emperor, with told the court that it was inexpedient to grant the prisoner's the hereditary succession in his family. Carnot alone spoke request. The duke was sentenced, by the same court, to against the motion, which however was passed by a great death for crimes of espionage, of correspondence with the majority on the 3rd of May. The resolution of the Tribuenemies of the republic, and of attempts against the safety, nate was then carried to the Senate, where it was unaniinternal and external, of the state. (Jugement rendu mously agreed to. It was then submitted to the votes of par la Commission Militaire Spéciale séante à Vincennes, the people in the departments. Above three millions of 30 Ventose, An XII. formée en vertu de l'arrêté du Gou- the registered votes were favourable, and between three and vernement du 29 Ventose, composée d'après la loi du 19 four thousand contrary. It was said that in many places Fructidor, An V. de sept membres, nommés par le Général those who did not vote were registered as assentients, and en Chef Murat, Gouverneur de Paris, à l'effet de juger le that this was the case at Geneva among others. However, nommé Louis Antoine Henri de Bourbon, Duc d'Enghien, even before the votes were collected, Napoleon assumed né à Chantilly le 2 Août, 1772.) Savary had orders from the title of emperor at St. Cloud on the 18th of May, 1804. Bonaparte to see the sentence carried into execution, which On the 19th he issued a decree appointing eighteen of his was done that very night, or rather early in the morning of first generals marshals of the French empire. Deputations the 21st March. The duke asked for a priest, which was with congratulatory addresses soon began to pour in from refused; he then knelt down, and prayed for a minute or the departments, and the clergy followed in the wake. The two, after which he was led down by torch-light to a postern first decrees of the new sovereign were headed-Napoleon, gate, which opened into the castle ditch, where a party of by the grace of God, and the constitution of the republic, gendarmes was drawn up, and a grave had been dug. It emperor of the French,' &c.; but the name of the republic was dawn. Savary from the parapet gave the signal for was soon after dropped altogether. firing. The duke fell dead, and was immediately buried In the month of June the trial of Moreau, Georges, and in the dress he had on, without any funeral ceremony. the others concerned in the conspiracy, took place before a (Savary's Memoirs, and General Hulin's pamphlet in exte- special court. A decree of the Senate had previously susnuation of his share in the transaction.) It is remarkable pended, for two years, the functions of the jury in cases of that Murat, afterwards king of Naples, when himself under attempts against the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Twenty sentence of death, told Captain Stratti, who guarded him, of the accused, with Georges at their head, were condemned
I took no part in the tragedy of the Duke of Enghien, and to death; Moreau, with four more, to two years' imprison. I swear this before that God into whose presence I am soon ment; and the rest were acquitted, but the police seized to appear.' (Colletta, Storia del Reame di Napoli.). In them on coming out of court, and replaced them in prison fact, Murat, as governor of Paris, merely appointed the at the command of the emperor. Riviere, Polignac, and members of the court-martial according to the orders he re some others who had been condemned to death, were received. It is not true that the duke wrote a letter to Bona- prieved by Napoleon through the entreaties of his wife and parte which was not delivered to him, as Bonaparte him- sisters. Georges and some of his more stubborn friends self seems to have believed. (Las Cases and Bourienne.) were executed. Moreau had his sentence of imprisonment The apology which Bonaparte made at St. Helena for this exchanged for perpetual banishment, and sailed for the judicial murder, was, that he believed the duke was privy to United States. The proceedings of the trial, and Moreau's the conspiracy against his life, and that he was obliged to defence, were published in the newspapers of the time. strike terror among the royalists, and put an end to their Napoleon requested the pope to perform the ceremony of plots by showing that he was not a man to be tritled with his coronation. After consulting with his cardinals, Pius An additional motive has been ascribed to him, namely, VII. determined to comply with his wish, and came to Paris that of re-assuring the party implicated in the former French at the end of November, 1804. The coronation took place revolution against any fears they might have of his ever re- in the church of Notre Dame on the 2nd of December. storing the Bourbons.
