similar internal cavities, but being frequently excavated in or are again applied to any other use in it, undergo decom parts which had before been solid. During all these gra- position, in order that part of their elements may be emdual alterations of shape, however, there is no stretching of ployed in forming new compounds, while the remainder may elastic parts, for all the osseous fibres and laminæ are rigid be rejected by some of the excretory passages. “I should be and unyielding, and in this respect retain an analogy with inclined therefore,' says this physiologist, : to say that the shell. The changes thus observed can have been effected phosphate of lime while forming a part of an organized body in no other way than by the actual removal of such parts is alive, because the bone is so generally; but the phosphate of the young bone as had occupied the situations where of lime or its elements while they are circulating in the vacuities are found to exist in the old bone. We find, blood or passing off by the kidney or alimentary canal, cease for instance, that in the early state of a bone there are no to be so, in the same manner as the carbon which is expired internal cavities, but the whole is a uniform solid mass. from the lungs, or the mucus which is expelled from the At a certain stage of ossification cells are excavated by the mouth, are not considered as being alive, although they action of the absorbent vessels, which carry away portions may perhaps a short time before have been employed in the of bony matter lying in the axis of the cylindrical or in the composition of a muscle or nerve. This view of the submiddlé layer of the flat bones. Their place is supplied by ject will lead us to reject the mechanical idea which has an oily matter, which is the marrow, As the growth pro- been entertained by some physiologists, that the earthy ceeds, while new layers are deposited on the outside of the matter of the bones is simply deposited in the interstices bone and at the end of the long fibres, the internal layers of the membrane, and has its particles kept together merely near the centre are removed by the absorbent vessels, so by the cells in which they are lodged. I conceive that the that the cavity is further enlarged. In this manner the earthy particles have an affinity for each other, and perhaps outermost layer of the young bone gradually changes its for the membrane by which they are combined in a form relative situation, becoming more and more deeply buried that belongs to them as necessarily as to any of the soft by the new layers which are successively deposited, and parts, although it produces in them a peculiar arrangewhich cover and surround it; until by the removal of all ment which may not be found in any other substance.' the layers situated nearer to the centre it becomes the inner- (Monro's Outlines of the Anatomy of the Human Body ; most layer, and is itself destined in its turn to disappear, Bostock's Elements of Physiology; Roget's Animal and leaving the new bone without a single particle which had Vegetable Physiology; Sir Charles Bell's Lectures on the entered into the composition of the original structure. Hunterian Preparations in the Museum of the Royal Col

It has been found that, by mixing certain colouring sub- lege of Surgeons, in illustration of Anatomy and Physiostances with the food of animals, the bones will soon become logy; Abernethy's Physiological Lectures; Southwood deeply tinged by them. This fact was discovered acci- Smith's Philosophy of Health.) dentally by Mr. Belchier, who gives the following account BONES have been of late years very extensively used of the circumstances that led him to notice it. Happening as manure, especially on poor and dry sands and gravels. to be dining with a calico-printer on a leg of fresh pork, he Many cargoes from abroad have been imported for this purwas surprised to observe that the bones, instead of being pose into the eastern ports of Britain. Bones have thus bewhite as usual, were of a deep red colour; and on inquiring come a considerable article of commerce with Germany, into the circumstances he learned that the pig had been Belgium, and Holland : so much so that the governments fed upon the refuse of the dyeing vats, which contained a of some of these countries have had it in contemplation to large quantity of the colouring substance of madder. So subject them to an export duty. curious a faci naturally attracted a good deal of attention Experiments on bones as a manure were made long before among physiologists, and many experiments were under their use was extensively adopted, and these, in general, taken to ascertain the time required to produce this change, were not attended with a very favourable result, in conseand to determine whether the effect was permanent or only quence of the bones not being broker into sufficiently small temporary. The red tinge was found to be communicated pieces, or being put upon the land in too fresh a state. But much more quickly to the bones of growing animals than to since mills have been erected to crush them to a small size, those which had already attained their full size. Thus the and the proper use of them has been ascertained, the adbones of a young pigeon were tinged of a rose colour in vantage of this manure, in distant and uncultivated spots, twenty-four hours, and of a deep scarlet in three days; where the carriage of common stable or yard manure would while in the adult bird fifteen days were required merely to have been too expensive, and where it could not be made produce the rose colour. The dye was more intense in the for want of food for cattle, is incalculable. By means of solid parts of those bones which were nearest to the centre bones large tracts of barren sands and heaths have been of circulation, while in bones of equal solidity, but more converted into fertile fields. remote from the heart, the tinge was fainter. The bone The bruising or grinding of bones has become a distinct was of a deeper dye in proportion to the length of time the business, and they may be bought in London and at the animal had been fed upon the madder. When this diet principal ports ready to put upon the land. They are had been discontinued the colour became gradually more broken into different sizes, and are accordingly called inch faint till it entirely disappeared.

