(28th of Dec.), in which the French experiencing a severe with 30,000 men across Spain to take possession of Portucheck retired towards the Vistula. The month of January, gal. At the same time he published in the Moniteur that 1807, passed without any engagements, but on the 8th of the House of Braganza had ceased to reign in Europe.' February the great battle of Eylau was fought between the Junot entered Lisbon without opposition, November 30th, two grand armies. General Beningsen commanded the 1807, the Prince Regent and his court having just before Russians. The French made repeated and furious attacks embarked for Brazil. In December of the same year, on the Russian infantry, which stood like walls of brass, and Napoleon having gone to Milan, sent for the queen of the assailants were at last obliged to desist. The battle Etruria and her son, and signified to her that she must lasted till near ten o'clock at night. The loss on both sides resign Tuscany, which was immediately occupied by French was dreadful; it has never been correctly ascertained, but troops; and in the following June (1808) Tuscany was has been roughly estimated at 50,000 men. After the formally annexed, not to the kingdom of Italy, but to the battle Napoleon withdrew again to the line of the Vistula, French empire, of which it formed three new departments. and Beningsen retired towards Königsberg. There was no The queen was promised a compensation in Portugal, which more fighting between the two armies for more than three she never obtained. On the 17th December, 1807, Namonths after. The French meantime besieged Danzig, poleon issued from Milan a decree by which all merchant which was defended by the Prussian General Kalkreut, vessels which should submit to the British orders in council and surrendered at the end of May, 1807. Napoleon were declared to be lawful prizes by the French. In the having now reinforced his army to 200,000 men, advanced following year (1808) a number of American vessels were again towards the Russians. On the 13th of June the seized and confiscated in the French and Italian ports. The battle of Friedland took place, in which, after an obstináte pope was next to feel Napoleon's displeasure. The French struggle, the Russians were at last worsted, and driven be- troops had for some time occupied Ancona and Civita Vecyond the river Aller. They did not lose however either chia, in order to keep away the English and the Russians ; cannon or baggage, and they effected their retreat upon but Napoleon now insisted on the pope declaring war against Tilsit near the Russian frontiers. (Sir Robert Wilson's England. The pope answered that he was a sovereign of Sketch of the Campaigns in Poland in 1806-7; and Ge- peace, and could not declare war against any Christian power. schichte der Feldzüge Napoleons gegen Preussen und Napoleon said that as the successor of Charlemagne he was Russland in 1806-7, Leipzig, 1809.)

emperor of the west, king of Italy, and Suzerain of the Pope, As Bonaparte and Alexander both wished for peace, an that the English were heretics, and therefore enemies of the armistice was made, and a personal interview took place holy see, and that the donation of Charlemagne had been between the two emperors on a raft in the middle of the made to defend the holy church against its enemies; that river Niemen on the 25th of June. The two sovereigns if the pope did not comply with his wishes, he, Napoleon, after this took up their residence in the town of Tilsit, where would take back Charlemagne's grant.

We cannot go the treaty of peace was finally signed. The king of Prussia further here into the long and vexatious correspondence was restored to about one-half of his former territories, as and controversy between Napoleon and the court of Rome, far as the Elbe. The duchy of Warsaw was given to the which were carried on for several years, and which form an elector of Saxony, who was made a king, and became the interesting episode in the general history of those times. faithful ally of Napoleon. The principal Prussian fortresses (Compendio Storico Pio VII., Milano, 1824, Botta, and sea-port towns were to remain in the hands of the Storia d'Italia, Coppi Annali d'Italia, and Memorie Storiche French till the general peace. Russia made no sacrifices ; del Cardinal Pacca.) By a decree of the 2nd April, 1808, on the contrary she obtained a part of Prussian Poland. Napoleon annexed the Marches or Adriatic provinces of But there were secret articles to the treaty, by which France the Roman state to his kingdom of Italy. There were allowed Russia to take Finland from Sweden, and Russia, other points of dispute between the pope and Napoleon on on her part, promised to close her ports against British matters concerning the Concordat with the kingdom of vessels. On the 9th of July Napoleon left Tilsit to return Italy. (See a mild well-written letter of the viceroy, Eugene to Paris, where he received the usual tribute of servile Beauharnois, to Pius VII. on this subject in the already addresses and fulsome flattery. (See specimens of these ad-quoted work, Amministrazione del Regno d'Italia.) About dresses in the Moniteur.)