The crown having been blessed by the pope, Napoleon took On the 6th April Pichegru was found dead in his prison. it himself from the altar and placed it on his head, after About the same time, Captain Wright of the Eoglish navy, which he crowned his wife as empress. The heralds then who, having been employed in landing Pichegru and the proclaimed the accession of the high and mighty Napoleon other emigrants in Britanny, was afterwards captured by the I., emperor of the French,' &c. &c. French, and brought to Paris for the purpose of being ex The Italian republic was soon after transformed into a amined concerning the conspiracy, was likewise reported to kingdom. A deputation of the consulta or senate proceeded have been found dead. The death of these two men is still to Paris in March, 1805, humbly requesting Napoleon to involved in mystery: Bonaparte has positively denied any accept the antient iron crown, the crown of Italy, with the knowledge of Captain Wright's death, and has asserted his condition that the two crowns of Franc and Italy should belief that Pichegru really strangled himself, as it was re- remain united only on Napoleon's head, and that he should ported. Yet, even freely admitting the sincerity of his state- appoint a separate successor to the Italian kingdom. On ments, one may suspect that the agents of his police, screened the 26th May the ceremony was performed in the cathedral as they were from all public responsibility, might, in their of Milan by the archbishop of that city. Napoleon seized eagerness to serve their master, or rather themselves, have the iron crown of the old Longobard kings and placed it on resorted to foul means to get rid of these men when they his brow, saying, God has given it to me; woe to him who could not extract from them confessions that would suit their shall attempt to lay hands on it. He appointed his steppurpose. Bonaparte has repeatedly complained of the hasty son, Eugene Beauharnois, his viceroy of the kingdom of zeal of some of his agents. It is stated by Bourienne that Italy. On the 7th June Napoleon opened in person the Pichegru's depositions did not inculpate Moreau, whom session of the Italian legislative body. (See his speech on there was an apparent eagerness to find guilty. Some the occasion in Storia dell'Amministrazione del Regno dark rumours were circulated about Captain Wright having d'Italia durante il dominio Francese, under the fictitious been put to excruciating torture. It is very possible that name of Coraccini, Lugano, 1823, which is the best book Bonaparte himself did nut know at that time all the secrets of reference for the history of the administration of Northern of his prison-houses. There is a remarkable passage in Italy under Napoleon.) About the same time the Doge of
Genoa, Durazzo, repaired to Milan with a deputation of entered Münich. General Mack, who had given sufficient senators, and expressed a wish on the part of the Genoese proofs of incapacity in the field while commanding the to be united to the French empire. A decree of Napoleon, Neapolitans in 1798, was by some strange influence placed 9th of June, united Genoa to France. Soon after the re at the head of the great Austrian army. The Archduke public of Lucca was transformed into a principality, and Charles commanded the Austrian forces on the side of Italy given to Elisa, Napoleon's sister, and her husband Ba- Napoleon directed his army of England to march quickly ciocchi, to be holden as a fief of the French empire. Thus to the Rhine: other troops from Holland, Hanover, and the two more Italian republics disappeared ; San Marino alone interior of France, were ordered to march to the same remained.
quarter. He appointed Massena to command the army In the preceding year (1804) Napoleon had assembled in Italy, a large force on the shores of the British channel, with On the 23rd September, 1805, Bonaparte went in state a flotilla at Boulogne, and had given it the name of the to the senate, where he delivered a speech on the occaarmy of England.' The invasion of England and the sion of the war. As this is a fair specimen of his pecuplunder of London were confidently talked of among his liar style of oratory, we shall quote some extracts. The soldiers. After his return from Milan he gave a new im- wishes of the eternal enemies of the continent, he said, pulse to the preparations for the projected invasion, and are at last fulfilled; war is begun in the middle of Gerspoke of it publicly as an attempt resolved upon. His many. Austria and Russia have joined England, and our real intentions however have been a matter of much doubt generation is plunged again into all the calamities of war. and controversy. Bourienne, who was then still near The Austrian army has crossed the Inn; the elector Bonaparte's person, positively states that he did not enter of Bavaria has been driven away from his capital; all my tain any serious view of landing in England; that he was hopes of the preservation of peace have vanished. In this fully aware of the difficulty and risk of such an under- instance the wickedness of the enemies of the continent taking; that even had he succeeded in landing 100,000 has fully revealed itself. They feared the manifestation of men, which was no easy matter, he might have lost one my deep love for peace; they feared that Austria, at the half or two-thirds in taking possession of London; and sight of the precipice they have dug under her feet, might then, had the English nation persevered, he, not having