bones, half-inch bones, and dust. Most of the bones proFrom the whole of what has been stated it is manifest cured from London and the manufacturing towns have that bone possesses blood-vessels, nerves, absorbents, and undergone the process of boiling, by which the oil and a all the parts that form the essential constituents of an great part of the gelatine which they contain have been organized and living body. It is as much alive as the extracted. heart or the brain. In its natural and lealthy state it has At first sight we should be led to imagine, that having indeed but few blood vessels, and still fewer nerves, and the lost much of the rich animal matter which they contained, existence of absorbents is rather inferred than demonstrated, they would be proportionably less effective in the soil. This, these vessels being too minute to be visible ; but their ex- however, does not seem to be the case from the comparative istence is inferred as well from analogy as from many of experiments made with bones which had been subjected to the phenomena which have been detailed, and which are boiling, and those which were quite fresh. All those who wholly inexplicable but upon the supposition of the existence have used bones extensively report, that little difference can and action of these vessels. Moreover, bone is subject to be observed between them: some even give the preference all the diseases of living parts, inflammation, tumefaction, to those from which the oil and glue have been extracted. suppuration, and gangrene, and when diseased it often But oil and glue form excellent manures. How is this to becomes exquisitely sensible. There is indeed no difficulty be explained ? It appears, from the result of many expein supposing that the animal matter is alive, but how is it riments, that bones do not furnish much nourishment to the possible for life to be attached to an earthy salt? Yet on roots of plants until they have undergone a certain degree of à careful examination of this subject, as has been forcibly decomposition. The fat and the gelatine, being intimately urged by Dr. Bostock, it will be found no easy matter to blended with the bony matter, and contained in cavities or point out any essential difference between the earthy and cells, may remain a long time in the earth without decomthe animal substance. Both are derived from the blood; position. As a proof of this, it has been found that bones both are deposited by vessels connected with the arterial which had lain in the earth for many centuries, on spots system ; both possess a specific determinate arrangement; where antient battles were fought, afforded, on analysis, both after a certain period are taken up by the absorbents nearly as much gelatinous matter, by the abstraction of the and again carried into the mass of the circulating fluids ; earthy parts, as fresh bones would have done. Bones anaboth, before they are ultimately expelled from the system lysed by Fourcroy and Vauquelin were found to consist of

[ocr errors]

Parts. proved method, and the crop for which they are best adapted Solid cartilage, gelatine and oil


is turnips, after the land has been well cleaned and tilled. Phosphate of lime

37.7 About twenty-five bushels per acre is sufficient to produce Carbonate of lime


a good crop on poor light sands, and it does not appear that Phosphate of magnesia

