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great superiority in numbers, and the French were driven de la Campagne de 1814.) But the odds were too many close upon the ramparts of the town. The 17th passed against him. While he by a bold movement placed himwithout fighting; on the 18th the battle was renewed, the self in the rear of the allies, the latter marched upon Paris, French divisions lost ground, and a body of 10,000 Saxons and after a hard-fought battle, 30th March, took possession left them and went over to the enemy. Napoleon now of the whole line of defence which protected that city on made his dispositions to effect his retreat towards the Rhine. the north-eastern side. The empress had left it for Blois, But while his army was filing out of Leipzig by a long and Joseph Bonaparte, after the battle of the 30th, quitted bridge, or rather a succession of bridges in the morning of Paris also. Marshal Marmont asked for an armistice, and the 19th, the allies forced their way into the town after a this led to the capitulation of Paris, which the emperor desperate resistance, and the bridge being blown up, 25,000 Alexander and the king of Prussia entered on the 31st, Frenchmen were obliged to surrender prisoners of war. amidst the loud acclamations of the Parisians. Napoleon The retreat from Leipzig was nearly as disastrous to Napo- hearing of the attack upon Paris had fallen back to the leon as that from Moscow. His army was completely dis- relief of the capital, but it was too late. He met near organized. He was however able to fight his way at Hanau, Fontainebleau the columns of the garrison, which were 30th October, through the Bararians, his late allies, who evacuating the city. His own generals told him that now wanted to oppose his passage. At last he reached the he ought now to abdicate, as the allied sovereigns had deRhine, and passing over the 70,000 or 80,000 men, all that clared that they would no longer treat with him. Meanremained out of an army of 350,000, with which he liad time a decree of the senate declared that Napoleon Bobegun the campaign, he placed them on the left bank while naparte, in consequence of sundry arbitrary acts and he set off for Paris, where he arrived on the 9th November. violations of the constitution (which were specified and (For the particulars of this hard contested campaign of 1813, classed under various heads in the preamble to the decree), see Odeleben's narrative.), About 80,000 men left in the and by his refusing to treat with the allies upon honourPrussian garrisons Magdeburg, Danzig, Stettin, &c. sur- able conditions, had forfeited the throne and ihe right of rendered to the allies.
inheritance established in his family, and that the people The enormous losses and reverses of the French armies, and the army of France were freed from their oath of and the approach of the allies to the frontiers of France, allegiance to him. A provisional government was formed, produced a strong feeling of dissatisfaction in that country consisting of Talleyrand, Bournonville, Dalberg, and others. The legislative body showed for the first time a spirit of Upon this, Bonaparte, after much reluctance, and upon his opposition to the headlong system of Napoleon. A com- generals refusing to join him in a last desperate attempt mittee was appointed to draw up a report on the state of upon Paris, which he meditated, signed the act of abdicathe nation; Raynouard, Lainé, Gallois, and other members tion at Fontainebleau on the 4th of April, 1814. In this who had a character for independence, were of the com first act there was a reservation in favour of the rights of mittee. The report which they laid before the legislative the empress and of his son. By a second act however he body 28th December, 181.3, expressed a desire for peace renounced unconditionally' for himself and his heirs the consistent with the honour and the welfare of France, and throne of France and Italy. The emperor Alexander proa wish to know what steps the emperor had taken to attain posed that he should retain the title of emperor with the so desirable an object, and it endel by saying that while sovereignty of the island of Elba, and a revenue of six the government will take the most effective measures for millions of francs to be paid by France. This was agreed the safety of the country, bis Majesty should be entreated to by Prussia and Austria ; and England, though no party to maintain and enforce the entire and constant execution to the treaty, afterwards acceded to it. On the 20th April, of the laws which ensure to the French citizens the rights Napoleon, after taking an affectionate leave of his generals of liberty, property, and security, and to the nation the free and his guards, left Fontainebleau for Elba. He ran some exercise of its political rights.' The legislative body by a danger from the populace in passing through Provence, large majority ordered the report to be printed. This was but arrived safe at Frejus, where he embarked on board the a language which Napoleon had not been used to. He British frigate the Undaunted, and on the 4th of May immeiliately ordered the doors of the hall of the legislative landed at Porto Ferrajo, in the island of Elba. (See for the body to be closed and guarded by soldiers, and the copies history of all these transactions in France, Baron Fain, of the report to be seized at the printer's. On the 31st an Manuscrit de 1814. See also the Narrative of Napoleon imperial decree adjourned the legislative body. On the 1st Bonaparte's Journey from Fontainebleau to Frejus in April, of January, 1814, several members of the legislative body 1914, by Count Truchses Waldburg, attendant Prussian having appeared at his levee, he gave vent to his ill humour commissary.) Napoleon's interview on the road with Auin a violent and coarse address, told them that they were not gereau, who had issued an abusive proclamation against the representatives of the nation, but only the representa | him, and other curious particulars concerning Napoleon's tives of the individual departments; that he was the only conduct on his journey, are contained in the latter work. representative of the people ; that their report and the Napoleon remained in the Island of Elba about ten address founded upon it were seditious ; that they ought months. At first he seemed reconciled to his lot, set about not thus publicly to have commented on his conduct; and making roads, improving the fortifications, &c.; but after he ended by saying - France stands more in need of me some months, he was observed to become more reserved, than I stand in need of France. The senate, more sub- gloomy, and frequently absent and lost in thought. He servient, had already passed a decree for a