the same time (February, 1808) a French force under On the 19th August à Senatus Consultum suppressed General Miollis entered Rome, occupied the Castle St. the Tribunate, the only remains of a national deliberative Angelo, and began to do military duty in that city. The body in France. It had been previously reduced to one- general took the papal troops under his own coinmand. half of its original number. The Tribunate,' said Napo- | The pope remained in his palace with the mere shadow of leon at St. Helena, was absolutely useless, while it cost a civil power, which he had no means to enforce. nearly half a million ; I therefore suppressed it. I was We now come to another and most important transacwell aware that an outcry would be raised against this tion of Napoleon's reign, the invasion of Spain. Spain violation of the law; but I was strong; I possessed the full was the humble and submissive ally of Napoleon ; her conlidence of the people, and I considered myself a reformer. navy, her army, her treasures were at his disposal. She I did every thing for the best. Had I been hypocritical I was at war with Great Britain ; she had allowed a free should have maintained the Tribunate, for who can doubt passage to the French troops through her territory to Porthat it would have adopted and sanctioned, when required, tugal. Other French divisions had entered Spain as friends my views and intentions? And speaking of the alleged in the beginning of 1808, and seized by stratagem the forservility of the Senate, he informs us that in almost every tresses of St. Sebastian, Pamplona, and Barcelona. At important measure many of the senators, before they gave the same time the internal administration of Spain was their vote, came to communicate with him privately, and carried on in most corrupt and profligate manner. Charles stated, sometimes very decidedly, their objections ; but that IV., his queen, and the favourite Godoy, had completely they went away convinced either by his arguments, or by disgusted the Spaniards. An insurrectional movement the necessity and urgency of affairs.' (Las Cases, vol. i.) took place at Aranjuez 20th March, and Ferdinand, the Necessity and the urgency of circumstances were mighty heir to the crown, who was a favoutite with the people, was words with Napoleon ; they generally concluded all his proclaimed king, and Charles was induced to abdicate. Naarguments on matters of morality and politics. Whether poleon founded upon this a pretence for interfering. He these urgent circumstances were not often of his own invited father, mother, son, and favourite to Bayonne, where creating or seeking is a point which he seems not to have he himself repaired in April

. Charles and his queen went stopped to examine. Three committees of administration, readily ; Ferdinand hesitated; but Napoleon sent Savary, of legislation, and of finances, taken from the legislative who with many asseverations of his master's honourable and body, discussed the projects of law in lieu of the Tribunate. friendly intentions towards him, gradually decoyed the

Having stripped the Elector of Hesse Cassel of his do- weak prince from stage to stage until he was fairly out of minions, under the plea that he had not joined him in the the Spanish territory. A scene of duplicity and dishonesty, war against Prussia, as well as the duke of Brunswick of of indecent and unnatural recriminations now took place behis, on the ground that the duke had joined Prussia against tween Napoleon, the old king, the queen, and her son, which him, Napoleon created out of these and other districts the for moral turpitude has no parallel in history. (Don Pedro kingdom of Westphalia 18th August, and gave it to his bro- Cevallos, and the Canon Escoiquiz' accounts.). Charles rether Jerome, who took up his residence at Cassel. Soon after, sumed his character of king, stigmatized Ferdinand as a the Prince Regent of Portugal having refused to enforce rebellious son, the queen joined in reviling and disgracing the Berlin decree against England, Napoleon sent Junot him at the expense of her own and her husband's honour,

and Ferdinand, overwhelmed by insults and threats, re- | Portugal. I go to place myself at the head of my armies, nounced his claim to the crown of Spain on the 6th May. to crown my brother at Madrid, and to plant the French (Concerning the real sentiments of Ferdinand expressed in eagles on the ramparts of Lisbon. Two days afterwards he his intercepted letters, see Bausset, Mémoires anecdotiques set off for Spain. sur l'intérieur du Palais.) Charles likewise resigned all his On the 23rd November, 1808, Napoleon defeated the rights in favour of his friend and ally the emperor of the Spanish troops at Tudela, and on the 4th December Madrid French.' Napoleon now issued a decree, appointing ‘his capitulated. . He told the Spanish deputation that their dearly-beloved brother Joseph Napoleon,

king of Naples and grand-children would bless his memory. He then set off Sicily, to the crowns of Spain and the Indies.' By a sub- for Astorga, expecting to intercept Sir John Moore in his sequent decree, 15th July, he appointed his dearly-beloved retreat. In this however he did not succeed, and leaving cousin, Joachim Murat, grand duke of Berg, to the throne the task of pursuing the English to Soult and Ney, he sudof Naples and Sicily, which remained vacant by the acces- denly quitted Astorga, and returned in great haste to sion of Joseph Napoleon to the kingdoms of Spain and the France in January, 1809. Indies. Both these curious documents are signed Na A new Austrian war was on the point of breaking out. poleon, and countersigned by the minister secretary of state, This time Austria came single into the field. She had made Maret.