1'3 beyond this quantity they have a proportional effect. It is

beiter therefore to repeat the dressing than to put on much 100

at once. When used as a top-dressing for grass-land, they It would seem, then, that the great effect of bones, as a have, in some instances, produced a great and very durable manure, must depend on the phosphate of lime; and the improvement, when the quantity was large; but in most effect of bone-ashes seems to strengthen this opinion. But other cases it has been found much more advantageous to a close examination of the fields manured with bones has reserve them for turnips or corn. Bones have been drilled led us to surmise, that much of their importance depends with wheat, at the rate of thirty bushels of bones and two on the mechanical texture of the bone, and on its power of and a half of wheat per acre, and a good crop (twenty-four absorbing and retaining moisture; for if a plant, which bushels per acre) has been obtained on very poor soil :'while vegetates with peculiar vigour in a field manured with portions of the same field sown without any bones, in order bones be pulled up, it will be almost invariably found that to ascertain the effect, did not produce sufficient plants to small pieces of bone are attached to the roots; and when cover the ground or return the seed. these are minutely examined, the smaller fibres of the roots When bones are compared with farm-yard dung the rewill be found to have grasped them, and to pervade their sult has been various, and chiefly owing to the seasons and cavities, which will always be found more or less moist. the nature of the land. In strong loams or in very moist The moisture, then, and a small portion of the remaining seasons the farm-yard dung, put on at the rate of from ten gelatine dissolved in it, forms the food on which the plant to fifteen tons per acre, has decidedly the advantage, not has thriven. The more the bones have undergone fermen- only for the turnips but for the subsequent crops. On very tation, the more soluble the gelatine will be. In its fresh dry gravelly soils and in dry summers the bones produced state, it is only soluble in very warm water, and the oil the best turnips; and when the comparative cost is taken repels moisture. This accounts for the seeming anomaly into consideration, and the saving of time in the light carof the superiority of boiled bones. They have undergone a riage of the bones, it will be seen that the bones are much fermentation. The residue, although not deprived of all its more economical. Besides this, farm-yard or stable dung animal matter, is much more porous, and will imbibe and cannot always be procured in any considerable quantity, retain moisture in its pores. The food of the plants is here while bones may be had almost to any amount, if bespoken ready prepared and dissolved, and kept in store without in proper time. Many large tracts of' waste land have been being in danger of being washed through a porous soil or brought into cultivation by means of bones, as the only evaporated by the heat. The solid substance, which is manure which could be procured, and without which they chiefly phosphate of lime, has a stimulating effect, and must have remained in a barren state. Bones have also assists that of the more soluble parts. But phosphate of been compared with rape cake and malt-dust, but there has lime is not soluble in water, and does not decompose readily not been a sufficient number of experiments, made carein the earth ; its effect therefore is not so great as to account fully, to give an accurate comparison. It is highly probable for the general result. The universal experience of all those that these last, when they can be procured sufficiently cheap, who have used bones as a manure proves that they are of little would greatly assist the effect of bones if mixed with them, or no use in very stiff or wet soils. In stiff clays the pieces and would render the success of a crop of turnips more cerof bone are bedded in a tough substance, which prevents tain under all circumstances of soil or season. Every prac-. their decomposition; and in very wet soils the advantage of tical farmer knows that a good crop of turnips is the foundathese small but numerous reservoirs of moisture is lost. tion of all the subsequent crops in the course.

A great Hence it is easily seen why bones are of less use in such advantage of manuring land with bones is that they introsoils.

duce no weeds, which farm-yard dung inevitably does. This But it is ascertained that the effect of bones on the crop is probably the reason why they have been chiefly used on is much increased when they have been previously mixed in land which has been fallowed ; and turnips being the usual heaps with ashes, burnt clay, or light loam, or made into a crop first sown on such light lands as are most benefited by compost with the dung of animals, and with vegetable sub-bone-manure, the greatest number of experiments have been stances. In this case, the fresh bones will evidently be made with this crop. That they are an excellent addition much more advantageous than those which have been to the list of artificial manures previously used is very clearly boiled; for the fermentation will extract and decompose the shown by the answers to queries made by the Doncaster oil and a great part of the gelatine, which, mixed with the Agricultural Association, of which an interesting report other ingredients of the compost, will much enrich them; has been published. Whatever difference there may be while the bony residue will be in the same state as it would in the opinion of some of the numerous agriculturists have been if the bones had come from the boiling-house. who have sent answers on this subject, as to the effect of By comparing all the facts, we naturally come to the con- bones on different soils, all who have tried them to any exclusion, that the most economical use of bones is to extract tent have continued the use of them. This simple circunfrom them the oil and gelatine, which, if not of sufficient stance says more in favour of bones than the most elaborate value for the manufacture of glue or of ammonia, may be argument, and the only question will be, at what expense used as a supplementary food for pigs, in the form of a they may be procured, and on what lands they have the broth or pot liquor, which, mixed with meal, will greatly best effect. When the immense quantity of bones from the accelerate their growth or increase their fat. For this pur- cattle daily slaughtered is considered, and the readiness pose the bones should be broken in the mill to a moderate with which any commodity for which there is a demand is size, like those called inch bones; they should then be procured in commerce, there can be no great fear of a deboiled or steamed for several hours, and the liquor strained ; ficient supply. But it is probable that the price may be so this, on cooling, will be found to form an animal jelly of increased by a great demand as to make it a matter of nice more or less strength, which may be thickened by boiling: calculation, whether their use may be attended with profit and finally dried into a glue or portable soup, which will or not. If once they are very generally used, their price will keep for a considerable time.

