« 前へ次へ »
hussars as ensign. In a campaign against the Prussians, from Napoleon : but, though repulsed with great loss, reat the commencement of the Seven years' war, in which turned to the combat, as usual
, on the following day, and the Swedes were allied with Russia and Austria against succeeded in getting some advantage. The rash and reckFrederic the Great, he was taken prisoner in Pomerania by less rapidity of his movements at this time having obliged the same regiment of Prussian hussars in which he after him to make a retreat, and exposed his army to disasters wards became so distinguished. The colonel of the regi- which prudence might have avoided, an alarm began to ment, Von Belling, being favourably impressed with his arise in England about the final result of the contusi; frank and gallant character, persuaded him to join the when, after various battles lost and won on the way to Prussian army, and contrived to give in exchange for him Paris, he finally entered that metropolis, March 31, 1814, another Swedish officer. In the service of Frederic he and, but for the intervention of the other commanders, it rose from a lieutenant to senior-captain, when his pride would, by him, have been made a scene of revengeful retriþeing ruffled by the promotion of a person of higher birth bution. Among his less extravagant demands, he firmly than himself to the vacant post of major, and finding no insisted upon the restitution of every picture and work of use in remonstrance, he caused a request for leave to resign art which had been plundered from Prussia to adorn the to be delivered to his royal master-that singular personage, Louvre. As field-marshal and prince of Wahlstadt he to whom in stoical endurance of hardships and energy of accompanied the allied sovereigns to England, where his character he was so remarkably similar. The reply of the personal appearance excited intense curiosity, All the most king was—Captain Blücher has permission to quit my ser- illustrious military orders of Europe having already been vice, and may go to the devil if he thinks fit. Upon re-conferred upon him, the king of Prussia created for him a ceiving this unexpected incivility he retired to the duchy new one, with the badge of a cross of iron, in compliment to of Silesia, became a farmer, and by persevering assiduity his invincible courage. The Prince Regent of England acquired possession of a considerable estate. He remained gave him his portrait; and the university of Oxford, not to be thus employed for fifteen years, until the accession, in 1786, deficient in proof of admiration, bestowed upon the veteran of Frederic William II., by whom he was courteously re- warrior the academical degree of LL.D. In possession of called, and again introduced in the rank of major to his old these honours he retired to his Silesian estate, residing there regiment of black hussars, which he commanded with ho- until the return of Napoleon from Elba in 1815, when nourable distinction in several campaigns against the French. again he returned to the great theatre of war, and assumed
In 1789 he obtained the Order of Merit; and subse the command of the Prussian army in Belgium. His chaquently in 1793-4, as colonel and major-general, at the racteristic over-confidence and precipitancy occasioned his battles of Orchies, Luxemburg, Frankenstein, Oppenheim, defeat at the battle of Ligny, June 16th. It was at the Kirchweiller, and Edesheim in the palatinate, he acquired close of this desperate engagement, in which the ghting reputation as a soldier by his vigilance, promptitude, and continued until ten at night, that his horse was shot dead, astonishing energy. In the name of the king of Prussia and fell upon him, so that he lay in that position unable to he took possession in 1802 of Erfurt and Mühlhausen. In move, whilst several regiments of French cuirassiers passed the same year, after the victory gained by the French at over him in charging his troops. A report of his death Jena, having, with a remnant of 10,000 or 12,000 Prussians, was soon in circulation; and Napoleon, who commonly become separated from the rest, he succeeded without dis- named him le vieux diable (the old devil), made the most of order in forcing his retreat westward as far as Lubeck, and, it in cheering the hopes of his soldiers in the struggle at though harassed by the forces of the marshals Soult