astonishing exertions to recruit her armies to the number of The memorable events which resulted from these nefa- nearly half a million of men. Austria had apparently no new rious transactions, the occupation of Madrid by Murat, the personal subject of complaint, except the alarm she naturevolt and subsequent massacre of the people of that city on rally felt at the rapid strides of Napoleon towards universal the 2nd of May, the insurrection which broke out simul dominion. The Archduke Charles commanded the Austrian taneously in all parts of the Peninsula against the invaders, army of Germany, and the Archduke John that of Italy. -the heroic though often unfortunate resistance of the The Austrians crossed the Inn on the 9th April, and occuSpaniards,-the atrocities committed by the French troops, pied Bavaria and the Tyrol. Napoleon quickly assembled and the cruel retaliations by the Spanish guerrillas,—the his army beyond the Rhine, repuired to Augsburg, and by long, murderous war of seven years, from 1808 till 1814, in one of his skilful maneuvres broke the line of the Austrians, which the British army acted a conspicuous part,--all these gained the battle of Eckmühl, and obliged the Archduke may be read in the numerous works written expressly on Charles to retire into Bohemia, leaving the road to Vienna the subject of the Peninsular war. For the military trans- open to the French. (For the details of this campaign see actions see Colonel Napier, General Foy, and Major General Pelet, Mémoires sur la Guerre de 1809, 4 vols. 8vo. Vacani, and the Annals of the Peninsular Campaigns, by Paris, 1824-26.) On the 12th May the French entered Captain Hamilton. For the Spanish view of the subject, Vienna. The archduke now collected his army on the see Count Toreno, Historia del Levantamiento, Guerra, y left bank of the Danube. Bonaparte crossed the river to Revolucion de España, Madrid, 1835; and Canga Arguelles, attack him, and the great battle of Aspern took place, 21st Observaciones sobre las Historias de Southey, Londonderry, May. The battle remained undecided; but on the followClarke, y Napier. For a general, historical, and political ing day it was renewed with fury on both sides, when, in view of Spain during that period, see Southey's History of the midst of the action, Bonaparte was informed that the the Peninsular War. But the work that gives perhaps the bridge in his rear, which communicated with the right best insight into the feelings and conduct of the Spaniards bank of the Danube, had been carried off by a flood. He in the various provinces throughout that memorable struggle then ordered a retreat, and withdrew his army into the is the Histoire de la Révolution d' Espagne, by Colonel | island of Lobau in the middle of the Danube. The loss of Schepeler, a Prussian officer, who was himself in the Spa- the French was very great : Marshal Lannes was among the nish service during the whole time.

generals killed. Napoleon remained for six weeks on the During the seven years of the Peninsular war 600,000 island. Having re-established the bridge, and received reFrenchmen entered Spain at different times by the two inforcements, he crossed once more to the left bank, when great roads of Bayonne and Perpignan. There returned he fought the battle of Wagram, 6th July, in which he deinto France at various times about 250,000. The other feated the Austrians, with a tremendous loss on both sides. 350,000 did not return. Making full deduction for those Still the Austrian army was not destroyed or dispersed, and who remained prisoners in the hands of the Spaniards the Archduke Charles was for continuing the struggle. and English and were afterwards set free at the peace Other counsels however prevailed, and an armistice was of 1814, the number who perished during that war can concluded at Znaim, and this led to the peace of Schönbrunn, not be estimated at less than 250,000, if it does not ap- which was not signed however till the 14th of October. proach rather 300,000. (Schepeler and Foy.) The loss Napoleon had entertained some idea of dismembering the of the Spaniards, soldiers and peasants, who were destroyed Austrian empire; he had even addressed an invitation to in detail on almost every spot in the Peninsula, cannot be the Hungarians to form an independent kingdom under a calculated, but it must have been greater than that of the native ruler, but this address produced no effect. Germany French.

began to he agitated by a spirit of popular resistance against In the year 1808 Napoleon re-established titles of nobility him; bands of partizans under Schill

, the Duke of Brunsin France. Lefebvre, who had taken Danzig the year be- wick, and others, had appeared ; Tyrol was still in arms, fure, was the first duke that he created. Many others, both and he was not quite sure of Russia. The war in Spain military and civilians, received titles from towns in Italy and continued with dubious success, and the English bad landed Germany, with an income charged upon the revenues or a considerable force at Flushing. He thought best therenational' domains of the conquered countries. Both the fore to grant peace to Austria on moderate conditions. titles and the incomes attached to them were made here. The Archduke Charles disapproved of the peace, and gave ditary.

up his command. Austria ceded Trieste, Carniola, and In September, 1808, Napoleon repaired to Erfurt to hold part of Croatia, Salzburg, Cracow, and Western Gallicia, conferences with the Emperor Alexander. The subject of and several other districts, to the amount of about two these conferences remained a secret, but it would seem that millions and a half of inhabitants. The brave Tyrolese the question of Turkey was agitated. Napoleon says that were abandoned to their fate. Hofer and others of their the principal obstacle to a partition of that country was chiefs were seized by the French, taken to Mantua, and Constantinople. It seems however that he consented to there shot. (Life of Andrew Hofer, by Hall; and Inglis's Russia encroaching on the frontier provinces of Turkey, as Tyrol.) the Russian troops invaded Moldavia and Wallachia soon Whether the subsequent marriage of Napoleon with a after the conference. On returning from Erfurt, Napoleon daughter of the Emperor Francis was in course of negotold bis Senate that he and the emperor of Russia were tiation at the time of the peace of Schönbrunn has been irrevocably united in a bond of alliance.