was, in fact, at the time, engaged in secret correspondence scription of 300,000 men, including all those who had with his friends in France and Italy. During so many escaped the conscriptions of former years. The taxes were years of supreme power, attended by most splendid successes, at the same time ordered to be doubled ; but the people he had formed, of course, many adherents; men whose were weary of these never-ending sacrifices, and in many fortune was dependent on bis ; most of whom had lost their departments it was found difficult to collect either men or emoluments and prospects by his fall: the bold and aspiring, money. Napoleon's disposable army on the Rhine amounted the reckless and restless, saw no further prospect of conto no more than from 70,000 to 80,000 men. He had to quest and new organization of foreign states, which left at contend with twice that number, besides numerous rein. Napoleon's disposal thousands of offices and situations with forcements which were hastening through Germany. Mean- which to reward his partizans. The old soldiers, to whom time conferences were held at Chatillon, in which the allies the camp had become a home, regretted him who used to proposed to fix the limits of France as they were in 1792, lead them from victory to victory, affording them free quarthat is to say, with the exclusion of Belgium; but Napoleon ters, a continual change of scenery, and pleasant cantonwould not listen to this. It was his last chance of peace. Atments in the finest cities of Europe. His brothers, sisters, the end of January, 1814, Napoleon began the campaign, and other relatives, all rich, some still powerful, as Murat which has been considered by tacticians as that in which he at Naples, felt that by his fall they had lost the main prop most strikingly displayed his astonishing genius for mili- of their family. On the other side, the restored Bourbons tary combinations, fertility of resources, and quickness of had committed faults, and had listened perhaps too much to movements. For more than two months he held at bay the the old emigrants by whom they were surrounded ; and various armies of the allies, now beating one corps and lastly, France in general had been too long in a state of then flying to attack another; at times severely checked violent excitement to subside at once into quiet and conhimself, and yet recovering bis strength the next day. (Me- tented repose. Many of the subordinate agents of the police, moirs of the Operations of the Allied Armies in 1813-14. post office, and other departments, were in Napoleon's inLondon, 1822, and Koch, Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire terest. A wide conspiracy was formed the old republicans
joined the Bonapartists, and Napoleon was invited to return their cavalry could not break the British squares. In these to France. (See, in Fleury de Chabulon's History of the 100 repeated attacks, the French cavalry was nearly destroyed. Days, an account of the intrigues carried on with Elba.) At six o'clock, Bulow's Prussian corps appeared on the
On the 26th of February, 1815, Napoleon embarked with field of battle, and soon after, Biocher came in person about 1000 men of his old guards, who had followed him to with two more corps. Napoleon now made a last desperate Ela, and landed on the 1st of March at Cannes, not far from effort to break the English line, before the Prussians could Frejus. At Grenoble, the first defection of the army took act: he directed his guard, which had not yet taken part place: Colonel Labedoyere, commanding the 7th regt. of in the action, to advance in two columns against the the line, joined Napoleon; the rest of the march to Paris English. They were received with a tremendous fire of was a triumphant one. The Bourbons were abandoned by artillery and musketry; they attempted to deploy, but the whole army; and Marshal Ney, sent by Louis XVIII. in so doing became confused, and at last gave way. Nato stop Napoleon's progress, went over to him; Macdonald poleon, who was following with his eye, through a spy and Marmont, and several other Marshals remained faithful glass, the motions of his favourite guards, turned pale to the oath they had taken to the King. Augereau also and exclaimed, “They are mixed together !' and galloped kept aloof from Napoleon ; but the Bourbons had no troops off the field. (See and compare the various accounts of the they could depend upon. Napoleon arrived at the Tuileries battle of Waterloo, by English, French, and Prussian milion the 20th of March, Louis XVIII. having left the capital tary writers ; among the rest
, Captain Pringle, of the En. early in the morning by the road to Flanders. Napoleon's gineers ; Captain Batty; Baron Mutfling, uniler the asreturn to Paris was accompanied with the acclamations of the sumed initials of C. de W., Histoire de la Campagne de military, and the lower classes in the suburbs; but the great l'armée Anglaise et de l'armée Prussienne en 1815, Stutbody of the citizens looked on astounded and silent: he gart, 1817, Gourgaud's Narrative of the War of 1815, was recalled by a party, but evidently not by the body of the with Grouchy's important comments upon it; Foy, Cam nation.