, Murat, Waterloo on the 18th. But late in the evening of that meand Bernadotte, he resisted to the last, and finally accepted morable day, when victory seemed to hang doubtful, Prince a capitulation only on condition that the cause of surrender Blücher, who on the night of his accident had, owing to the should in writing be stated to be 'want of ammunition and darkness, escaped unhurt, appeared suddenly emerging from provisions.' Whilst a prisoner of war he was treated by the forest of Frichemont at the head of a great portion of Napoleon with a courteous politeness, for which the motive his Prussian army. At first Napoleon took it for the French could not be misunderstood; but the name of Blücher division of Marshal Grouchy arriving from Wavre ; that never appeared among those Prussian officers who con- illusion however was quickly dispelled, and a simultaneous sented to serve the emperor in his projects against Russia. panic having seized upon the whole of the French forces Having been exchanged for General Victor, he was sent and produced the utmost confusion, a general attack was into Pomerania to assist the Swedes. He was afterwards ordered by the Duke of Wellington, which at once teremployed in the war department at Königsberg and Berlin; minated in their perfect defeat. Blücher, although his and when in 1813 his country rose in opposition to France, troops had been marching all day, immediately gave orders he was appointed to take the command of a numerous army to pursue the flying enemy; and the moon being bright, a of Prussians and Russians combined. The order of St. fierce and hot pursuit by sixteen regiments of Prussians George was bestowed upon him by the Emperor Alexander was kept up the whole night, until the roads were choked in acknowledgment of his conduct at the battle of Lützen; with the dying and the dead. Having arrived with his at those also of Bautzen and Haynau he was no less con- army at Paris, and assisted in the reinstatement of the spicuous. In the battle fought August 26th, 1813, on the Bourbon dynasty, he remained there several months, very banks of a small river near Liegnitz in Silesia, called the frequently attending the tables for rouge et noir. When Katzbach, Blücher first held undivided command; and with the Prussians returned to Germany, Blücher, on the anni60,000 men, the largest portion but raw militia, defeated versary of the battle of Katzbach, paid a visit to Rostock, the French marshals Macdonald, Ney, Lauriston, and Se- his native place, where all the inhabitants united to raise a bastiani. In consequence of a heavy rain during the four public monument to his fame : those of Berlin presented to previous days, a great number of muskets were not useable; him a medal with a representation of the angel Raphael ihe infantry were therefore brought hand to hand with the trampling upon a dragon. His health now beginning to bayonet: a hideous slaughter ensued, and the army of decline, he finally retired to his chateau of Kriblowitz in Blücher gained the first great victory of that eventful cam- Silesia, where the king of Prussia visited and took leave of paign by a furious attack that precipitated the French by him in his latest moments. I know I shall die,' said the old thousands into the flooded river. The general's proclama- general; 'I am not sorry for it, because I can be no longer tion upon this occasion exhibits his characteristic fervour of any use.' Having requested that he might be buried and laconic eloquence : :-Silesia is delivered! audaciously without any parade, in a neighbouring field by the roadthe enemy came upon you— brave soldiers ! swift as the side, under three linden trees, he died on the 12th of Seplightning you rushed upon them — your bayonets have tember, 1819, aged 77. The whole army went into mouriplunged them headlong into the Katzbach - you have ing for eight days. He had been in the service of Prussia 18,000 prisoners and all their baggage-offer thanks to the during forty-five years, and at the battle of Waterloo was at God of Armies.' He now marched with amazing rapidity the age of 73. In the year 1826 his statue in bronze, twelve to the Elbe, passed over by means of pontoons, and pushed feet in height, modelled by the sculptor Rauch, was erected on to the important battle of Leipzig, to the victorious re in Berlin. The merit of Blücher lay nearly altogether in sults of which his services greatly contributed. With his his fearless courage and his personal advantages: as a pruRusso-Prussian troops he now formed the left wing of the dent, scientific, general he has no claims at all to distinction. great army of the allies in their pursuit of Napoleon re- With a piercing eye, a loud and sonorous voice, a bold outline treating towards France. Having passed over the Rhine of figure, accoutred and armed as a cossack, and a masterly at Kaub and Coblentz, he took possession of Nancy in style of manoeuvring his horse, his presence, as he rule in January, 1814. At Bricnne he received a fierce attack front of his men, never failed to inspire them with bops of
guccess in following a captain so daring and full of energy. | methods of procuring the colour from the plant and the The astonishing, celerity of his movements got him the various substances with which it is mixed, we refer to the appellation of Marshal Forwards, by which he was gene- article Indigo, here merely stating the properties of the rally known in Germany and Russia; but equally well known blue pigment usually met with by that name in small was the fact, that to the able plans of General Gneisenau, cubic pieces. The colour is extremely deep, the fracone of his officers, he owed almost all bis success.