doubted, but soon after his return to Paris he made known The English in the mean time had reconquered Portugal, to his wife Josephine his determination to divorce her. A and were advancing to the assistance of the Spaniards. King painful scene took place on this occasion, which is well deJoseph had been obliged to leave Madrid, and the French scribed by De Bausset, prefect of the imperial household, in armies had withdrawn behind the Ebro. Napoleon resolved his Mémoires Anecdotiques sur l'Intérieur du Palais. to set out for Spain himself. On the 25th October he opened Napoleon himself seems to have been sincerely affected at in person the session of the legislative body with one of his Josephine's grief, but his notion of the necessity of having characteristic speeches :-- The hideous presence of the an heir to the empire subdued his feelings. It is known that English leopards contaminates the continent of Spain and from the time of the conferences of Erfurt, and perhaps of

Tilsit, he had had in view a marriage with one of Alexander's of his own. He sacrificed the people of those countries and sisters, and the project had been communicated to the Rus- their interests, as well as the happiness and the greatness sian court, but the empress-mother had always objected of his brothers, to what he conceived to be the interest and to it on the plea of difference of religion. The divorce the glory of France. (Réponse de Lucien Bonaparte aux being consented to by Josephine in presence of commis- Mémoires de Lamarque.) But even his brothers were restive sioners from the Senate, the act was solemnly passed and under this discipline. Louis ran away from his kingdom of registered on the 16th of December, 1809. On the 11th of Holland; Murat was in continual disputes with his brotherMarch, 1810, Napoleon married by proxy the Archduchess in-law (Colletta, Storia del Reame di Napoli), and Lucien Maria Louisa, who soon after set off for Paris. The mar- would not accept any crown under such conditions. riage ceremony was performed at Paris by Cardinal Fesch. As Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, Napoleon

The years 1810 and 1811 were the period of Napoleon's had under his orders the Kings of Saxony, Bavaria, and greatest power. There is an interesting report made by Würtemberg, the Grand Duke of Baden, and the other Count Montalivet of the situation of the French empire in German princes. He had also under his protection the Hel1810, which displays the gigantic extent of its dominions. vetic Confederation, which was bound to furnish him with One passage which refers to Holland is curious. That troops, and to follow his policy. Prussia, humbled and discountry was under the government of Louis Bonaparte, who membered, lay entirely at his mercy. He could thus disfelt really anxious for the welfare of his Dutch subjects, and pose of more than eighty millions of people. Never, since did not enforce very strictly the continental system, as it the fall of the Roman empire, had so great a part of Europe was styled, against English trade. This led to frequent been subject to the will of one man. Austria was his ally reproofs from his imperious brother, who at last resolved through fear as well as by family connexion; Russia to enforce his own decrees himself by uniting Holland to through prudence and self-interest. In Sweden, General the French empire. (Louis Bonaparte's Historical Docu- Bernadotte had been chosen Crown Prince, and, after obments and Reflections on the Government of Holland.) taining Napoleon's consent, had repaired to Stockholm. Count Montalivet in his report made use of a curious argu- Spain, bleeding at every pore, struggled hard, and appament to prepare the people's minds for this measure :- rently with little hope of ultimate success. Britain alone • Holland, he said, 'is in reality a continuation of France; continued to defy his power, and held Sicily and Portugal it may be defined as being formed out of the alluvia of the under her protection. Such was the political condition of Rhine, the Meuse, and the Scheldt, which are the great Europe at the beginning of 1811. In the month of March arteries of the empire.' And Champagny, minister for of that year Maria Louisa was delivered of a son, who was foreign affairs, in a report to the emperor said :— Holland saluted by Napoleon as King of Rome,' an ominous title is an emanation of the French empire. In order to possess to those Italians who still fancied that the crown of Italy the Rhine, your Majesty must extend your territory to the was to be, according to Napoleon's promise, separated from Zuyderzee. But even the Zuyderzee was not far enough. that of France. By’a Senatus Consultum, 13th December, 1810, Holland, In 1811 the first symptoms of coolness between AlexFriesland, Oldenburg, Bremen, and all the line of coast to ander and Napoleon manifested themselves. The comHamburg, and the country between that town and Lubeck, | plaints of the Russian land holders against the continental were annexed to the French empire, of which this new system, which prevented their exporting by sea the proterritory formed ten additional departments. The French duce of their vast estates, had induced Alexander to issue empire now extended from the frontiers of Denmark to an ukase, 31st Decernber, 1810, by which colonial and other those of Naples, for Napoleon had finally annexed Rome goods were allowed to be imported into the ports of Russia, and the southern papal provinces to France. The pope unless they appeared to belong to subjects of Great Britain. launched a bull of excommunication against Napoleon, upon This last restriction was of course easily evaded, and the which he was arrested in his palace on the Quirinal in the trade with England might be said to be in reality opened middle of the night of the 5th July, 1809, by a party of again. This was soon made a ground of complaint on the gendarmes who escaladed the walls, and was carried off to part of Napoleon. The Russian emperor, on his side, comSavona, where he was kept prisoner until he was removed plained that his relative, the Duke of Oldenburg, had been to Fontainebleau. (For an account of these proceedings dispossessed of his territory contrary to the treaty of Tilsit. see Memorie del Cardinal Pacca, with the Relation de A third subject of difference was concerning Poland. Nal'Enlèvement du Pape Pie VII. et de son Voyage jusqu'à poleon having, by the peace of Schönbrunn, united western Florence, par le Baron Radet, in the Appendix.) Radet Gallicia and Cracow to the duchy of Warsaw, seemed to was the colonel of gendarmes who seized the person of the encourage the prospect of re-establishing the whole of Popope. The papal territory was divided into two departments land as an independent state. But there was another and a of the French empire, called of Rome and of the Thra- deeper feeling of mistrust and insecurity on the part of the zymene, of which last Perugia was the head town. Napo- emperor, and the nobility of Russia in general, at the evileon gave his ' good city of Rome' the rank of second town dent assumption of universal dictatorship by Napoleon, in the French empire.