pagne de 1815; Napoleon's own account in Montbólon and The Congress of Vienna was still sitting, when Talley- | Las Cases, and in the Memoires Historiques, published by rand laid before them the news of Bonaparte's landing at O'Meara : Ney's Letter to the Duke of Oiranto, Paris, Cannes. They immediately agreed to join again their 1815; Rogniat's account of the battle, and the account in forees, in order to frustrate his attempt, and to maintain Sir W. Scott's life of Napoleon.) entire the execution of the treaty of Paris, of the 30th May, The French accounts are evidently inaccurate as to se18/4, made with France under the constitutional monarchy veral circumstances of the battle. One thing is certain, that of the Bourbon dynasty. The Austrian, Russian, and Napoleon attacked the English repeatedly, with all his Prussian armies, which had evacuated France, resumed force, and was repulsed, with the loss of the flower of his their march towards the frontiers of that country.
troops : that after the last attack by his guards, at seven in Napoleon found, on his return to Paris, that he could not the evening, which also failed, he had no reserve left ; when resume the unlimited authority which he had before his abdi- the arrival of Blücher, with fresh troops on the field of battle, cation. The republicans and constitutionalists who had as- changed the repulse into a total defeat. The astonishing sisted, or not opposed his return, with Carnot, Fouché, Ben firmness of the British infantry (to which several French jamin Constant, and his own brother Lucien at their head, Generals, and Foy among the rest, have paid an eloquent would support him only on condition of his reigning as a con- tribute of praise) gained the day; Bonaparte's army fled in stitutional sovereign : he therefore proclaimed a constitution dreadful confusion, pursued by the Prussians, and lost under the title of Acte additionnel aux Constitutions de cannon, baggage, and all. The loss of the English was l'Empire,' which greatly resembled the charter granted by 15,000 men in killed and wounded. On the same day, Louis XVIII. the year before. There were to be an here. Grouchy was engaged at Wavre, thirteen miles distant, ditary chamber of peers appointed by the emperor, a with one division of the Prussian army, which gave him full chamber of representatives elected by the electoral colleges, employment, while the other Prussian divisions were marchand to be renewed every five years, by which all taxes ing on to Waterloo. His orders were to follow the Pruswere to be voted; ministers were to be responsible; judges sians, and attack them wherever he met them. (Grouchy's irremovable; the right of petition was acknowledged, and Observations.) Napoleon seems to have underrated the property was declared inviolable. Lastly, the French nation strength of the Prussians, when he thought Grouchy's corps was made to declare, that they would never recall the Bour- sufficient to keep in check the whole of their army. bons; deputies from the departments came to Paris to swear The battle of Waterloo finally closed a war, or rather a to the additional act, at the Champ de Mai, as it was called, succession of wars, which had lasted with little interruption although held on the 1st of June. The Emperor and his for twenty-three years, beginning with 1792. As to these brothers were present at the ceremony:
wars, Napoleon is only strictly arcountable for those that The chambers opened on the 4th of June, while Napoleon took place after he had attained supreme power in France : prepared to march towards the frontiers of Flanders, where in some of them, such as those of Spain and of Russia, he the allied English and Prussian armies were gathering. was decidedly the aggressor. Whether he did not likewise He assembled an army of about 125,000 men, chiefly old give sufficient provocation to those which Austria, England, troops, of whom 25,000 were cavalry, and 350 pieces of cannon, and Prussia waged against him, the reader must judge for with which he advanced upon Charleroi on the 15th June. himself. His determination to be the dictator, the umpire Ney, Soult, and Grouchy held commands under Napoleon. of all Europe, left no chance of national independence to On the 16th Napoleon attacked in person Marshal Blü- any one country: had he subjected all Europe, he would cher, who was posted with 80,000 men at Ligny, and drove have reverted to his old scheme of the conquest of the East. him back with great loss. At the same time he sent Ney Even his peace establishment, supposing him ever to have against part of the English army at Quatre Bras, which, been at peace, was to consist of an army of 800,000 men, after sustaining a severe attack, retained possession of the besides 400,000 of reserve. (Montholon's Mémoirs of Nafield. In the morning of the 17th, the Duke of Wellington, poleon, vol. i.) During the ten years of the empire, he in consequence of Blücher's retreat, fell back with his army raised by conscription two millions one hundred and seventyto the position of Waterloo. Napoleon followed him, after three thousand men, of whom two-thirds, at the least, pedispatching, on the 17th, Grouchy, with a body of 30,000 rished in foreign lands, or were maimed for life. See the men, to follow the retreat of the Prussians. (Grouchy's Memoirs of Larrey, one of the chief surgeons of his army, Observations sur la Relation de la Campagne de 1815, about this frightful waste of human lives. par le General Gourgaud, Philadelphia, 1818.). On the After the defeat of Waterloo, Napoleon having given his 18th the famous battle of Waterloo took place. Napoleon's brother Jerome directions to rally the remains of the army, army on the field was about 75,000, and Wellington's force hurried back to Paris. The house of representatives deopposed to him consisted of 54,000 men actually engaged clared itself permanent, and demanded his abdication. at Waterloo, the rest, about 16,000, being stationed near Lucien appeared before the house, and spoke eloquently of Hai, and covering the approach to Brussels on that side. the former services of his brother, and of the claims which he There were 32,000 British soldiers, including the German had on the gratitude of France. We have followed your Legion; the rest was composed of Belgians, Dutch, and brother (answered Lafayette) over the sands of Africa, and Nassau troops. The events of the battle are well known. through the frozen deserts of Russia ; the whitened bones of The French made several furious attacks with infantry and Frenchmen scattered over every part of the globe bear witness cavalry upon the British line, gained some advantages, to our long fidelity to him.' Lucien made no impression on took possession of La Haye Sainte, but all the efforts of the assembly. He advised his brother to dissolve the cham