arrive at a maximum, and find its natural level. At present The price of fuel and attendance being calculated, it will they may be obtained in London and at the principal ports be seen whether this operation is a real economy or not; for about 28. per bushel coarsely ground, and 2s. 6d. to 38. if not, the bones may be allowed to ferment in a heap, being when in a finer state; and at that price, with a small addimixed with sand or coal-ashes. In this case, they may be tion for carriage, they will be found the cheapest manure ground at once to the size called half-inch; in the other, that can be purchased for dry, gravelly, and sandy soils. they may be passed again through the mill after having The mill which is used to break and grind bones consists been boiled.

of two iron or steel cylinders, with grooves running round The mode of applying bone-manure to the land is either their circumference, the projections being cut so as to form by sowing from twenty to forty bushels of them per acre strong teeth. These turn upon one another by means of by the hand broadcast, as is done with corn, and harrowing machinery, so that the teeth of one run in the groove bethem in with the seed; or by putting them into the drills tween the teeth of the other, as may be seen in the annexed by a machine made for the purpose, which is an addition cut. to the common drilling machine. This is the most ap An instrument has also been invented for distributing

bones, ashes, rape-dust, and similar dry manures in the drills | versā, says that Bonellia has an oval body and a proboscis at the same time with the seed. It consists of a very simple formed of a folded fleshy plate (lame) susceptible of great addition to the common drilling machine, and is described elongation and forked at its extremity. The vent is at the under the word DRILL.

opposite end of the body : the intestine is very long, being

folded several times, and near the vent are two ramified NB

organs for the purpose of respiration. The eggs are conTIC

tained in an oblong sac which has its opening near the base of the proboscis.

The animal is described as living deep in the sand, and projecting its proboscis till it arrives at the water when it is high, or till it reaches the air when the water is low.

The out represents Bonellia viridis, which is found in the Mediterranean.




[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]


[Bonellia viridis.) [Side Plan of the Bone-grinding Machine.] A, A, is the frame of a bone-mill strongly fixed to the floor; B, the axis of

BONET (JOHN PAUI.), is said to have been attached the machinery, which is turned by the lover C, C, to which the power is ap to the secret service of the king of Spain; he was also seplied; E, E, is a horizontal wheel with bevelled teeth moving a vertical wheel F, on the axis of which one of the cylinders with grooves and teeth is fixed.

cretary to the constable of Castile, out of friendship towards At the other end of the axis is a smaller wheel G, turning a similar one, H, on

whom he undertook the instruction of his brother, who had the axis of the other cylinder, making the toothed surfacos turn towards each been deaf and dumb from the age of two years. Only one other, and thus crushing between them the bones which the hopper 0 supplies. Another pair of cylinders similar to the first, but with smaller teeth, person is known to have approached to success in the art of are turned by means of the intermediate wheel I working in the wheel L fixed instructing deaf-mutes, previous to Bonet. This was Peter to the axis on which is a larger wheel M, working in a pinion which turns the cylindrical sieve N. The arrows indicate the direction of the motion.

Ponce, also a Spaniard, and a monk of the order of St. Be

nedict, who must be regarded as the first instructor of the The bones put in the hopper O are seized by the teeth of deaf and dumb. It does not appear that Bonet had any the two upper cylinders and broken in pieces, which fall in

acquaintance with the means pursued by his predecessor; between the lower pair, where they are reduced to a smaller

he represents himself as the inventor of the methods which size. From these they fall on a slanting board D and he describes. (De Gerando, De l'Education des Sourdsslide into the wire cylinder. All the smaller pieces pass Muets, tom. i. p. 312.) 'Great knowledge and uncommon through the interstices of the wire : those which have not

learning,' says the translator of De l'Epée's method of inbeen sufficiently broken come out at the end and are re structing the deaf and dumb, 'qualified Bonet for the proturned into the upper hopper. Where a machine of this vince of tuition ; in which he succeeded beyond every hope.' description can be attached to a water or windmill, or to a The work which he published at - Madrid in 1620' is now steam-engine, the bones are broken at a small expense ;

very rare : it is entitled Reduccion de las Lettras, y arte when horses are used the expense is greater; and a hand para enseñar a hablar los Mudos. It commences with mill can only be of use where there is a great superabun- showing that the deaf-mute must be made to distinguish dance of manual labour, and only a small quantity of bones and to form the letters of the alphabet, which for this are required.