ture is earthy, but becomes brilliant and of a copper red BLUE, as a pigment. The substances used for this colour when rubbed by a hard body, and according to the purpose are of very different natures, and derived from degree to which this effect is produced, the better is the yarious sources: they are all compound bodies, some are indigo reckoned. Even in this state however it is niixed natural and others artificial. They are derived almost with some foreign matters, which may generally be separated entirely from the vegetable and mineral kingdoms, though by water, alcohol, solution of potash and dilute acid, in all the first which we shall describe is partly prepared from of which pure indigo is insoluble. It may also be purified animal matter, viz. :
by sublimation, but the process is difficult of management, Prussian Blue.--This beautiful pigment was discovered for if the heat be rather greater than necessary the indigo by accident in 1710 by Diesbach, a manufacturer of Berlin; is decomposed. Another method of procuring pure indigo is but the method of preparing it was first described by Wood- to take the solution of indigo prepared by dyers, and agitate ward in the Philosophical Transactions of 1724. The first it in contact with atmospheric air. This solution is prepared step in the operation is to calcine a mixture of potash or by mixing blue indigo in powder with lime and a solution of its carbonate, with animal matter that contains azote, as protosulphate of iron; the lime decomposes the sulphate of blood, hoofs, or horns, in an iron vessel, till it ceases to iron, precipitating its protoxide; this acting upon the indigo burn with flame. The residual matter is then suffered to takes oxygen from it, and then it is rendered colourless cool, the soluble portion of it dissolved in water, and the and also soluble in water by the action of the excess of lime; solution when sufficiently concentrated yields fine yellow this solution when agitated with atmospheric air, the indigo crystals on cooling. This salt was formerly called phlo- regaining oxygen and colour, is precipitated, and when gisticated alkali, and triple prussiate of potash : according washed with a little dilute muriatic acid and dried, it is pure. to Berzelius it is a double cyanide of potassium and iron, Indigo, except when used as a water-colour, requires white consisting of
lead to give it body; it is a colour of considerable permaCyanide of potassium
nency. Strong nitric acid decomposes it, but it differs from iron
most vegetable products, and especially vegetable colours, Water"
in being perfectly soluble and without decomposition in
concentrated sulphuric acid. The colour is most intense, and 100.
this solution is employed in dyeing what is called Saxon When a solution of this salt is poured into one of proto- blue. Chemists are not agreed as to the exact nature of sulphate of iron a perfectly white precipitate is formed, pro- this solution. Chlorine immediately destroys the colour of vided no persulphate be present; but if there is, then the indigo. precipitate is of a bluish gray colour ; in both cases it be Blue Verditer.—This pigment is used as a water-colour, comes, by exposure to the air, of a fine blue, and is then and chiefly in the manufacture of paper-hangings. It is a washed and dried for use. In this precipitation and by a gritty powder of a very fine light blue. It is a carbonate of complicated play of affinities the potassium is replaced by copper, composed of nearly iron, and the Prussian blue procured consists of nearly
Peroxide of copper
100.0 Very commonly the solution of cyanide of potassium and It is prepared by precipitation from the solution of nitrate iron, procured from the residue of the calcination, is not put of copper which results from the refining of silver by preto crystallize, but is added at once to the solution of sulphate cipitating the silver by copper. The exact mode of operaof iron. In this case, on account of the excess of potash ting is not generally known, and success probably depends which it contains, a portion of iron in a state of oxide is pre- upon some minute circumstance in the manipulation. cipitated uncombined with the colouring matter; in order to This colour is readily acted upon by the acids even in prevent this from injuring the colour of the pigment, either their dilute state ; they evolve its carbonic acid, and dissolve dilute sulphuric acid is added, which dissolves it without the peroxide of copper; the alkalis, potash and soda, and acting on the Prussian blue; or alum is mixed with the lime water, combine with the carbonic acid, and separate sulphate of iron, and the uncombined potash uniting with peroxide of copper; it is blackened by sulphuretted hydroits sulphuric acid, alumina is precipitated instead of oxide gen, and it is decomposed at a high temperature. of iron, which merely dilutes without otherwise injuring the Ultra-marine.-This splendid and permanent blue pigcolour of the product. When a solution of a persalt of iron, ment was originally, and indeed until within a few years such as the nitrate, is used, the precipitate is immediately exclusively, prepared from a mineral called Azure Stone, or obtained of a fine blue; but this process does not answer Lapis Lazuli
, the finest kinds of which are brought from in manufacturing:
China, Persia, and Great Bucharia. In the 89th vol. of Prussian blue is inodorous, tasteless, insoluble in water, the Annales de Chimie, M. Tassaert has noticed the accialcohol, æther, and oils. It is hygrometric, attracting water dental formation of ultra-marine in a furnace used for the strongly from the air, which it retains until heated to nearly manufacture of soda ; and about the year 1828, M. Gmelin 280°. Diluted acids do not act upon this substance, but of Tübingen, and M. Guimet of Lyons, both succeeded in strong sulphuric acid dissolves it, forming a white com- forming this colour artificially, and it is now prepared in pound similar to that of starch and water in appearance. large quantity, of quality equal to the natural product. The On the addition of water the blue colour is restored. Nitric former of these chemists has given the following process for acid and muriatic acid, when concentrated, both decompose making this pigment, and he asserts that it will infallibly it, and the same effect is produced by the alkalis and alka- succeed :--Prepare hydrate of silica and alumina, the first line earths, but with different results. It is also decom- by fusing powdered quartz with four times its weight of posed by a strong heat. Prussian blue is employed both carbonate of potash, dissolving the fused mass in water and as a water colour and in oil ; in the latter case, on account precipitating ihe silica by muriatic acid; the second by deof the deficiency of what is termed body, it is usually mixed composing a solution of alum with ammonia. Wash these with white lead, and it will bear admixture with a large two earths carefully with boiling water; and by drying portion of this on account of the intensity of its colour. Its portions of the most precipitates, ascertain the quantity of stability is very considerable, and it is not only used as a dry earths which they contain. Then dissolve as much of pigment but also as a dye. According to Berzelius it was the hydrate of silica as a solution of soda will take up, and used in Sweden instead of smalt, to give writing-paper a determine the quantity. Lastly, for 72 parts of anhydrous blue tint, but the paper was found to acquire a disagreeable silica take 70 parts of dry alumina, add them to the alkaline greenish hue.
solution of silica, and evaporate, constantly stirring till the Indigo.—This fine blue is extracted from different species residue is nearly dry: this is the basis of the colour. of indigofera in the East Indies and Guatimala in South Put into a Hessian crucible, which has a cover that fits America, of which the latter is most esteemed. For the closely, a mixture of two parts of sulphur and one part of an
hydrous carbonate of soda ; cover and heat the mixture mo- I Wilson, 'as much confidence in man by associating with derately till it fuses; then gradually throw in small portions of him in summer, as the other by his familiarity in winter.' the mixture above described, waiting till the effervescence is So early as the middle of February, if the weather be over before a fresh portion is added. Keep the mixture at open, he usually makes his appearance about his old haunts, a moderate red heat for an hour. If there be an excess of the barn, orchard, and fence-posts. Storms and deep snows sulphur it is to be expelled by a moderate heat, and if all sometimes succeeding, he disappears for a time; but about parts should not be equally coloured, the finer portions the middle of March is again seen accompanied by his after powdering may be separated by washing with water. mate, visiting the box in the garden, or the hole in the old Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 37. 409. According to apple-tree, the cradle of some generations of his ancestors.' the author of this process, sulphuret of sodium is the colour- ***•When he first begins his amours,' says a curious and ing principle of the lapis lazuli
, and of course of the artificial correct observer, it is pleasing to behold his courtship, his as well as the natural ultramarine.
solicitude to please and to secure the favour of his beloved This pigment loses its colour totally by being put into an female. He uses the tenderest expressions, sits close by acid, and although there is no perceptible effervescence, a her, caresses and sings to her his most endearing warblings. slight smell of sulphuretted hydrogen gas is recognised; When seated together, if he espies an insect delicious to her the residue is of a dirty white colour; the alkalis do not act taste, he takes it up, flies with it to her, spreads his wing upon this colour, nor is it destroyed by exposure to a red over her, and puts it in her mouth.' heat.
The food of the blue-bird consists principally of insects, It has hitherto, on account of its high price, been used particularly large beetles and other coleoptera, frequently almost exclusively by artists, both as a water-colour and in of spiders, and sometimes of fruits and seeds. oil; but on account of the reduced charge at which it will The nest is built in holes in trees and similar situations. probably be hereafter obtained, it will doubtless be rendered The bird is very prolific, for though the eggs, which are of much more extensively useful.
a pale-blue colour, seldom exceed six, and are more freCobalt Blue. This was proposed as a substitute for ultra- quently five in number, two and sometimes three broods marine before the invention above described had rendered are produced in a season. this latter colour easily obtainable at a moderate price. Ac Its song is cheerful, continuing with little interruption cording to Thenard (Traité de Chimie, tome i.) this pig. from March to October, but is most frequently heard in the ment, the base of which is either a phosphate or arseniate of serene days of the spring. cobalt, is prepared by adding a solution of phosphate of soda With regard to its geographical distribution, Catesby says, to one of nitrate of cobalt; the precipitated phosphate of. These birds are common in most parts of North America ; cobalt, after due washing, is to be mixed with moist hydrate for I have seen them in Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and of alumina, the proportions being one of the phosphate to the Bermuda Islands. Wilson gives the United States, eight parts of the hydrate ; or half the quantity of arseniate the Bahamas, Mexico, Brazil, and Guiana, as its localities. of cobalt may be substituted for the phosphate.