ber; Napoleon refused : 'It would be the signal,' he said, I insultingly, to that officer, and this treatment was repeated of civil war. The house of peers had adopted the same with aggravation at every subsequent opportunity. One of views as the lower house. There was but one man, it was Napoleon's great grievances was his being styled General openly stated, between France and peace. Napoleon signed Bonaparte; another, his not being allowed to stroll about his second abdication on the 22nd of June; but this time it the island unattended by a British oflicer. He was allowed was of his own accord, and against the advice of his inti- a space measuring eight and afterwards twelve miles in cirmate friends, Carnot, Lucien, &c... (Réponse de Lucien cumference round Longwood, through which he might range aix Mémoires de Lamarque.) The abdication was ip at his pleasure ; beyond these limits he was to be accomfavour of his son, Napoleon Il. A provisional government was panied by an officer. But the real grievance was that of being appointed by the chambers, and they required that Napa- detained as a prisoner at all. The governor however had no leon should leave France, and embark at Rochefort for the power to remedy these subjects of complaint, Yarious minor United States. General Becker was appointed to escort him matters of dispute with the governor were laid hold of by to Rochefort, where he arrived on the 3rd of July. All this Bonaparte and his attendants, as if with the view of keeping did not take place, however, without many violent alter- alive an interest in the public mind in favour of the exile of cations in the chambers, and much reluctance on the part St. Helena. We cannot enter into the particulars of this of Napoleon ; for which, see Hobhouse's Letters from Paris petty system of warfare, in which, as it generally happens, during the last reign of Napoleon, and Chabulon's History both parties may have occasionally been in the wrong. But of the 100 Duys. The allies, who entered Paris on the 7th it is impossible to read even Napoleon's statements, made of July, refused to ackņowledge Napoleon's right to abdicate through Las Cases, Santini, Antommarchi, &c., without perin favour of his son, and on the following day Louis ceiving that there was a determination on his part not to be XVIII. re-entered the capital, and resumed the govern- pleased with any thing the governor could do for him, unless ment.
he had disobeyed his orders. Napoleon's mind was in a Napoleon at Rocnefort, seeing that the whole country state of irritation whenever it recurred to the subject of his around him waş submitting to the Bourbons, and finding confinement, which made him querulous and peevish. He that he had no chance of escaping by sea, through the vi- seems also to have had, almost to the last, some latent gilance of the English cruisers stationed along the coast, hope of making his escape. In other respects the parseni Count Las Cases and Savary to Captain Maitland, who ticulars of his life and conversations at St. Helena are highly commanded the English ship Bellerophon, to ask for leave interesting. He could be very agreeable towards visiters to proceed to America, either in a French or a neutral who were admitted to pay their respects to him, as we may vessel; Captain Maitland replied, “That his instructions see from Mr. Ellis's and Captain Hall's accounts of their forbade this, but that if Napoleon chase to proceed to interviews with him. In September, 1818, Napoleon's England, he would take him there on board the Belle- health began to be visibly affected, but he woul take no rophon, without, however, entering into any promise as medicines. He also refused to ride out, as advised, beto the reception he might meet with there, as he was in cause he would not submit to the attendance of a British total ignorance of the intentions of the British government officer. In September, 1819, Dr. Antommarchi, of the Uni
to his future disposal. (Captain Maitland's state- versity of Pisa, came to St. Helena as physician to Napoleon. ment of the whole transaction.) This offer was made by Two clergymen came also from Italy to act as his chapCaptain Maitland, in his second interview with Las Cases, lains. Towards the end of 1820 he grew worse, and remained on the 14th July, and Napoleon had already, the day in a weak ştate until the following April, when the disease before, written a letter, addressed to the Prince Regent of assumed an alarming character. It was then that BonaEngland, saying, that he came like Themistocles, to parte said that he believed it was the same disorder which claim the hospitality of the British people, and the proteç- killed his father, namely a scirrhus in the pylorus; and he tion of its laws. Captain Maitland offered to dispatch desired Dr. Antommarchi to examine his stomach after General Gourgaud to England with this letter immediately, his death. He made his will, leaving large bequests to repeating at the same time to him that he was not autho- his friends and attendants (Testament de Napoleon), and rised to stipulate as to the reception of Bonaparte in Eng on the 3d of May, 1821, the chaplain Vignali adminisland, where he must consider himself at the disposal of the tered to him extreme unetion. Napoleon stated that Prince Regent' On the 15th Napoleon left Rochefort he believed in God, and was of the religion of his father : and came on board the Bellerophon with his suite: as that he was born a Catholic, and would fulfil all the duties Captain Maitland advanced to meet him on the quarter of the Catholic church. On the 5th of May, after being deck, Napoleon said to him, • I come