the return to sentiments of justice and moderation, and they superiority at sea, could not have obtained reinforcements, have hurried her into war. I sigh in thinking of the blood &c. Bonaparte, at St. Helena, spoke differently. He said that this will cost Europe, but the French name shall dehe had taken all his measures; he had dispersed his ships rive a fresh lustre from it. Senators, when, at your request, all over the sea; and while the English were sailing after at the voice of the whole French people, I assumed the imthem to different parts of the world, his ships were to perial crown, I received of you and of all citizens a solemn return suddenly and at the same time; he would have had engagement to preserve it pure and without stain. My seventy or eighty French and Spanish ships in the channel, people will rush to the standard of its emperor and of his with which he could have remained master of the narrow army, which in a few days shall have crossed the frontiers. seas for two months. Three or four thousand boats and Magistrates, soldiers, citizens, all are determined to keep 100,000 men were ready at a signal. The enterprise was our country free from the intluence of England, who, if she popular with the French, and was supported, Napoleon should prevail, would grant us vone but an ignominious said, by the wishes of a great number of English. One peace, the principal conditions of which would be the burnpitched battle after landing, the result of which could not ing of our teets, the filling up of our harbours, and the be doubtful, and in four days he would have been in Lon- annihilation of our industry. I have fulfilled all the prodon, as the nature of the country does not admit of a war mises which I made to the French people, who in their turn of mancuvres ; his army should have preserved the strictest have exceeded all their engagements towards me. In the discipline, he would have presented himself to the English present crisis, so important to their glory and mine, they will people with the magical words of liberty and equality, and continue to deserve the name of the great people by which as having come to restore to them their rights and liberties, I have repeatedly saluted them on the fields of battle.' &c. (Las Cases, vol. i. part ii.) It must be observed that It was by constantly throwing all the blame of the war all this declamation applies to his preparations towards the upon the English, by continually representing them as a end of 1803 and the beginning of 1804, when he was still sort of incarnation of the evil principle ever intent on the first consul and preserved a show of respect for the liberties ruin of France, that Bonaparte succeeded, in a country of the people. To O'Meara he spoke in a rather different where great ignorance prevailed on political subjects, and strain. He said he would have gone straight to London, where the press was sure not to contradict him, to create and have seized the capital, that he would have had all that spirit of bitter and deep animosity against England the mob for him, all the low, dissipated, and loose charac- which continued to exist long after his death. It is curious ters, all the restless discontented, who abound in great cities, to read the Moniteur of those times, and to see the bareand who are everywhere the same, fond of change, and faced assertions and charges against England with which riot, and revolution. He would have excited the democratic its columns are filled. (Recueil de décrets, ordonnances, element against the aristocracy, he would have revoļu- traités de paix, manifestes, proclamations, discours, fic., tionized England, &c. Whether, with such instruments let de Napoleon Bonaparte et des membres du Gouvernement loose, he would have preserved the discipline of his army, Français depuis le 18 brumaire an 8 (Novembre, 1799] and prevented the horrors that attended his invasion of jusqu à l'année 1812 inclusivement, extraits du Moniteur, Spain and other countries, he did not say. Luckily, per- 4 vols. 8vo. 1813, a very useful book of reference.) In one haps for all parties, the trial was not made. While his army instance the English were gravely accused of having thrown was assembled near Boulogne, a new storm burst on the bales of infected cotton on the coast of France in 1804, in side of Germany
order to introduce the plague into that country; and the Austria had remonstrated against the never-ending en Moniteur (the official journal) added, 'the English cannot croachment of Napoleon in Italy. The Emperor of Russia conquer us by the sword, they assail us with the plague;' and Gustavus, King of Sweden, protested against the vio- and strange to say, this absurd story has been revived in lation of the German territory on the occasion of the seizure the ' Memoirs of Marshal Ney,' published at Paris in 1832. of the Duke of Enghien; the Moniteur answered them by Napoleon repaired to Mainz, where he took the comtaunts and ji bes against the two sovereigns. By the treaty mand of the grand army, a name which was afterwards of Luneville the Italian, Batavian, and Ligurian republics always applied to the army while he commanded in person. were acknowledged as independent states, but Napoleon He also began in this campaign to issue regular bulletins of had now seized the crown of Italy, had annexed Liguria to the events of the war. Coloured as these documents geneFrance, and Holland as well as 'Hanover were occupied by rally are (Bourienne, in his account of the Egyptian war, his