About November it takes its departure from the United These substances are to be thoroughly mixed and then States. The whole upper part of the bird, which is about dried in a stove, and when the mass has become brittle it seven inches and a half long, is of a rich sky-blue shot with is to be calcined in a covered crucible at a cherry-red heat purple. The bill and legs are black. Shafts of the wing for half an hour.
and tail, feathers black. Throat, neck, breast, and sides, This colour is one of great permanence, but is not so fine partially under the wings, reddish chestnut. Wings dusky as the ultramarine, and will hereafter be probably little em- black at the tips. Belly and vent white. The female is ployed.
duller in its colours. Smalt is a blue colour also prepared from cobalt, but is It is said to be much infested with tape-worms. generally used rather to diminish the yellow tint of writing This bird must not be confounded with the Arctic Bluepaper and of linen, and to give a bluish colour to starch, bird (Erythaca Arctica, Swainson, Sialia Arcticu, Nuttall), than strictly speaking as a pigment; it is merely glass ren- another species of Swainson's subgenus Sialia. The latter dered blue by oxide of cobalt, and this when reduced to a has no red or chestnut about it, the colours being ultravery fine powder is commonly called powder-blue. (See marine-blue above, greenish-blue beneath, and whitish on COBALT.]
the posterior part of the belly and under tail-coverts. The BLUE-BIRD (zoology), the American name for the specimen figured in the Fauna Boreali-Americana was Motacilla sialis of Linnæus, Sylvia sialis of Wilson, shot at Fort Franklin in July, 1825. Saricola siulis of Bonaparte, Ampelis sialis of Nuttall, Swainson mentions another species, his Sialia Mexicana, and Erythaca (sialia) Wilsonii of Swainson.
from the Table-land of Mexico.
BLUE-BOTTLE, a pretty wild flower, commonly found in corn-fields. It is the Centaurea cyanus of botanists.
BLUE-BREAST (zoology), the English name for th pretty bird, which, as Bechstein observes, may be considered
[Blue-bird.] Like our red-breast, this harbinger of spring to the Americans 'is known to almost every child, and shews,' says
as the link between the redstart and common wagtail, | its direction and again extending parallel to the shore runs having strong points of resemblance to both. It is the nearly due north, declining one or two points to the east, as Gorge-bleue of the French, the Blaukehlein of the Germans, far as the sources of the Morrumbidgee river, between 35° Petto turchino of the Italians, the Cyanecula of Brisson, and 30° S. lat. In this tract the distance of the mountains Motacilla Suecica of Linnæus, Sylvia cyanecula of Meyer, from the sea seems to vary between seventy and eighty miles. the Blue-throated warbler and Sylvia Suecica of Latham. To the south of the upper branches of the Morrumbidgee
According to Temminck, the blue-breast is found in the river the principal range of the mountains extends eastward same countries which are inhabited by the red-breast, and and approaches the sea within forty miles or perhaps less : particularly on the borders of forests, but is more rare in it then suddenly turns to the north, encloses Lake George, France and Holland than the latter bird. Bonaparte notes and continues north of it in the same direction under the it as accidental and very rare in the neighbourhood of name of Cullarin Range. At nearly an equal distance from Rome, and as only appearing in severe winters. Bechstein 35° and 34° the chain again turns to the east and approaches says, 'I often hear it said that the blue-breast is a rare the sea within forty or fifty miles. Running at this distance bird; that in some parts of Germany it appears only every parallel to the shore (that is N.N.E.),it extends as far as 33" five or even ten years, but I can declare that this opinion and perhaps a little to the north of it, where it again turns arises from a want of observation. Since I have taught my northward, and continues in that direction till it has passed neighbours to be more attentive to the time of their pas- the 32nd parallel and attained a distance of about 140 miles sage, they every year catch as many as they please. If in from the sea. Here it meets with another extensive chain, the first fortnight of April
, up to the 20th, cold and snow the Liverpool Range, which runs east and west and seems return, plenty may be found by merely following the to be the southern part of a mountain system which exstreams, rivers, and ponds, especially in the neighbourhood tends over a greater space than the Blue Mountains, in the of a wood.'
direction from west to east, and whose continuation northIn England it is very rarely seen.
ward is not farther known. It is possible that it continues The food of the blue-breast, according to Temminck, con- up to Cape York, the north-eastern cape of Australia on sists of thies, the larvæ of insects, and worms. Bechstein Torres Strait. says that it also eats elderberries. It is one of those un The highest part of this mountain-range is the Warrafortunate birds which is called by some a Beccafico. The gong Moumains, between 36° and 35°, whose peaks being nest is said to be built in bushes and in the holes of trees. covered with perpetual snow, have received the name of the The eggs, of a greenish-blue, are six in number.