to place myself under some time delirious, he breathed his last about eleven the protection of your Prince and your laws. On the 24th minutes before six o'clock in the evening. The following the ship entered Torbay. On the 31st of July Admiral day the body was opened by Dr. Antommarchi, in presence Lord Keith and Sir Henry Bunbury, under secretary of of several British staff and medical officers, when a large state, came on board the Bellerophon, to announce to him ulcer was found to occupy the greater part of the stomach. the final resolution of the British government,--that the On the 8th May his remains were interred with military Island of St. Heleną should be his future residence. Na- honours in Slane's Valley, near a fountain overhung by poleon protested against this determination, said he was not weeping willows. This had been a favourite spot with Naa prisoner of war, that he had come as a voluntary passenger poleon. The procession was followed to the grave by the on board the Bellerophon, that he wished to be allowed to governor, the admiral, Napoleon's attendants, and all the remain in England as a private citizen, &c. On the 6th of civil and military authorities. The grave was afterwards August however Napoleon frankly acknowledged to Cap- enclosed by a railing, and a sentry is kept on duty to guard tain Maitland, that he had certainly made no conditions the spot. on coming on board the Bellerophon, that he had only For the acts of Napoleon's internal administration seo claimed hospitality, and that he had no reason to complain Bulletin des Lois de l Empire and the Exposés of his minisof the Captain's conduct, which had þeen that of a man of ters; for the state of the finances see the various Comptes honour.' On the 7th Napoleon removed from the Bellero- rendus, or report of the duke of Gaeta (Gaudin), and also phon to the Northumberland, Sir George Cockburn's flag Bresson, Histoire Financière de France ; for the military inship, which was appointed to carry him to St. Helena. (For stitutions and organization of the army, see Tableau Polithe particulars of Bonaparte's voyage, his landing at St. tique et Militaire, which precedes Foy's history of the PenHelena, "his residence, first at Briars and afterwards at insular war. Also Mémoires sur l Empire, by Thibaudeau, Longwood, of his altercations first with Sir G. Cockburn, which is a continuation of his ‘Memoirs on the Consulate, and afterwards with Şir Hudson Lowe, we must refer our the duchess of Abrantes' Memoires, and the numerous readers to the minute work of Count Las Cases.) He Memoirs of Napoleon's generals and ministers. landed at St. Helena on the 16th of October, 1815.
BONAPARTE, NAPOLEON FRANGOIS, son of By a convention signed at Paris, 20th August, 1815, be- the emperor and of Maria Louisa of Austria, was born at tween Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, the cus- Paris March 20, 1811. From his birth he was styled • King tody of Napoleon's person was intrusted to the British of Rome. After bis father's first abdication in 1814 he government, and commissioners were appointed by Russia, went with his mother to Vienna, where he was brought up Austria, and France to reside at St. Helena to look after his at the court of his grandfather, the emperor Francis, who safe detention. In July, 1816, General Sir Hudson Lowe made him duke of Reichstadt. His education was carearriyed at St. Helena as governor of the island. From the fully attended to, and he was early trained up to the milivery first interview Bonaparte behaved uncivilly, or rather tary profession. After passing through the various subor
Hinata grades he was made á lieutenant-colonel in June, | tárý; they are seldom found in coveys of more than fout of 1831, and he took the command of a battalion of Hungarian five together, and morë usually in pairs or singly. They infantry then in garrison at Vienna. He was extremely leave their seqüestered haunts in the woods early in tho assiduous in his military duties, but his constitution was morning, and seek the path or road to pick up gravel, and weak; lie had grown very tall and sletider, and syin ptoms gleani among the droppings of the horses. 'In travelling of a consumptive habit hád early shown themselves. His among the mountains that bound Susquehanna, I was physician advised a removal to Schöribrunn, which had at always able to furnish myself with an abundant supply of first a beneficial effect; but à relapse soon followed, and these birds every morning without leaving tlie path. If the after lingering for several months young Napoleon died on weather be foggy or lowering, they are sure to be seen in the 22nd July, 1832, in the palace of Schönbrunn, at- such situations. They generally move along with great tended by his mother, who had come from Parma to visit stateliness, with their broad fan líke tail spread out." hiin. He seems to have been generally regretted at the Audubon states that, although they are attached to the Austrian court, especially by his grand father, the emperor, craggy sides of mountains and hills, and rocky borders of who had always behaved to him with paternal kindness. small streams, thickly mantled with evergreen trees and There is an interesting account of this young man's short shrubs, they at times remoờe to the lowlands, and even career by M. de Montbel
, Le Duc de Reichstadt, Paris, 1832. enter the thickest cane-brakes, where they sometimies breed; BONA'SIA (zoology!, a subgenus of the true Tetraonidæ and where he shot some, and heard them drumming when (grouse family), separated by Charles Lucian Bonaparte, there were no hills nearer than fifteen or twenty miles. The Prince of Musignano, and thus characterised:
lower parts of the State of Indiana, and also those of KenLower portion of the tarsus or shank and the toes naked; tucky, were amongst the places where he so discovered tail long and rounded ; the head adorned with a crest, and them. The following is his account of their autumnal mithe sides of the neck with a ruff. The plumage of the grations, which he seems to have first observed :female nearly the same as that of the male, and varying •The ruffed grouse, although a constant resident in the but little throughout the year; the flesh white.