troops. Both Russia and Austria complained, but their shows the procesz by which Napoleon used to frame them), complaints remained unheeded. A new coalition was formed they constitute however a series of important historical in the summer of 1805 between England, Russia, Austria, papers. and Sweden. Prussia was urged to join it; she hesitated, We cannot enter into the details of the campaign of increased her armies, but remained neutral, looking forward | 1805, and we must refer our readers to the professional stateto the events of the war. Austria, without waiting for the ments of military men of both sides who were in it, such as arrival of the Russians, who were assembling on the fron. Stutterheim's Campaign of Austerlitz ; Rapp's Memoirs, tiers of Gallicia, marched an army into the electorate of &c. Suffice it to say that General Mack allowed himself to Bavaria; and on the elector refusing to join the coalition, they be surrounded at Vím, and then surrendered, on the 17th
of October, without fighting, with more than 20,000 men, however required that Sicily should be given up to Joseph all his staff, artillery, &c. The otner Austrian divisions Bonaparte. But Sicily had never been conquered by the being now scattered about could make no effectual resist- French, it had been throughout the war the ally of Eng. ance, and the French entered Vienna on the 13th of Nov. land, and, owing to that alliance, its sovereign had lost his The Russian army had by this time assembled in Moravia, continental dominions of Naples. To have bartered away under the Emperor Alexander in person. Being joined by Sicily to France would have been, on the part of England, some Austrian divisions it amounted to about 80,000 men. an act of bad faith equal to if not worse than the former Napoleon told his soldiers that they were now going to barter of Venice by the French. The English minister meet a new enemy, 'who had been brought from the ends refused, and, Fox dying soon after, the negotiations broke of the world by the gold of England. Alluding to the high off. character borne by the Russian infantry, he added :- This The conduct of Prussia had been one of tergiversation. contest is of much importance to the honour of the French Napoleon knew that she had felt the wish, without having infantry. The question must be now finally settled whether the resolution, to strike a blow while he was engaged in the French infantry be the first or the second in Europe. Moravia against the Russians. To keep her in good humour The great batile of Austerlitz was fought on the 2nd of he had given Hanover up to her, which Prussia, though at December, 1805. The two armies were nearly equal in peace with the king of England, scrupled not to accept. number. The Russians, confident of success, extended their She moreover shut her ports against British vessels. Bonaline too much. Bonaparte broke through it and separated parte, after having settled his affairs with Austria, altered their divisions, which, after a stout resistance, especially on his tone towards Prussia. The Moniteur began to talk of the part of the Russian Guards, were routed in detail
. The Prussia as a secondary power, which assumed a tone that loss of the allies was tremendous; thousands were drowned in its extent and position did not warrant. In his negotiations the frozen lakes in the rear of their position. The emperor of with Lord Lauderdale Napoleon had oflered to restore Austria had an interview with Napoleon the day after, and Hanover to the king of England. The confederation of the an armistice was concluded, by which the remaining Russian Rhine extended round a great part of the Prussian frontroops were allowed to retire to their own country. Peace tiers. The Prussian minister at Paris, Von Knobelsdorf, in a between Austria and France was signed at Presburg on note which he delivered to Talleyrand on the 1st of October, the 26th of December. Austria gave up the Venetian pro- 1806, said truly, that the king his master saw around his vinces and Dalmatia to the kingdom of Italy, Tyrol to the territories none but French soldiers or vassals of France, elector of Bavaria, and other districts, besides a contribution ready to march at her beck. The note demanded that the of one hundred millions of francs. This war, which was to French troops shouid evacuate the territory of Germany. have checked the preponderance of Napoleon in Italy, left Napoleon answered in a tone of sneer and defiance, saying that country entirely at his disposal, and established his that to provoke the enmity of France was as senseless a influence over a great part of Germany, where, having course as to pretend to withstand the waves of the ocean.' raised the electors of Bavaria and Würtemberg to the The king of Prussia issued a long manifesto from his headrank of kings, he placed himself at the head of all the quarters at Erfurt on the 9th of October, 1806, in which he smaller states, which he formed into the confederation of recapitulated the long series of Napoleon's encroachments, the Rhine under his protection. The old German empire which all the world was acquainted with, but which the was thus dissolved. Soon after, the Emperor Francis for- king of Prussia seemed now to discover for the first time. mally renounced his title of emperor of Germany, and as- Napoleon was speedily in the field; he attacked the Prussumed the title of Francis I., emperor of Austria and of his sians first, and this time he had on his side a large supeother hereditary states.