purpose are reduced to their most simple elements. Having BONE'LLIA (zoology), a genus of Echinodermatous remarked that the deaf are only mute by reason of their Zoophytes formed by Rolando, and placed by Cuvier in the deafness, he explains how various kinds of knowledge may tenth order of his first class of Zoophytes, the Echinoderms be imparted to them by means of sight, to which they are (Echinodermatous radiaria) of Lamarck. This tenth order unable to arrive by the ear. These means are indicated by consists of the Footless Echinoderms, and Bonellia forms nature, the language of action being a natural language. its sixth genus. Cuvier, who observes that M. Rolando in The deaf and dumb who have never associated together his description mistakes the vent for the mouth, and vice would very soon come to understand each other by the em

[blocks in formation]

ployment of sigas, which though in some degree unlike at The other works of Bonet attest his industry, but are of first, would become modified and assimilated by intercourse. less utility: Mercurius Compilatitius, seu Index MedicoThe auxiliaries which Bonet made use of in the instruction Practicus,' Geneva, 1683, fol.; Medicina Septentrionalis of deaf-mutes were artificial pronunciation, the manual Collatitia,' Geneva, 1685, 2 vols. fol.; Polyalthes,' 3 vols. alphabet, writing, and gesture or the language of signs. fol. Geneva, 1690, 1691, 1693. This is a bulky commentary Minute details of the proceedings of the instructor on these on Johnstoni Syntagma Nosocomices. several heads are contained in his work. He taught his Bonet became subject to dropsy, and died on the 29th of pupils to understand the Spanish language, and the rules March, 1689, in the seventieth year of his age. He posof grammar. His work fully explains how he proceeded sessed great knowledge, and was distinguished for his mowith the three sorts of words into which he divides the lan- desty and affability. (Eloy, Dictionnaire Historique.) guage, namely, nouns, verbs, and conjunctions; and from BONFA'DIO, JACOPO, was born in the beginning of the simple name of an object to words which express the the sixteenth century at Gazzano, near Sald, on the banks moral dispositions and the affections of the heart. The of the lake of Garda. He studied at Padua, and aftermanner of teaching the different kinds of conjunctions and wards proceeded to Rome, where he became secretary to verbs is also carefully explained. The philosophical views Cardinal di Bari, with whom he remained three years, presented in the latter portion of his work are replete with which he mentions in his letters as the happiest of his life. practical utility, and are in many respects similar to those Cardinal di Bari having died, Bonfadio entered the service which are acted upon at the different institutions for the of Cardinal Ghinucci, but here he met with an enemy deaf and dumb, in this and other countries. This is the in the person of another dependant of the Cardinal, on work which the Abbé de l'Epée designates as one of his whose account Bonfadio left. He was on the point of going . excellent guides' in the earlier part of his experience as to Spain with an envoy of the Duke of Mantua to Charles V. an instructor of the deaf and dumb, and the manual alpha- when the envoy suddenly died. He then went to Naples, bet which the abbé adopted, ard which is at present used where he became intimate with Pietro Carnesecchi, who was in the institutions on the continent of Europe and in Ame- afterwards burnt at Rome for heresy. From Naples Bonrica, is nearly the same as the one given in that work. An fadio wandered about several parts of Italy, until he was inaccount of the success of Bonet has been left by Sir Kenelm vited by Bembo, who was then living at Padua, to come to his Digby, in his treatise Of Bodies, from which it appears house, about 1540, and undertake the education of Bembo's that the pupil not only understood others when they spoke, son Torquato. Bonfadio appears to have remained at Padua but also spoke himself so that others could understand him. five years. From Padua he now and then visited the banks