districts which it frequents, performs partial sorties at the Swainson retains the Linnæan name for the bird, and approach of autumn. These are not equal in extent to the makes Tetrao the typical group of the subgenera, into which peregrinations of the wild turkey, our little partridge or he divides the genus, expressing, however, considerable the pinnated grouse, but are sufficiently so to become obdoubt on the value of the types.
servable during the seasons when certain portions of the The Ruffed Grouse, Bonasia Umbellus of Bonaparte ; mountainous districts which they inhabit become less abunTetrao Umbellus and Tetrao togatus of Linnæus ; Tetrao dantly supplied with food than others. These partial mura Umbellus of Linnæus and Swainson, is the Shoulder-Knot ings might not be noticed, were not the birds obliged to tly Grouse of Latham; the Ruffed Heathcock or Grouse of across rivers of great breadth, as whilst in the mountain Edwards; La Gelinoté hupée de Pensilvanie of Brisson ; lands their groups are as numerous as those which attempt La Grosse Gélinotte de Canada and Le Coq de Bruyère a these migrations; but on the north-west banks of the Ohia fraise of Buffon; the Pheusant of the Pennsylvanians, and and Susquehanna rivers, no one who pays the least atienof the inhabitants of the southern States; the White Flesher tion to the manners and habits of our birts can fail to oband Pheusant of the Anglo-Americans generally, and the serve them. The grouse approach the banks of the Ohio in Puspusquew of the Cree Indians.
parties of eight or ten, now and then of twelve or fifteen, Audubon says that to the west of the Alléghanies, and and, on arriving there, linger in the woods close by for a on those mountains, the term pheasant is generally used to week or å fortnight, as if fearful of encountering the danger designate the bird; and that the same appellation is em to be incurred in crossing the stream. This usually happens ployed in the middle States to the east of the mountains, in the beginning of October, when these birds are in the till the state of Connecticut is entered, where the name of very best order for the table, and at this period great numpartridge prevails. Lawson uses the term pheasant. The bers of them are killed. If started from the ground, with pheasant of Carolina differs some small matter from the or without the assistance of a dog, they immediately alight English pheasant, being not so big, and having some on the nearest trees and are easily shot. At length, howdifference in feather; yet he is not any wise inferior in ever, they resolve upon crossing the river; and this they delicacy, but is as good' meat, or rather iner. He haunts accomplish with so much ease, that I never saw any of thein the back woods, and is seldom found near the inhabitants.' drop into the water. Not more than two or three days Wilson calls it throughout pheasant,' except in one place, elapse, after they have reached the opposite shore, when where he terms it the ó pheasant or partridge of New they at once proceed to the interior of the forests in scarrh England.'
of places congenial to the general character of their habits, According to the author last quoted, this bird is known in They now resume their ordinary manner of living, which almost every quarter of the United States; is common at they continue until the approach of spring, when the males, Moose Fort, Hudson's Bay, in lat. 51°; frequent in the as if leading the way, proceed singly towards the country upper part of Georgia, and very abundant in Kentucky and from which they had retreated. The females follow in small Indiana. In the lower parts of Carolina, Georgia, and parties of three or four. In the month of October, 1820, I Florida, according to the same authority, it is very seldom observed a larger number of ruffed grouse migrating thus observed, but on advancing inland to the mountains it again from the States of Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana into Kentucky, makes its appearance ; and though it is occasionally met than I had ever before remarked. During the short period with in the lower parts of New Jersey, its occurrence of their lingering along the north-west shore of the Ohio there is considered to be owing to the more northerly situ- that season, a great number of them was killed, and they ation of the country; for even here they are far less nume were sold in the Cincinnati market for so small a sum as rous than among the mountains.