riority of numbers, added to his superiority of tactics. The It must be observed that the position of Napoleon after double battle of Auerstadt and Jena (16th of October) dethe batile of Austerlitz in the heart of Moravia, the winter cided the campaign. The Prussian troops fought bravely, having set in, and he far from the frontiers of France and but their generals committed the same error as the Ausfrom his reinforcements and supplies, the Russians, who were trian generals had committed before, of extending too much expecting reinforcements, in his front, Prussia wavering on their line of operations. The consequences of the Prushis tank, Bohemia untouched, the Archduke Charles and sian defeat were most disastrous. Most of their divisions the Hungarian insurrection in his rear, was extremely cri- were surrounded and obliged to lay down their arms. tical, had he chosen to protract the war. This of course Almost all their strong fortresses, Magdeburg, Spandau, induced him to grant Austria better terms than what she Kustrin, Stettin, Hameln, surrendered without firing a shot. appeared to have a right to, on a mere superficial view of The work of the great Frederic's whole life crumbled to the condition of the two powers. The Austrian empire was pieces in a few weeks. Blicher and Lestocq were the only not overthrown because Vienna was in the power of the in- officers who kept some regiments together, with which they Vader. But Napoleon calculated on the habits and the made a gallant stand in the northern provinces. fears of the Emperor Francis, and on his affection for the Bonaparte entered Berlin on the 21st of October. He good citizens of Vienna ; and he was not mistaken on this dispatched Mortier to occupy Hamburg, and seize all occasion.
English property there. On the 21st of November, 1806, The king of Naples, breaking his recent treaty with Napoleon issued his well-known Berlin decree against BriFrance, had allowed a Russian and English army to land in tish commerce. • The British islands were to be considered his dominions, where they remained useless during the great as in a state of blockade by all the Continent. All correstruggle that was going forward in Germany. Napoleon spondence or trade with England was forbidden under most sent an army to Naples in February, 1806; and King Fer- severe penalties. All articles of English manufacture or dinand took 'refuge in Sicily. A decree of Napoleon, March, produce of the British colonies were considered as contra1806, appointed his brother Joseph king of Naples and of band. Property of every kind belonging to British subjects, Sicily. On the 6th of June following he appointed by an- wherever found, was declared lawful prize. All letters to other decree his brother Louis king of Holland, thus trans- and from England to be detained and opened at the postforming by a stroke of the pen the Batavian republic into a offices. The English government retaliated by its orders kingilom dependent on France. His brother-in-law, Murat, in council, 11th November, 1807. was made grand duke of Berg. [BERG.]
Meantime the king of Prussia had fled to Königsberg, During his victorious progress in Germany, Napoleon re and the Russian armies advanced to the Vistula: the ceived the news of the total destruction of the French and French occupied Warsaw. French agents had previously Spanish fleets by Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar, on the penetrated into Russian Poland, and had spread a report 2ist of October, 1805. His peevish remark on the occasion that Kosciusko was at Napoleon's head-quarters. Napoleon is said to have been— I cannot be everywhere;' and he had invited Kosciusko, who was then living in Switzerland, threw all the blame on his unfortunate admiral, Villeneuve, to come, but that single-minded patriot, mistrusting the who soon after killed himself. From this time Napoleon views of the conqueror, declined the invitation. (M. renounced his plans of_invading England, and he applied moires de Michel Oginski sur la Pologne et les Polonais himself to destroy all English trade and correspondence depuis 1788 jusqu'en 1815.) with the Continent. Charles Fox, who had succeeded Pitt Napoleon received at his head-quarters at Posen numeas minister, was known to be favourable to peace. Nego- rous addresses from various parts of Poland, entreating tiations accordingly were entered into by Napoleon, on the him to restore that country to its independence. His an. basis of the uti possidetis. Lord Yarmouth, and afterwards swers were cold and cautious. He legan his winter camLord Lauderdale, were the English negotiators. Napoleon paign against the Russians by the battle of Pultusk