Australian Alps. But the chain extending from these The following is Bechstein's accurate description of the alps to the Liverpool Range, which is more properly called male:- Its length is five inches and a half, of which the the Blue Mountains, does not attain a very great elevation. tail occupies two and a quarter. The beak is sharp and Its average height may be 3000 feet, and though doubtless blackish, yellow at the angles ; the iris is brown ; the shanks several of its summits approach 4000 feet, it does not seem are fourteen lines high, of a reddish-brown, and the toes, that any of them exceed that height. These mountains are blackish ; the head, the back, and the wing-coverts are difficult to be crossed on account of the steep rocks which ashy-brown, mottled with a darker tint; a reddish-white
crown the upper part of the chain, and which are only broken line passes above the eyes; the cheeks are dark-brown, by narrow and deep ravines. Twenty-five years elapsed spotted with rust-red, and edged at the side with deep ash- after the foundation of the colony of Port Jackson before grey; a brilliant sky-blue covers the throat and half-way our countrymen succeeded in passing over these mountains. down the breast; this is set off by a spot of the most daz- The Liverpool Range attains a much greater height, its zling white, the size of a pea, placed precisely over the la- summits rising to 6500 feet above the sea; but the passes rynx, which, enlarging and diminishing successively by the can be traversed with greater ease. movement of this part when the bird sings, produces the The country between the Blue Mountains and the sea is most beautiful effect. The blue passes into a black band, partly filled with its lower branches, and partly with sandy and the latter into a fine orange; the belly is dusky-white, plains between them and the sea. In some places the hills yellowish towards the rent; the thighs and sides are red come down to the very shores, as at Illawarra and Newcastle ; dish; the quill-feathers dark-brown; the tail-feathers red at other places they terminate at a distance of thirty miles at the base, and half the summit black; the two interme- and upwards from the sea. On the western side the moundiate ones are entirely dark-brown. Some males have two tains are less steep, and descend in terraces of considerable little white spots on the throat, some even have three, extent till they terminate in the low plains which occupy while others have none; these latter are probably very old, the interior of Australia. for I have observed that, as the bird grows older the blue In order to go from the coast to these plains, the mountains deepens, and the orange band becomes almost maroon.'. of course must be passed. Up to the present time this has
Temminck describes the very old male as having a white been effected at two places only. One of the mountain streak above the eyes, followed by a black one; no white passes lies a little to the north of the parallel of Sydney, and space on the throat, and some blueish-black between the a carriage-road has been made through it. It begins on eye and the beak; the red band of the breast much larger, the banks of the Nepean River, the principal branch of and that, as well as the origin of the tail-feathers, of a more Hawkesbury River, at Emu Ford, and ascending the steep lively red.
Lapstone Hill continues rising to Spring-wood, twelve and The female resembles the male in the upper parts. On a half miles distant from Emu Ford. Farther on to Weaeach side of the neck is a blackish longitudinal streak ther-Board Hut, sixteen miles from Spring-wood, the ascent passing on the upper parts of the breast into a large blackish is not considerable. Weather-Board Hut is on Kingsland space tinged with ash-colour. On the middle of the neck | Table, 2727 feet above the sea. Hence the road passes is a great spot of pure white. Flanks clouded with olive, through the vale of Clwdd, on the eastern side of Mount the rest of the lower parts white. The very old females York, which vale is 2496 feet above the sea : Mount York rises have the throat sometimes of a very bright blue. This is to 3292 feet. From this vale the road skirts the southern probably a sign that they have done laying, and are putting declivity of Mount York and leads to Cox's Pass, on the on the plumage of the male. Bechstein says that the fe- banks of Cox's River, which pass is twenty-one miles dismales, when young, are of a celestial blue tint on the sides tant from Weather-Board Hut, and may be regarded as of the throat, which deepens with age and forms the two the western extremity of the mountain pass: the remainder longitudinal lines.