12. cents each.' Captains Lewis and Clarke found it in crossing the Rocky Wilson says that the ruffed grouse is in the best order for Mountains which divide the basin of the Columbia from that the table in September and October. At this season they of the Mississippi, more than three thousand miles, by their feed chiefly on whortle-berries, and the little red aromatic measurement, from the mouth of the latter river. Dr. partridge-berries, the last of which give their flesh a pecuRichardson says that it exists as far north as the fifty-sixth liarly delicate flavour. With the former the mountains are parallel, and that it is very plentiful on the banks of the literally covered from August to November ; and these conSaskatchewan; adding, in a note, that Mr. Drummond pro- stitute at that season the greater part of their food. During cured specimens on the sources of the Peace River, in the the deep snows of winter they have recourse to the buds of valleys of the Rocky Mountains, which do not differ from alder, and the tender buds of the laurel.* He frequently those killed on the Saskatchewan. The limit of its southern found their crops distended with a large handful of these range has been stated to be the Gulf of Mexico. Audubon | latter alone; and adds, that it has been confidently asfound these birds most numerous in the States of Pennsyl- serted, that after having fed for some time on the laurel vania and New York, and says that they are to be met with buds, their flesh becomes highly dangerous to eat of, paras you travel towards the south, through the whole of Ten taking of the poisonous qualities of the plant. The same nessee and the Choctaw territory ; but that as you approach has been asserted of the flesh of the deer, when in severe the city of Natchez they disappear ; nor had he ever heard weather and deep snows they subsist on the leaves and bark of one of these birds having been seen in the State of of the laurel. Though,' continues Wilson, 'I have myself Louisiana.
eat freely of the flesh of the pheasant, after emptying it of •The manners of the pheasant,' says Wilson, ' are soli
large quantities of laurel buds, without experiencing any till the whole are killed, without attempting to fly off. In bad consequences, yet from the respectability of those, some such cases those on the lower limbs must be taken first, for of them eminent physicians, who have particularized cases should the upper ones be first killed, in their fall they alarm in which it has proved deleterious, and even fatal, I am those below, who immediately fly off. In deep snows they inclined to believe that in certain cases where this kind of are usually taken in traps, commonly dead traps, supported food has been long continued, and the birds allowed to re- by a figure 4 trigger. At this season, when suddenly main undrawn for several days, until the contents of the crop alarmed, they frequently dive into the snow, particularly and stomach have had time to diffuse themselves through when it is newly fallen, and coming out at a considerable the flesh, as is too often the case, it may be unwholesome distance, again take wing. They are pretty hard to kill, and dangerous. Great numbers of these birds are brought and will often carry off a large load to the distance of two to our markets at all times during fall and winter, some of hundred yards and drop down dead. Sometimes in the which are brought from a distance of more than a hundred depth of winter they approach the farm-house and lurk near miles, and have been probably dead a week or two, unpicked the barn, or about the garden. They have also been often and undrawn, before they are purchased for the table. Regu- taken young and tamed, so as to associate with fowls; and lations prohibiting them from being brought to market unless their eggs have frequently been hatched under the common picked and drawn would very probably be a sufficient secu- | hen ; but these rarely survive until full grown. They are rity from all danger. At these inclement seasons, however, exceedingly fond of the seeds of grapes; occasionally eat they are generally lean and dry, and indeed at all times their ants, chesnuts, blackberries, and various vegetables. Forflesh is far inferior to that of the quail or of the pinnated merly they were numerous in the immediate vicinity of grouse. They are usually sold in Philadelphia market at Philadelphia ; but as the woods were cleared and popufrom three-quarters of a dollar to a dollar and a quarter a lation increased they retreated to the interior. At present pair, and sometimes higher.'