especially since his marriage with an Austrian archduchess. Besides the French empire, which, thus extended, reck-At Tilsit he had been willing to share the empire of the oned 130 departments and 42 millions of people, Napoleon world with Russia, but now he would have no brother near lield under his sway the kingdom of Italy, which included his throne.' He summoned Sweden, in an imperious manLombardy and Venice, Modena, Bologna, and the other ner, to enforce his decrees against the British trade, while legations and the marches, with above six millions of inha- his armed vessels and privateers in the Baltic seized upon bitants; and the Illyrian provinces, including Dalmatia, fifty Swedish merchantmen, which were confiscated, upon Carniola, and part of Croatia, which formed a separate the charge of contraband trade with England. Lastly, in government. The kingdom of Naples, with about five mil. January, 1812, General Davoust was sent to take possession lions more, was also dependent on his will, as well as the of Swedish Pomerania and the island of Rugen.' This act kingdom of Westphalia, the grand duchy of Berg, &c. The of aggression induced the crown prince, Bernadotte, to sign policy of Napoleon towards the countries.which he bestowed a treaty of alliance with the Emperor Alexander in March, on his brothers and other relatives was plainly stated by 1812. In the interview between these iwo princes at Abo himself to his brother Lucien, in an interview at Mantua in in Finland, the plan of resistance to Napoleon was settled. 1811. In the interior, as well as the exterior, all my rela- Russia had not yet declared war, but she reinforced her tives must follow my orders : every thing must be subser- armies, waiting to be attacked. Napoleon was pouring vient to the interest of France; conscription, laws, taxes, all troops into Prussia, Pomerania, and the duchy of Warsaw. must be in your respective states for the advantage and sup Some of the older and wiser counsellors of Napoleon had port of my crown. I should otherwise act against my duty the courage to remonstrate with him, not on the injustice, but and my interest. No doubt you would like to act the part on the impolicy of this new act of aggression. Fouché preof a Medici at Florence' (there had been some talk about sented him an eloquent memorial on the occasion. “I reguplacing Lucien over Tuscany), “but were I to allow you to late my conduct,' answered Napoleon, 'chiefly by the opido so, it is clear that Tuscany, happy and tranquil, would nion of my army. With 800,000 men I can oblige all become an object of envy to the French.' He would not Europe to do my bidding. I will destroy all English inallow his brothers to identify themselves with their subjects, fluence in Russia, and then Spain will easily fall. My and to strengthen themselves on their thrones, because he destiny is not yet accomplished; my present situation is but foresaw that it might suit him some day to remove them on the outline of a picture, which I must fill up. I must make the occasion of a general peace, or upon some new scheme I one nation out of all the European states, and Paris must be