What at the first he was laughed at for made him, after of his native lake, and also occasionally Coloniola, a villa of some years, be looked on as if he had wrought a miracle. his learned friend Marc Antonio Flaminio. He has praised, In a word, after strange patience, constancy, and pains, he both in his Italian letters and in his Latin verses, the pleasant brought the young lord to speak as distinctly as any man scenery of those places. At one time he had the idea of whoever; and to understand so perfectly what others said, founding an Academy on the banks of the lake of Garda, that he would not lose a word in a whole day's conversation.' and he applied to Count Martinengo and other noblemen of (Of Bodies and of Man's Soul, chap. 28. p. 319.) Sir Kenelm Brescia to countenance his project. Having accepted in Digby and other authors speak of Bonet as a priest: he is 1545 the professorship of philosophy in Genoa, he was comalso said to have been in the service of the prince of Carig- missioned to write the history of the republic. He began it nan, and to have continued his employment as a teacher of from the year 1528, where Foglietta had closed his narrathe deaf and dumb for many years.

tive, and continued it till the year 1550. The work, which BONET, THEOPHILUS, an eminent physician, was is written in Latin, is entitled Annalium Genuentium Libri born at Geneva on the 5th of March, 1620. His family Quinque, and was published after his death at Pavia, 1586. was originally Italian and of noble rank, but his ancestors It was translated into Italian and published at Genoa the had removed from Rome to the south of France about a same year. Both the text and the translation were published century previous, in order to enjoy the free exercise of their at Brescia, 1759. In describing the organic changes effected religion.' His grandfather being compelled to have recourse in the constitution by Andrea Doria in 1528, the conspiracy to some means of gaining a livelihood, chose the profession of Fieschi, and other then recent events, Bonfadio spoke of of medicine, and obtained such eminence, that he was in several individuals connected with those factions in a tone vited to Turin to become physician to Charles-Emmanuel, which probably offended their relatives, who were still powerDuke of Savoy. But he appears to have possessed too ful at "Genoa. However this may be, he was arrested in much independence of mind to have retained the court fa- the year 1550, beheaded in prison, and his body, publicly vour, and he consequently removed to Lyons. Here, in burnt. Of the contemporary writers who relate this catas1556, Andrew Bonet was born. He also practised medicine, trophe, some are silent about the charges against him, and and after losing his first wife he removed to Geneva, where others hint that he was sentenced upon an aocusation of having married a second time, he had two sons, John and unnatural practices, but in reality through political aniTheophilus. The hereditary celebrity of the family deter- mosity, or, as it was called, “reason of state.' 'Mazzuchelli mined both to study medicine; but though the former gives at length, with his usual accuracy, all these various arrived at great eminence, he left no work to testify his authorities, and concludes by leaving the question of Bonability. Theophilus, after having visited many of the most fadio's guilt involved in doubt, as he could find no docucelebrated universities, took the degree of doctor of medi- ments existing at Genoa of the trial. The register of the cine in 1643. Soon after this the Duke of Longueville ap- prison merely states the sentence, but does not give the pointed him his physician, and he quickly rose to eminence charge. The proceedings of trials at that time were secret, by the success of his treatment.

and even the charges on which capital sentences were During the course of his practice he was diligent in col-founded were not always made known to the public. Bonlecting observations on the progress and terminations of fadio's Genoese Annals' are generally admired for their diseases, which formed the basis of his subsequent publica- style, which in many passages reminds the reader of Saltions. His earliest work was · Pharos Medicorum, id est, lust

. Bonfadio's Italian Letters, already mentioned, have Cautelæ, Animadversiones et Observationes Practicæ,' been collected and published by Mazzuchelli, Brescia, 1746. Geneva, 1668, 2 vols. 12mo. Each time this work was re- They are considered among the best specimens of Italian printed he enlarged it and altered the title, so that the edi. epistolary composition, and are also interesting for the detion of 1679 was called Labyrinthus Medicus extricatus,"scriptions of places, manners, and incidents. He also 4to. Geneva ; and that of 1687, “Methodus Vitandorum wrote Carmina, 12mo., Verona, 1740; Rime, which are Errorum qui in Praxi occurrunt.' 4to.