of the road to Bathurst leads over an undulating plain. The young, according to Temminck, are brown spotted Bathurst is 1970 feet above the sea, according to Oxley. with white, and have all a large white space upon the This portion of the mountains is formed of sandstone, which throa. Its song,' says Bechstein, 'is very agreeable ; it extends to Mount York and even to Cox's River, where it sounds like two voices at once; one deep, resembling the is succeeded by granite, which afterwards at Molong, to gentle humming of a violin string, the other the soft sound the N.W. of Bathurst, gives way to a limestone formation of a tlute.'
with numerous caves, and at the junction of the Bell River BLUE MOUNTAINS, in Australia, may be considered with the Macquarie is superseded by freestone. But as the as beginning at Bass's Strait with the rocks of Cape Wil-country falls rapidly from that point, the free-stone formason, and running in a north-eastern direction parallel to the tion soon disappears and is succeeded by the flat country. shore as far as Cape Howe. We are not acquainted with The second mountain pass lies farther to the south, near the distance of the range from the sea in this part of the the 35th parallel, beginning at the point where the Woloncountry. Cpposite Cape Howe the mountain-chain changes | dilly River turns to the north. It ascends along the course
of this river to Goulbum Plains, then passes through a sequence to the bishops of Durham in former times, and narrow ridge to Bredalbane Plains, and again through are named in their records with the Tyne, Wear, and Tees, another to Yass Plains, which extend on the other side of as being subject to their jurisdiction. The prelates of the range between Yass River and Morrumbidgee River. that diocese still have jurisdiction over the river and the
This range is not rich in metals. Copper has been found wastes between high and low water marks. The river near Bathurst, and tin and lead in some other places; but Blyth rises about twenty-five miles inland, and its general coal seems to be abundant, especially at Newcastle, to course is east by north, from which it makes one great wards the Hunter River. Besides, there is plenty of granite bend to the north after it has passed Stamfordham. On and whinstone, pipe and potter's clay, limestone, gypsum resuming its general course it receives its largest tributary or plaster of Paris, and alum. (Oxley ; Sturt; P. Cunning- from the north-west, after which it goes on nearly in the ham; Society's Map.)
same direction for about nine miles, when it receives anBLUE RÍDGE. (See APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS.] other stream from the north-west, after which it inclines to
BLUNDELL MUSEUM, an assemblage of choice spe- the south-east, and enters the ocean, after a total course of cimens of sculpture, consisting of statues, busts, bas-re about thirty-seven miles. The Blyth abounds with sea fish liefs, sarcophagi, cinerary urns, and other antient marbles, near its mouth; and those fresh-water fish that frequent the collected by the late Henry Blundell, Esq., and preserved at higher parts of the stream are of very fine quality. The his seat at Ince-Blundell in the parish of Sefton in Lanca- shore near its æstuary affords abundance of muscles, which shire, about nine miles north of Liverpool. A large por- are used for bait by the fishermen of the neighbouring places. tion are placed in a building attached to the mansion called Blyth harbour is so safe that an instance rarely occurs the Pantheon, exactly resembling the edifice of that name of a vessel sustaining damage in entering it in the most in Rome, though one-third less in lineal dimensions, erected tempestuous weather. In full tides there are ten feet of for the purpose of containing them; a few modern sculp- water on the bar; when there are only eight feet, statures are also in this collection, among which a Psyche by tionary lights are exhibited in the harbour. The tide town Canova is the most valuable.
up to the dam at the Bedlington iron-works, four miles and Two folio volumes of . Engravings and Etchings,' from a half from the mouth of the river. The place was of very the principal of these marbles, were prepared by Mr. Blundell trifling consequence previously to the Restoration, when it for distribution among his friends in 1809: some of these appears to have contained scarcely any houses. It must after had been made at Rome, before the marbles left that city, that have rapidly increased, as we find that in 1728 not fewer and others were executed in London. Mr. Blundell was in than 200 vessels are entered in the custom-house books as Italy at the same time with his friend Mr. Charles Townley, having sailed from this port. Its trade would seem to have and not only collected with a kindred taste, but was fre- declined after this : towards the latter part of the last century quently guided in his choice of purchases by Mr. Townley's there were only a few small sloops belonging to the port; but advice.