the capital of the world. There must be all over Europe bled chiefly between the Vistula and the Niemen, which latbut one code, one court of appeal, one currency, one system ter river formed the boundary of the Russian empire. There of weights and measures. Am I to blame if the great power were 270,000 French, 80,000 Germans of the Confederation which I have already attained forces me to assume the dic- of the Rhine, 30,000 Poles under Prince Poniatowski, tatorship of the world ?' (Fouché's Memoirs.). And to De 20,000 Italians under Eugene, and 20,000 Prussians. On Pradt at Dresden he said, “I will destroy Russian influence the 22nd of June Napoleon issued a proclamation to his in Europe. Two battles will do the business: the Emperor soldiers, saying that the second war of Poland had begun. Alexander will come on his knees, and Russia shall be The fate of Russia must be fulfilled. Let us cross the Niedisarmed. Spain costs me very dear: without that I should men, and carry the war into her own territory, &c. On be master of the world; but when I become such, my son the 24th and 25th of June Napoleon's army, in three large will have nothing to do but to retain my place. In masses, crossed the Niemen, and entered Lithuania without calmer times, and after the full experience of disappoint- meeting with any opposition. The Russian army, under ment, we find him confirming the sentiments he had ex- General Barclay de Tolli, 120,000 strong, evacuated Wilna, pressed on the former memorable occasions. After his and retired to the banks of the Dwina. Another Russian return from Elba, he said to Benjamin Constant, :I desired army, 80,000 strong, under Prince Bagration, was stationed the empire of the world, and who in my situation would near the Dnieper. On the 28th of June Napoleon entered not? The world invited me to govern it; sovereigns and Wilna, where he remained till the 16th of July. He there subjects vied with each other in lending before my sceptre. received a deputation from the diet of the duchy of Warsaw, I have rarely found any opposition in France. And later entreating him to proclaim the union and independence of at St. Helena, 'If I have been on the point of accomplishing Poland. Napoleon's answer was still cold and cautious : he the universal monarchy, it was without any original design, told them that he had guaranteed to the emperor of Austria and because I was led to it step after step. The last effort the part of Poland he still retained ; that for the rest they wanting to arrive at it seemed so trifling, was it unreasonable must depend chiefly on their own efforts. (De Pradt, Amto attempt it? ... But I had no ambition distinct from bassade de Pologne.) that of France, her glory, her ascendency; her majesty, with İn the meantime, the French soldiers treated Lithuania which my own were identified. Had I lived in America, I as an enemy's country. The provisions ordered by Napoleon should willingly have been a Washington; but had Wash- to follow his army not having arrived, and the Russians ington been in France, exposed to discord within and attack having removed all the stores, the French and German from without, I would have defied him !o be what he was in soldiers went about marauding, plundering alike the manAmerica.' . . (Las Cases, vol. i.). 'I have been spoiled sions of the nobility and the huts of the peasants, feeding by success. I have always been in supreme command : their horses on the green corn, violating the women, and from my first entrance into life I have enjoyed high power; killing those who resented such treatment. (Oginski and and circumstances, and my own energy of character, have Segur.) Lithuania, a poor and thinly-inhabited country, been such, that from the instant I gained military supe- which had suffered from the bad harvest of the preceding riority, I acknowledged neither masters nor laws.' (Las year (1811), was utterly devastated. At the same time, Cases, vol. iv., part i.)

disorganization and demoralization spread fearfully through The events of the memorable Russian campaign of 1812 the enormous masses of the invaders; disease thinned their are known to the world. We can only refer our readers to ranks; 25,000 patients were crowded within Wilna in a the works of Segur, and of Colonel Boutourlin, aide-de-camp few weeks; where there was not accommodation for oneto the Emperor Alexander; to the memoirs of Oginski; and third of the number; heavy rains rendered the roads imto the Italian account of Captain Laugier, Gt Italiani in passable, and 10,000 horses were lost. Russia. By consulting these various authorities, a sum of After partial engagements at Mohilow and Witepsk, the very correct information concerning that stupendous catas- Russians continued their retreat upon Smolensk, in the introphe may be obtained.

terior of Russia. Napoleon determined to follow them. Before Napoleon set off from Paris for the Russian expe- Forward marches alone,' he observed, 'can keep such a dition; he directed Maret, Duke of Bassano, to write a letter / vast army in its present condition together; to halt or retire to Lord Castlereagh proposing negotiations for peace, on the would be the signal of dissolution. It is an army of attack, basis of the uti possidetis. He was willing this time to let not of defence; an army of operation, not of position. We Sicily remain under Ferdinand, and Portugal under the must advance upon Moscow, and strike a blow in order to House of Braganza, but he insisted on Spain being secured obtain peace, or resting quarters and supplies.' (Segur:) to his brother Joseph. It must be observed that Lord He crossed the Dnieper, and entered Russia Proper with Wellington had just taken possession of Badajoz and Ciudad about 180,000 men, leaving a body of reserve at Wilna and Rodrigo, and was adraneing into Spain towards Madrid, the corps of Macdonald on the Dwina, towards Riga. In which he shortly after entered upon gaining the battle of his march through Lithuania, no less than 100,000 men Salamanca. The English minister immediately replied, had dropped off from his ranks, and were either dead or that England's engagements with the Spanish Cortes; sick, or had been taken prisoners by the Cossacks, or were acting in the name of King Ferdinand VII., rendered the straggling and marauding about the country. acknowledgment of Joseph impossible.