praised by Crescimbeni, and are found scattered in vaIncurable deafness having compelled him to retire from rious collections ; and an Italian translation of Cicero pro practice, he devoted his time to digesting his observations, Milone. and published his celebrated work, in 1679, entitled Se BONIFACE I. was elected bishop of Rome after the pulchretum, seu Anatomia Practica,' 2 vols. folio, Geneva, death of Zosimus, A.D. 419. Part of the clergy, supported which Mangetus republished with additions at Geneva in by Symmachus, prefect of Rome, elected Eulalius, but the 1700, 3 vols. folio. This formed the basis of the great work Emperor Honorius, who was then at Ravenna, confirmed of Morgagni," De Causis et Sedibus Morborum,' who liighly Boniface's election. Several letters from Boniface to the esteemed the labours of his predecessor. Lieutaud also bishops of Gaul, concerning matters of discipline, and to availed himself of this valuable repertory of facts in morbid the bishops of Africa, who would not allow of appeals to the anatomy.

see of Rome, are in Constant's collection, and give a favour


able opinion of his character and learning. He asserted and property of every sort. Further, he proclaimed a cruthe authority of the Roman see over the churches of Illy. sade against them, besieged Preneste, which he took and ricum, upon which contested point there are letters extant razed to the ground; and he destroyed likewise Zagarolo from Boniface to Rufus, bishop of Thessalonica, and also and Colonna, fiefs of the same family. The two cardinals between the two emperors, Arcadius and Honorius. Boni- escaped to France, and Sciarra their uncle was obliged face died A.D. 423, and was succeeded by Celestinus I. to conceal himself in the forests near Anzio, whence he

BONIFACE II. succeeded Felix IV. in 530. It is afterwards escaped by sea only to fall into the hands of recorded of him that, although a native of Rome, he was the pirates. son of a Goth. His was also a disputed election. Part of Boniface proclaimed the first jubilee in the year 1300, the Roman clergy assembled in the Basilica Julia chose granting by a bull a plenary indulgence to all those who Dioscorus, while the rest met in the Basilica of Constan- should visit the sanctuaries of Rome in that year. This tine for the election of Boniface. The schism lasted only attracted an immense multitude of foreigners to Rome. The twenty-eight days, when Dioscorus fell ill and died. Boni- historian Villani, who went there himself, reckons the face passed several regulations against bribery in the elec- number of strangers at 200,000 at one time, and the chrotions of bishops, and he also condemned the practice of a

nicle of Asti states the number of all those who visited bishop appointing his own successor. Platina, Vitæ Pontif. Rome during that year at two millions. This jubilee He died in 532, and was succeeded by John II.

brought to Rome a vast quantity of money. Before BoniBONIFACE III. was elected in March, 607, and died in face's time plenary indulgence had been granted only to November of the same year. He obtained of the Emperor those who went to the crusades for the deliverance of the Phocas the acknowledgment of the supremacy of the see of Holy Land. Rome over all other churches. This circumstance renders Boniface, still aiming at the reduction of Sicily, sent for his pontificate remarkable. He was succeeded by

Charles de Valois, brother of Philip le Bel, king of France. BONIFACE IV., who consecrated the Pantheon, having On arriving at Florence Charles supported the faction of first removed the images of the heathen gods, and dedi- the Neri, by which Dante and many others were exiled. cated it to the Virgin Mary and all the martyrs. He He then went over to Sicily, but after a desultory warfare transformed his paternal house in the country of the Marsi peace was made, and Frederic was acknowledged as king into a monastery, on which he bestowed all his property. of Trinacria in 1303, on condition of his paying to the He died in 615, and was buried in St. Peter's church. Roman see a tribute of 3000 onze, or 15,000 forins. A Boniface has been canonized by the church of Rome. He serious quarrel soon after broke out between the pope and was succeeded by Deusdedit, who was himself succeeded Philip le Bel. The pope pretended to share with the king in 619 by

the tithes levied on the clergy; he also created the new BONIFACE V., a Neapolitan, who died in 622, and was bishoprick of Pamiers without the king's consent, and he succeeded by Honorius I.

appointed the bishop his legate in France. The bishop BONIFACE VI., a native of Tuscany, and son of the behaved insolently to the king, who arrested him and gave Bishop Adrian, succeeded Formosus in 895, and died fifteen him in charge to the Archbishop of Narbonne. Upon this days after his election. He was succeeded by Stephen VII. Boniface excommunicated the king, placed his kingdom