the opening of the Cowpen colliery, near the end of the cenAmong the statues of highest character in the Blundell tury, materially contributed to the increase of its trade, Museum are-1. A Minerva found at Ostia, for many years which consists chiefly in the export of coal and iron from in the Lanti palace, and afterwards the property of Mr. Bedlington, and sometimes corn. Thirty or forty sail of Jenkins, from whom it was bought; larger than life. 2. laden vessels sometimes sail in one tide. They usually reDiana, found in the ruins of the Emperor Gordian's villa ; turn in ballast ; few articles are imported, except such timber the full size of life: bought of the sculptor Albacini. 3. and stores as are required for the shipping. About 100 Theseus, seven feet two inches high; found in Hadrian's vessels now belong to the port, which is regarded as a sort villa: purchased from the Duke of Modena, in the centre of creek to that of Newcastle. of the saloon at whose villa at Tivoli it stood. 4. Æscula Blyth is a pleasant and well built little place. It has pius, from the Villa Mattei, nearly seven feet high. 5. A a custom-house, subject to that of Newcastle ; two ship consular figure, in good preservation, nearly resembling that insurance companies, and several dock-yards, in which called Cicero in the Arundelian Collection at Oxford ; this vessels of 430 tons bave been built. There is a neat chapel also was bought from the Prince Mattei. 6. Another of ease, which was erected in 1751 by Sir M. W. Ridley, Minerva, seven feet high, which formerly belonged to Pope the proprietor of the estate ; and 10 which a Sunday-school Sixtus V.; bought out of the Negroni collection. 7. A has since been annexed. Different denominations of disstatue representing the province Bithynia, bought out of senters have four places of worship at Blyth. the Villa D'Este from the Duke of Modena. 8. Faustina, The township of South Blyth and Newsham contained the wife of Marcus Aurelius; the head, feet, and hands 248 houses in 1831, when the population was 1769, of whom of Parian marble; the drapery in Lesbian marble, a 977 were females. This however does not convey a true kind of opaque basalt. 9. A group of two statues, an old idea of the extent and population of the town, as it only faun and an hermaphrodite, the work of Bupalus, whose comprehends that part of it which lies in the parish of Earsname is upon the plinth ; it was found by Niccola la Pic-don, but, adding to the account that part in the township of cola in an excavation on the Præneste road, 1776 ; small Cowpen, parish of Horton, the actual population must exlife, about three feet high. Among the busts are those of ceed 3000. Septimius Severus and Otho, both bought out of the Mattei (Hutchinson's View of Northumberland; Historical Villa ; Augustus and Marciana, found at Ostia ; and Ælius and Descriptive View of Northumberland, fc.) Cæsar, the adopted heir of Hadrian, which was also pur BOA (zoology), the name of a family of serpents which chased from the Prince Mattei. Among the miscellaneous are without venom, the absence of which is amply commarbles of this collection are three tragic masks of rare and pensated by immense muscular power, enabling some of unusual size ; two from the Villa Negroni, three feet each the species to kill large animals by constriction, preparatory in height; the third from the Altieri Villa. Some idea to swallowing them whole. may be formed of the extent of this collection from the fact There are few fables which have not some truth for their that it consists of near 100 statues, 150 busts, above 100 bas- origin. The voyages of Sinbad have become proverbial; reliefs, 90 sarcophagi and cinerary urns, besides stelæ, and but the stories of the monstrous serpents in the valley of other miscellaneous antiquities.
diamonds, and of the serpent of surprising length and (See the Beauties of England and Wales, vol. ix. Lan- thickness, whose scales made a rustling as he wound himcashire, pp. 308, 309; the Engravings and Etchings al self along,' that swallowed up two of his companions, proready quoted ; and Dallaway's Anecdotes of the Arts, 8vo. bably had their foundation in traditions of the size and 1800.)
strength of a family of serpents belonging to the old world, BLUNDERBUSS. (See ARMs.]
but nearly allied in their organization and babits to those BLYTH, or SOUTH BLYTH, or BLYTH NOOK, which we are about to consider. Sinbad's description ina small seaport town in the county of Northumberland, deed of the fate of the first of the two victims brings to our partly in the parish of Horton, but chiefly in that of Earsdon, memory a terrible anecdote of the murderous power and and in the east division of Castle ward, distant from Lon- voracity of the Indian boas or pythons related in modern don 257 miles, N. by W., and from Newcastle 12 miles N. times, and recorded on canvas by Daniell. (See Python.] by E. It derives its name from its situation on the south It (the serpent) swallowed up,' says the fictitious sailor, side of the river Blyth, at its confluence with the German one of my comrades, notwithstanding his loud cries and Ocean. The town owes its origin and prosperity to its the efforts he made to extricate bimself." commodious and safe haven for small vessels. The navi of the same race probably were the monsters to which gable river and port of Blyth are mentioned as of con- the following allusions are made by antient writers.