On the 16th of August the two hostile armies met under The Russian minister, Prince Kourakin, still remained at the walls of Smolensk. But the Russians, after carrying Paris. Early in May he presented an official note to the off or destroying the provisions, and allowing time to the Duke of Bassano, stating that the matters in dispute between inhabitants to remove themselves, evacuated Smolensk, the two empires might easily be made the subject of ami: which their rear-guard set on fire. They continued their cable negotiations, provided the French troops should eva- retreat upon Moscow, and Napoleon followed them. The cuate Pomerania and the duehy of Warsaw, where they battle of Borodino, near the banks of the river Moskwa, was could be for no other purpose than that of threatening thio fought on the 7th September. The two armies were nearly frontiers of Russia. Napoleon pretended to be exceedingly equal in numbers, 120,000 each. After a dreadful slaughter angry at this demand, which he said was insolent, adding on both sides, the Russian general sounded a retreat, and that he was not used to be addressed in such a style, and to the French were left in possession of the bloody field; but have his movements dictated by a foreign sovereign; and the French took hardly any prisoners or guns: 15,000 Rushe sent Prince Kourakin his passports. On the 9th of May sians, and about 10,000 Frenchmen lay dead. Next day he himself set off with his empress for Dresden, where he the Russian army continued its retreat ; and on the 14th had invited the kings of his own creation, Bavaria, Wür- September it traversed the city of Moscow, which most of temberg, Saxony, Westphalia, and his other tributaries, to the inhabitants had already evacuated. On that same day meet him. The emperor of Austria also repaired to Dresden the French entered Moseow and found it deserted, except with his empress. The king of Prussia came too, as he by the convicts and some of the lowest class, who lingered had just signed a treaty with Napoleon, by which he placed behind for the sake of plunder. On the evening of this day 20,000 men at his disposal in the approaching campaign. a fire broke out in the coaelmakers' street, but it was put Austria agreed to furnish 30,009 men to act against Russian down in the night. On the next day, 15th, Napoleon took up Poland. Napoleon sent the Count de Narbonne to Wilna, his residence in the Kremlin, the antient palace of the Tzars. where the eniperor Alexander then was, to invite him to On the following night the fire burst out again in different come to Dresden, but Alexandet declined. After brilliant quarters of the eity, and no exertions of the French could festivals, Napoleon quitted Dresden for Thorn, where he stop it: the wind spread the flames all over the city, and arrived on the 2nd of June. His immense army was assem on the third day Napoleon was obliged to leave the Krem

lin, where he stood in imminent danger. The fire raged till 125,900 slain, 132,000 dead of fatigue, hunger, disease, and the 19th, when it abated, aftep destroying 7682 houses, cold, and 193,000 prisoners, including 3004 officers and 48 about four-fifths of the town. This burning of Moscow has generals. The St. Petersburg Gazette' stated that the been attributed to a premeditated plan of ļhe Russianş; but bodies burnt in the spring after the thaw, in Russia Proper Count Rostopchin, the governor, has denied this positiyely. and Lithuania, amounted to 308,000, of which of course a 'Several individuals,' he says, 'set fire to their own houses, considerable proportion were Russians. In the Berezina rather than leave them in possession of the invaders, and alone, and the adjoining marshes, 36,000 dead bodies were the French soldiers seeking for plunder, or for wine and said to have been found. The French left behind 900 spirits in the cellars, where they got intoxicated, did the pieces of cannon and 25,000 waggons, cassoons, &c. rest.' (La Veriţé sur l'Incendie de Moscow, par le Comte Napoleon, after his return to Paris, exerted himself to Rostopchin, Paris, 1823.)

recruit his army by fresh conscriptions, by drafting the naThe markets of Moscow used to be supplied, not from the tional guards into his skeleton battalions, by recalling all the immediate neighbourhood, but from a considerable distance men he could spare from Spain, and by sending the sailors in the interior, and especially from the southern districts of his tleet to serve on land. He thus collected again in towards Kaluga, where the Russian army was now posted. Germany, in the spring of 1813, an army of 350,000 men. The French therefore could get no provisions, and they were The King of Prussia had now allied himself to Alexander, obliged to live chiefly on the flesh of their horses, which was and the Allies had advanced as far as the Elbe. Austria salted down.