BONIFACE VII., Cardinal Franco or Francone, was under interdict, and wrote to Albert of Austria, confirming elected in a popular tumult, when Benedict VI. was seized his election and inviting him to make war against France. and strangled in 974. Boniface himself was expelled from Philip assembled the states of the kingdom and laid before Rome in the following year, having incurred general de- them twenty-nine charges against the pope, accusing him testation through his licentiousness and cruelty. Boniface of simony, of heresy, of licentiousness, and even of sorcery, is not considered a legitimate pope, though his name is re and appealing to a general council of the church. Some of gistered as such in most chronological tables. He returned the charges were either invented or exaggerated by Philip, to Rome in 985, and put John XIV. in prison, where he died who was a most unprincipled man, although at the same of hunger, as it is reported. Boniface again assumed the time Boniface's conduct was far from irreproachable. The papal dignity, which he retained a few months, till August next measure of the pope was to proclaim ali Philip's subof the same year, when he died, and John XV. was elected jects released from their allegiance. The king resolving to pope.

put an end to this to him dangerous struggle, sent Guillaume BONIFACE VIII., Cardinal Benedetto Gaetani of de Nogaret, a bold unscrupulous man, to Italy, with money Anagni, succeeded in January, 1294, Celestine V., whom he and letters for the partizans of the Colonna and the other had persuaded to abdicate on the ground of incapacity, and enemies of the pope. Nogaret was joined by Sciarra, who whom he afterwards confined in the castle of Fumone, where had escaped from captivity. The popę was at Anagvi, Celestine died a few months after, under suspicious circum- when Nogaret and Sciarra suddenly entered the town folstances. Boniface interposed between Charles II. of Anjou, lowed by armed men, overcame the pope's guards, and king of Naples, and James of Aragon and of Sicily, and arrested Boniface himself. Nogaret was for taking him to made the latter consent to give up Sicily to Charles. But Lyons, where the council was to assemble; but Sciarra inthie Sicilians would not be surrendered to their hereditary sisted upon Boniface abdicating, abused him, and even enemy; they proclaimed Frederic, James's brother, their struck the old man with his gauntlet. Boniface behaved king, and resisted both the arms of Charles and the in- with dignity and firmness; he was kept three days in contrigues and the threats of Boniface, who launched his excom- finement, during which it is said he would not take any munications against them without effect. In 1297 James food. At last Cardinal del Fiesco induced the people of of Aragon came to Rome and was induced by Boniface to Anagni to rise and deliver the pontiff, and Sciarra and turn his arms against his brother Frederic, on which con- Nogaret were obliged to leave the town. Boniface redition the pope granted him the investiture of the crown of turned to Rome, but his health had received so severe a Sardinia.

shock, that he fell ill and died, October, 1303, after about In the contest about the succession to the German em- nine years of a most turbulent pontificate. P. Dupuy and pire, after the death of Rudolf of Hapsburg, Boniface took A. Baillet have written the history of the quarrel between the part of Adolf of Nassau against Albert of Austria, Boniface and Philip le Bel. Boniface was one of the most Rudolf's son. At the same time Boniface waged a war of strenuous assertors of the assumed supremacy of the pope destruction against the Colonna, a powerful feudal family, over princes and nations in temporal as well as spiritual which held possession of several towns and estates in the matters. He was an inveterate persecutor of the Guibelines, countries of Rome and Naples. The origin of this quarrel for which Dante has alluded to him at length in canto is not clearly ascertained. " It appears that two cardinals of xxvii. of the 'Inferno.' the house of Colonna had opposed Boniface's election, and BONIFACE IX., Cardinal Pietro Tomacelli, a Neaafterwards refused to admit papal garrisons into their castles.politan by birth, was elected in 1389 by the cardinals at Boniface accused them of having dissipated the treasures of Rome after the death of Urban VI. This was the time of the church, of holding correspondence with Frederic of the great Western schism as it is called, which began beSicily, and other charges. The two cardinals wrote to the tween Urban and Clement, styled the VIIth, who held his French and other kings against Boniface, complaining of court at Avignon. Clement having died in 1394, the carhis arrogance, and questioning the validity of his election. dinals of his party elected Pedro de Luna by the name of Upon this the pope excommunicated the whole family of Benedict XIII. Boniface however continued to exercise Colonna and their adherents, calling them heretics, and the papal authority at Rome, regardless of the Avignon declaring that they had forfeited their honours and estates popes and conclaves. Endeavours were made by several

« 前へ次へ »