(1812) there are very few to be found within several miles Most of our readers will remember the incident in Miss of the city, and those only singly, in the most solitary and Edgeworth's admirable story of To morrow,' where it is retired woody recesses.' related that, in consequence of Basil's procrastination, Mr. Some parts of this account are impugned by Audubon. Hudson and three gentlemen who had been dining with He says, ' The prevailing notion which exists in almost him were suddenly seized with convulsions after eating of a every district where these birds are numerous, that on firing pheasant, in whose crop Basil had seen what he believed to at the lowest bird perched on a tree, the next above will not be, and what turned out to be, the leaves of Kalmia lati- fly, and that by continuing to shoot at the lowest in succesfolia. Audubon, however, corroborates Wilson on this sion the whole may be killed, is contradicted by my expepoint ; for, though he allows that it is said that when rience ; for on every attempt which I have made to shoot įhey have fed for several weeks on the leaves of the Kalmia several in this manner on the same tree, my efforts have latifolia it is dangerous to eat their tiesh, and adds his proved unsuccessful, unless indeed during a fall of snow, belief that laws have been passed to prevent their being when I have killed three and sometimes four.' Audubon sold at that season, he states that he has eaten them at all adds that it is a prevalent opinion among sportsmen and seasons; and, when he has found their crops distended with naturalists, that the whirring sound produced by the birds those leaves, he has never felt the least inconvenience after of this genus is a necessary effect of their usual mode of cating them, nor even perceived any difference of tavour in flight. * But that this is an error,' he continues, I have their Hesh. He suspects with Wilson that it is only when abundantly satisfied myself by numberless observations. *he birds have been kept a long time undrawn and un- When this bird rises from the ground when pursued by an plucked that the flesh becomes impregnated with the juice enemy or tracked by a dog, it produces a loud whirring of these leaves. But Audubon entirely differs from Wilson sound resembling that of the whole tribe, excepting the in opinion with regard to the merit of these birds as food ; Black Cock* of Europe, which has less of it than any other for the former places them, in that respect, above the pin species. In fact, I do not believe that it is emitted by any nated grouse, and prefers their flesh to that of every other species of grouse, unless when surprised and forced to rise. land-bird in the United States, except the wild turkey when I have often been lying on the ground, in the woods or the in condition. Nuttall agrees with Audubon in the praise fields, for hours at a time, for the express purpose of observof the flavour of the bird ; and Bonaparte says of it, ing the movements and habits of different birds, and have Carne bianca eccellente.' Audubon observes that they frequently seen a partridge or a grouse rise on the wing are brought to the market in great numbers during the from within a few yards of the spot on which I lay unobwinter months, and sell at from 75 cents to a dollar a piece served by them, as gently and softly as any other bird, in the eastern cities. At Pittsburg he bought them some and without producing any whirring sound.' The same years ago at 12 cents the pair. Nuttall says that they are author speaks of the difficulty of shooting when a covey of now greatly thinned throughout the more populous parts these birds is raised from amongst laurels, or the largest of the Union, and that they sell in Philadelphia and New species of bay, and of the necessity for having a quick eye York at from 75 cents to a dollar a-piece.
and ready hand, without which the first chance is lost by The food of the ruffed grouse consists commonly in the the intercepting shrubs. The second is very uncertain ; spring and fall, according to the author last quoted, of the for on being sprung a second time they fly lower and dodge buds of trees, the catkins of the hazel and alder, even fern among the bushes so effectually that the sportsman is combuds, acorns, and seeds of various kinds, among which he pletely baffled. derected the capsules, including the seeds, of the common The pairing time of these birds is marked by a curious small Canadian Cistus.* At times he has seen the crop and sonorous act on the part of the male. Most of the almost entirely filled with the buds of the apple-tree, each grouse family gesticulate considerably at this period, and connected with a portion of the twig, the wood of which some produce very peculiar vocal noises: but the ruffed appears to remain a good while undigested ; cinquefoil and grouse makes the woods echo with the vibrations of his strawberry leaves, buds of the Azaleas and of the broad wings. The reader will be best made acquainted with this leaved Kalmia, with the favorite partridge berries,| ivy peculiarity by the statement of eye and ear witnesses. Wilberries, and gravel pebbles are also some of the many son's account is very good; but, as Audubon's is more pararticles which form the winter fare of the bird.
ticular, and our limits do not permit us to give both, we mer they seem often to prefer berries of various kinds, select the latter :particularly dewberries, strawberries, grapes, and whortle Early in April,' says this indefatigable observer, the berries.
ruffed grouse begins to drum immediately after dawn, We will now lay before the reader the modes of capturing and again towards the close of day. As the season ailthe bird. The following is Wilson's account:
yances, the drumming is repeated more frequently at all * The pheasant generally springs within a few yards, with hours of the day; and where these birds are abundant, this a loud whirring noise, and flies with great vigour through curious sound is heard from all parts of the woods in which the woods beyond reach of view, before it alights. With a they reside. The drumming is performed in the following good dog, however, they are easily found ; and at some times manner :
:-The male bird, standing erect on a prostrate deexhibit a singular degree of infatuation, by looking down from the branches where they sit on the dog below, who, the given among the localities (vol. iv. p. 482). The expression oceurs in both
• In the article .Black-cock,'• Dartmoor and Sedgmoor more noise he keeps up, seems the more to confuse and editions of Montagu (who resided in Devonshire) and in Selby; but there stupify them, so that they may be shot down one by one
can be little doubt that Sedgemoor in Somersetshire, where the Duke of Mon
mouth was defeated, is the locality intended. • Helianthemum. + Gaultheria procumbens. Cissus hederacea,
| Kalmin latifolia.
* Rhododendron maximum,