remained neutral ; she offered her mediation, but Napoleon Napoleon remained among the ruins of Moscow for five would hear of no cession on his part, in either Germany, weeks. He had sent Lauriston to the Russian head-quarters Italy, or Spain. He soon after repaired to Germany, where with a letter for the Emperor Alexander; the letter was he fought and won the battle of Lytzen, 2nd May, 1813, forwarded to Petersburg, but no answer yaş returned. Na- from the Russians and Prussians united. On the 21st he poleon was deceived in his calculations upon the temper of attacked them again at Bautzen, and obliged them to retire. Alexander, and of the Russian people. At last, on the But these victories led to no decisive results ; the Allies re19th October, seeing no chance of making peace, Napoleon tired in good order, and lost few prisoners and no guns. began his retreat. The weather was fine and moderately Bonaparte bitterly complained of this, and his generals abcold. He attempted first to retire by Kaluga, where he served to each other, that these were no longer the days of expected to find provisions, but the stout resistance he Marengo, Austerlitz, or Jena, when one batile decided the met at Malo Yaroslavetz induced him reluctantly to turn fate of the war. On the 22nd May, in another engagement again to the road by Vareia and Vjazmą to Smolensk, by with the retreating Allies, Duroc, his old and most faithful which he had advancem. He was closely followed by the companion, who was one of the few personally attached to Russian army, but was more especially harassed by swarms him, was struck by a cannon-ball and dreadfully mangled. of Cossacks under the Hetman Platolf His rear divisions The dying man was taken to the house of a clergyman near had sharp engagements at Yiazma and at the passage of the spot. Napoleon went to see him and was deeply affected. the Wop. (Gl Italiani in Russia.) His army dwindled It was the only instance in which he refused to attend to the away apace, through fatigue, privationz, and the constant military reports which were brought to him. “Every thing attacks of the Cossacks. It had lef Moscow 120,000 strong, to-morrow,' was his answer to his aides-de-camp. He had but was now reduced to one-half that number of fighting a few days before lost another of his old brother-officers, men: the rest formed a confused and disorderly mass in Bessieres. the rear, with an immense train of baggage and artillery. An armistice was now agreed to on the 4th June, and In this condition they were overtaken on the 6th No- Bonaparte returned to Dresden, where Metternich came vember by the Russian winter, which that year set with fresh offers of mediation on the part of Austria. Ausin earlier than usual. The emaciated frames of soldiers tria proposed, as a principal condition, that Germany should and horses could not resist this fresh enemy, and they be evacuated by the French arms, and the boundaries of the dropped by thousands on the road, where they were soon French empire should be fixed at the Rhine, as Napoleon buried under the snow. The bitter frosty nights killed himself had repeatedly declared. But Napoleon would not thousands more, but the winter only completed the de- hear of giving up the new departments which he had annexed struction of the army, which had begun during the advance as far as Hamburg and Lubeck, nor would he resign the in the summer. The wretchedness and the sufferings of the Protectorate of Germany. This led to a warm discussion, in retreat from Moscow must be read in the works already re- / which Napoleon said he only wished Austria to remain ferred to. The French at last reached Smoļensk, where neutral while he fought the Russians and Prussians, and he they found their stores, which had come up so far. Many offered to restore to her the Illyrian provinces as the price had not tasted a piece of bread or biscuit since they had ad- of her neutrality. Metternich replied that things had come vanced through that town three months before. On the to that pass that Austria could no longer remain neutral; 14th November Napoleon left Smolensk with about 40,000 she must be either with France or against France; that men able to carry arms. His rear divisions had now to Germany had been long enough tormented by these wars, sustain repeated attacks from the Russians, and when he and it was time she should be left to rest and to national arrived at Orcsa, in Lithuania, he had only 12,000 men independence. The conferences however were carried on with arms in their hands. Of 40,000 horses there were at Prague, without coming to any agreement; and in the hardly 3000 left. In this plight he reached the banks of midst of this the armistice expired 10th August, and Austhe Berezina, where he was joined by a corps of reserve of tria joined the allies. nearly 50,000 men, under Victor and Oudinot. The passage A series of battles were fought about Dresden on the of the Berezina, 26th and 27th November, cost him about 24th, 25th, and 27th August between the Austrians and one-half of his army thus reinforced. On the 3rd December Prussians on one side and the French on the other, in Napoleon arrived at Malodeczno, whence he issued the fa- which the latter had the advantage. But in pursuing the mous 29th bulletin, which came like a clap of thunder to allies into Bohemia, Vandamme, with a corps of 30,000, awaken Europe. This time he told the whole truth in all was surrounded, and made prisoner with 8000 men at Culm. its sternness : except the guards, he had no longer an army. Oudinot was likewise worsted at Gross Beeren by the At Smorgon i, where he arrived on the 5th December, he Swedes and Prussians under Bernadotte. Ney, who was took leave of his generals, left the command of the army, sent by Napoleon to replace Oudinot, lost the battle of such as it was, to Murat, and set off in a sledge with Cau- Dennewitz 6th September, near Berlin. On the Katzbach, laincourt to return to Paris. He arrived at Warsaw on the in Silesia, Blücher routed the French opposed to him. 10th, where he had that curious conversation with De Pradt, The month of September passed in this desultory warfare, which the latter has so humorously related. Continuing Napoleon's armies losing ground and strength on every his route, he passed through Dresden on the 14th, and ar- side. Bararia made a separate peace with Austria. The rived at Paris on the 18th December at night. The remains Saxons and other German troops began to forsake the of his unfortunate army were collected by Murat on the French cause. At last, after a painful struggle between line of the Vistula. The report of the chief of the staff, pride and necessity, Napoleon was obliged to begin his reBerthier, dated 16th December, gives a dismal picture of treat upon Leipzig, followed by the allies. At Leipzig he the state of the troops after Napoleon left them :--- The determined to make a final stand. One victory alone, he plunder, insubordination, and disorganization have reached said, “and Germany might still be his. On the 16th the highest pitch. The loss of the French and their auxi- October the first battle of Leipzig took place. It was liaries in this campaign is reckoned by Boutourliņ at I fought gallantly on both sides, but the allies had now a

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